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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Catherine Elliott, Janet Mantler and Joie Huggins

Women are underrepresented in most university entrepreneurship education (EE) programmes and less likely than men to pursue business venturing as a career. One reason may…

Abstract

Purpose

Women are underrepresented in most university entrepreneurship education (EE) programmes and less likely than men to pursue business venturing as a career. One reason may be the “entrepreneurial identity gap”, whereby female students do not see themselves as successful entrepreneurs. This paper aims to explore the nature of this identity gap and its relationship to entrepreneurial intent and entrepreneurship education.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of contemporary, gender-inclusive entrepreneurial attributes was developed using entrepreneurial subject matter experts and tested with 591 university students to explore the nature of the gendered entrepreneurial identity gap.

Findings

While masculine stereotypes persist and the entrepreneurial identity gap is larger for female students, results suggest that a more gender-inclusive vocabulary of entrepreneurship is emerging among the student population and an androgynous perception of the idealized entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education had a positive influence on entrepreneurial intent.

Research limitations/implications

Study findings advance the conversation about entrepreneurial identity, the nature of the gendered identity gap and the role of education in closing that gap. The questionnaire and set of gender-inclusive attributes should continue to be tested beyond student samples.

Practical implications

Based on this study, entrepreneurship education could benefit from more gender-inclusive instructional practices and vocabulary and a broadened definition of what it means to be entrepreneurial. More students – both men and women – will see themselves as entrepreneurs and be inspired to participate in the innovation economy.

Originality/value

This study takes a novel approach to the study of entrepreneurial identity, developing a new set of attributes and contemporary vocabulary around business venturing.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2021

Shin-Horng Chen, Wei-Tsong Wang and Chih-Tsen Lu

Understanding the construction of individual entrepreneurial identity for entrepreneurship education is an important but understudied issue. Prior studies indicate that…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the construction of individual entrepreneurial identity for entrepreneurship education is an important but understudied issue. Prior studies indicate that entrepreneurship learning is associated with not only learning critical entrepreneurial skills and knowledge but also facilitating the construction of a personal entrepreneurial identity. However, educators are constantly challenged by the task of facilitating such an identity within students via learning-by-doing processes in the context of entrepreneurial teams. Additionally, while effective conflict management is essential to productive entrepreneurial learning in entrepreneurial teams, studies that investigate the relationships between interpersonal conflicts of entrepreneurial teams and the students' entrepreneurial identity are absent.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of an in-depth case study was adopted to achieve our research purpose.

Findings

A conceptual model that describes the construction of the entrepreneurial identity of students of entrepreneurial teams in a learning-by-doing environment from the perspectives of conflicts and task characteristics are developed.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings highlight the preliminary relationships between task characteristics (i.e. task interdependence, task uncertainty, resource competition and tension regarding responsibility allocation) and interpersonal conflicts of entrepreneurial teams, and their impacts on the entrepreneurial identity of team members.

Originality/value

This study is among the first group of studies that especially explores the relationships among task characteristics of entrepreneurship projects, interpersonal conflicts and the development of students' entrepreneurial identity.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Book part
Publication date: 7 July 2015

Magdalena Markowska, Charmine E. J. Härtel, Ethel Brundin and Amanda Roan

Despite recognition of the centrality of emotions in entrepreneurship, little attention has been given to role of emotions in the development of entrepreneurial identity

Abstract

Despite recognition of the centrality of emotions in entrepreneurship, little attention has been given to role of emotions in the development of entrepreneurial identity or enactment of entrepreneurial role. The contribution of the chapter is in the development of a dynamic model of the process leading to identification or dis-identification as an entrepreneur. In this chapter, we develop a dynamic model of the process leading to identification or dis-identification as an entrepreneur. We theorize that the driver behind an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur, and their significant emotional experiences in the entrepreneurial role, influence the likelihood of following an identification or dis-identification cycle. Specifically, our framework proposes that positive emotions strengthen approach motivation and identification with the role, while negative ones foster avoidance motivation and dis-identification. We argue that contextual embeddedness can prompt transition between these two cycles. Our theorization provides new insights into methods of analyzing the role of emotions in the entrepreneurial process, more specifically in the process of entrepreneurial identity crafting. These insights also can be translated into studying the crafting of any professional identity.

Details

New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-220-7

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Takawira Munyaradzi Ndofirepi

This study aims to examine how spatial contexts, institutions and entrepreneurial self-identity affected the formation of entrepreneurial intentions of a sample of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how spatial contexts, institutions and entrepreneurial self-identity affected the formation of entrepreneurial intentions of a sample of students in Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from 284 students enrolled in two vocational education institutions located in Midlands Province of Zimbabwe. To select the respondents, convenience sampling was used. The sample size was determined by the total number of students agreeing to participate in the research. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling (maximum likelihood estimation method).

Findings

Social approval, supportive cultural environment and entrepreneurial self-identity had positive statistically significant direct effects on entrepreneurial intentions. Also, entrepreneurial self-identity partially mediated the effects of social approval and supportive cultural environment on entrepreneurial intentions. The total effect of supportive higher education institutions on entrepreneurial intentions was statistically significant, despite the direct and indirect effects being non-significant.

Practical implications

The findings suggest a need to cultivate supportive social contexts and higher education institutions for nurturing entrepreneurial self-identity and entrepreneurial intentions, factors that are integral to the development of future entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The study examined the validity of a novel conceptual model based on the contribution of entrepreneurial self-identity, spatial context and institutional variables in shaping entrepreneurial intentions of selected college students in the global south.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Zhen Zhang and Douglas Chun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important process of how entrepreneurial identity is formed and constructed, with the perspective that entrepreneurial

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important process of how entrepreneurial identity is formed and constructed, with the perspective that entrepreneurial identity is social and dynamic, constantly shaped by various life episodes and human interactions, rather than static and unchanging.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study comprises 30 in-depth interviews with Chinese immigