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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Chao Miao, Ronald H. Humphrey, Shanshan Qian and Jeffrey M. Pollack

The topic of entrepreneurial intention, which refers to a person’s degree of interest in creating a new business venture, has received close scrutiny in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The topic of entrepreneurial intention, which refers to a person’s degree of interest in creating a new business venture, has received close scrutiny in the entrepreneurship literature. The empirical results regarding the relation between emotional intelligence (EI) and entrepreneurial intention were nevertheless mixed across studies. Based on fit theory and trait activation theory, the purpose of this paper is to explain the fundamental reason for the mixed findings in the extant literature thus far.

Design/methodology/approach

Random-effects meta-analyses, based on 12 studies (along with 12 effect sizes), were performed to not only investigate the overall relation between EI and entrepreneurial intention but also to examine the moderators (i.e. individualism (vs collectivism), masculinity (vs femininity), power distance, long-term orientation (vs short-term orientation), uncertainty avoidance, and indulgence (vs restraint)) that influence this relation.

Findings

The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that EI is positively related to entrepreneurial intention; the positive relationship between EI and entrepreneurial intention is stronger in long-term-oriented cultures; and the positive relationship between EI and entrepreneurial intention does not significantly differ based on a culture’s level of collectivism, masculinity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and indulgence.

Originality/value

This meta-analysis advances the current understanding of the relation between EI and entrepreneurial intention from cross-cultural perspectives.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Yinhong Dong, Lilan Pang and Lili Fu

Using statistical analysis, this paper aims to understand and investigate the factors for starting a new company successfully. Indicators from the literature and the data…

Abstract

Purpose

Using statistical analysis, this paper aims to understand and investigate the factors for starting a new company successfully. Indicators from the literature and the data analysis prove that entrepreneurial environment, ability, intentions and self-actualization affect the success rate of entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the success factors for entrepreneurship, the authors take entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial ability as the independent variables, self-actualization as the mediating variable and entrepreneurial intentions as the dependent variable. Then, the authors build the frame model of the influencing factors according to entrepreneurial intentions based on the self-actualization mediating effect of college students. At last, four hypotheses are proposed based on this frame model.

Findings

The empirical research proves that the better the entrepreneurial environment, the stronger the entrepreneurial intentions of college students; the stronger the entrepreneurial ability of students, the stronger the entrepreneurial intentions; and under the mediating effect of self-actualization, entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial ability will affect entrepreneurial intentions strongly. Finally, based on the empirical results, this paper proposes to pay attention to entrepreneurship education and strengthen the construction of the entrepreneurial environment to better enhance entrepreneurial intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a few limitations because, as it refers to the sample for college students and the new start-up, it would require a more generalized analysis of the factors, such as to include more and better indicators for demographic, economic and institutional determinants of the entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurship. For further studies on entrepreneurship, the validate measuring scale of the concept must be addressed.

Practical implications

The present work shows that optimizing the entrepreneurial environment and improving the entrepreneurial ability of college students can enhance the success rate of the entrepreneurship. Besides, the entrepreneurial intentions should be enhanced from outside to inside. Namely, stimulate the entrepreneurial desire of college students from the external environment, such as policy support, ideological education and mobilization on employment options and other aspects of new college graduates. The psychological aspects of graduates should be guided.

Originality/value

For the study of entrepreneurial intentions, most scholars mainly studied the entrepreneurial psychology to discuss its relationship with entrepreneurial intentions in the early years, and gradually extended to the study of external factors, such as the entrepreneurial environment. However, the study on graduate entrepreneurship has yet to be improved. Based on the existing research, this paper makes an in-depth study on the influence mechanism of entrepreneurial intentions from entrepreneurial ability and entrepreneurial environment, puts forward a research model taking self-actualization as a mediating variable and studies the intrinsic driving force of entrepreneurial intentions.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Fabian Osorio Tinoco, Manoj Chandra Bayon and Guillermo Murillo Vargas

Based on a theoretical framework grounded in the social-cognitive theory and its derivative the social-cognitive career theory, the main purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on a theoretical framework grounded in the social-cognitive theory and its derivative the social-cognitive career theory, the main purpose of this paper is to examine the role of entrepreneurial exposure in moderating the relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention in the presence of different levels of outcome expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 643 secondary students from Colombia, the authors tested the validity and reliability of scales used to measure the main constructs of the socio-cognitive career theory and used the construct of entrepreneurial exposure to examine contingent hypotheses using a four-step linear regression analysis.

Findings

The study results suggest that although the main social-cognitive career variables (self-efficacy and outcome expectation) and entrepreneurial exposure directly influence the formation of entrepreneurial intention and thus support previous findings, the authors also discover a new configuration of (interacting) antecedents. While on the one hand, even a low level of entrepreneurial exposure leads to a significant increase in the entrepreneurial intention of secondary students with high outcome expectation and high self-efficacy; on the other hand, high entrepreneurial exposure leads to a decrease in entrepreneurial intention among students with high entrepreneurial expectation and high self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of the study findings is although entrepreneurial exposure is beneficial for fostering entrepreneurial intention among secondary students, a high level of entrepreneurial exposure can have a detrimental effect especially among those with high self-efficacy and outcome expectations.

Practical implications

The paper suggests implications and suggestions for educators to foster the development of entrepreneurial intentions among students.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence on the formation of entrepreneurial intention in a new setting. In addition, it improves one’s understanding of the main tenets of social-cognitive career theory by taking into account an important environment factor that can have a contrasting impact on the formation on entrepreneurial intention among adolescents.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Alex Bignotti and Ingrid le Roux

In spite of research on entrepreneurial intentions being a mature field of enquiry, little is known about the influence of experience on entrepreneurial intentions

Abstract

Purpose

In spite of research on entrepreneurial intentions being a mature field of enquiry, little is known about the influence of experience on entrepreneurial intentions, especially among the youth and in developing contexts. This paper aims to investigate the impact of different types of experience – entrepreneurial early childhood experiences, prior start-up experiences, work experience, education and peer influence – on the entrepreneurial intentions of South African youth.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a quantitative survey of 827 secondary students was administered, and the results were analysed by means of hierarchical logistic regression. Second, two focus groups were conducted with secondary students representing two distinct segments of South African society to shed light on some of the unique survey findings.

Findings

The results revealed that the experiences of having attempted to start a business and having previously worked in a business, as well as entrepreneurship education, have a positive influence on youth entrepreneurial intentions, while peers' entrepreneurial intentions exert a negative influence. Peer influence and contextual factors such as family and community support, which are catalytic in other parts of the world, appear to dampen youth entrepreneurial intentions because of fear of failure and fear of competition.

Originality/value

This paper examines the influence of a broader taxonomy of experience types on youth entrepreneurial intentions than found in previous studies. It highlights the unique role played by specific types of experience and points to the need to include extra-curricular entrepreneurial experiences in interventions aimed at fostering youth entrepreneurial intentions in developing nations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 April 2019

Tariq Ahmed, Ijaz Ur Rehman and Bruno S. Sergi

Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book…

Abstract

Understanding and predicting the emergence of venture initiation entails research to explore the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI) and behavior. This book chapter aims to provide an overview on the role of exogenous factors (entrepreneurship education), contextual and environmental factors (perceived entrepreneurial motivators and barriers) in developing EIs and behavior among the university graduates. It also highlights the different strands of opinion and research on the role that formal entrepreneurship programs may (or may not) play in developing EI and action. This book chapter further provides some developments on the factors mentioned above among the different Asian countries while using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Since 1999 GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up, established business activities, and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses.

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Michael James Mustafa, Ernesto Hernandez, Christopher Mahon and Lai Kei Chee

This paper aims to develop an empirical model that examines whether a student’s proactive personality or the university support environment (education support, concept…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an empirical model that examines whether a student’s proactive personality or the university support environment (education support, concept development support and business development support) affects their entrepreneurial intentions. Additionally, the relative strengths of a student’s proactive personality and the university environment influences are compared.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 141 students attending a well-established and internationally renowned Malaysian higher education institution completed a questionnaire survey. Results were based on correlation and regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that a proactive personality and concept development support have significant impact on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Additionally, the results showed that a student’s proactive personality had a greater effect on their entrepreneurial intentions than that of the university support environment.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates one of the few attempts to examine the effects of both a proactive personality and university support environment on entrepreneurial intentions in an emerging economy context. Specifically, we reconfirm students’ personality traits as a more important predictor of their entrepreneurial intentions than environmental factors in the Malaysian context. Additionally, by also demonstrating concept development support as a significant predictor of entrepreneurial intentions, we provide new insights into how universities in emerging economies can foster the entrepreneurial intentions of their students. This result adds to the academic literature on entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Hee Song Ng, Daisy Mui Hung Kee and Mohammad Jamal Khan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of proactive personality (PP), entrepreneurship education (EE) and entrepreneurial opportunities (EO) on shaping…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of proactive personality (PP), entrepreneurship education (EE) and entrepreneurial opportunities (EO) on shaping entrepreneurial intentions (EI) among university students through attitude toward entrepreneurship (ATE) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) according to Ajzen’s (1985) theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used questionnaires to collect data from university students enroled in undergraduate programmes. A total of 209 surveys were successfully collected. SPSS and SmartPLS 3.0 software were used to analyse and test nine hypotheses derived from the intentions-centred model.

Findings

The results supported seven hypotheses. There were positive relationships between PP and ATE; PP and PBC; EE and ATE; EO and ATE; EO and PBC; ATE and EI; and PBC and EI. However, there were no relationships between EE and PBC, and subjective norms and EI.

Research limitations/implications

This study used a cross-sectional survey and self-report data which hinder conclusively making correlational inferences. In addition, the various developmental stages of students may influence perceptions of EI.

Practical implications

The empirical findings provide new insights for policymakers, educators and academics about the antecedents governing EI. This study also enhances the understanding of the preconditions for EI, which can be utilised by practitioners to encourage and manage graduate entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This study advances an intentions-based model which suggests a simultaneous presence of the three core factors, PP, EE and EO for an effective formation of EI. By doing so, the study addresses the issue of the scarcity of investigations on the combined effects, thus closing the research gap and bringing new perspective to the antecedents-intentions nexus of graduate entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2019

Joshua D. Bazzy, Adam R. Smith and Teresa Harrison

The purpose of this paper is to test a theoretical model examining the potential impact of abstract thinking on entrepreneurial intentions (EI). The impact of perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a theoretical model examining the potential impact of abstract thinking on entrepreneurial intentions (EI). The impact of perceived desirability of entrepreneurship on the relationship between abstraction and intentions was also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 155 participants completed measures of abstraction, self-efficacy, desirability and EI. Hierarchical regression was used. A bootstrapping approach was utilized to test for mediation.

Findings

High levels of abstraction were positively related to EI, while also interacting with self-efficacy. High levels of abstraction counteracted otherwise low levels of self-efficacy, resulting in subsequently higher intentions. The perceived desirability of entrepreneurship mediated the relationship between abstraction and EI.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of analysis and student population sample may limit generalizability.

Practical implications

The results identify a cognitive process that may help individuals overcome feasibility concerns. Entrepreneurial training programs might choose to instruct individuals that, when encountering a roadblock, they should focus on their ideals and the bigger picture rather than being discouraged by the challenges of the process.

Originality/value

The results provide insight into the psychological processes that lead individuals to become entrepreneurs. The study helps in explaining the mechanism by which a tendency toward abstract thinking leads to stronger EI and identifies an additional antecedent to individuals’ perceptions of desirability toward entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Hongyi Sun, Choi Tung Lo, Bo Liang and Yuen Ling Belle Wong

Theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used to study the impact of entrepreneurial education (EE) on entrepreneurial intention (EI) for more than 20 years, yet an…

Abstract

Purpose

Theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used to study the impact of entrepreneurial education (EE) on entrepreneurial intention (EI) for more than 20 years, yet an intensive literature review reveals that there are gaps in both the conceptual models and the research methods. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of EE on EI with a view to address the gaps in previous research.

Design/methodology/approach

This research proposes a conceptual model that links the entire antecedent variables of TPB and the elaborated four components of entrepreneurship education (Why, What, How, and Who). The model is tested by a structural equation modeling with the empirical data from 200 engineering students from three universities in Hong Kong.

Findings

The empirical test reveals that the four components of entrepreneurial education do influence attitude, social norm, self-efficacy, and EI, correspondingly. Additionally, it also reveals that the four EE components and the three TPB antecedent variables are also interrelated with each other.

Originality/value

This study bridges specific education components and EI, providing significant insight into how the key components influence the entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of students. It fills the gap in the knowledge required for fostering EI through entrepreneurship education. It not only answers the question on whether EE influences EI but also on how to nurture the intention by designing a relevant EE course.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Saeid Karimi, Harm J.A. Biemans, Thomas Lans, Mohammad Chizari and Martin Mulder

This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its antecedents and examines the question of whether the effects vary by gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of 331 students at seven universities in Iran. Structural equation modelling and bootstrap procedure were used to analyse the data.

Findings

Consistent with the TPB, our results show entrepreneurial role models to indirectly influence EIs via the antecedents of intention. No gender differences in the relationship between perceived behaviour control and EIs were found, but gender did moderate the other relationships within the TPB. Attitude towards entrepreneurship was a weaker predictor and subjective norms a stronger predictor of EIs for female students than for their male counterparts. Furthermore, perceived behaviour control and attitudes towards entrepreneurship were more strongly influenced by role models for females as opposed to male students.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should go beyond examining the mere fact of knowing entrepreneurial role models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between role models and EIs.

Practical implications

The results of this study have clear implications for both educators and policymakers.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by incorporating entrepreneurial role models and gender into the TPB and investigating their mediating and moderating effects within the model.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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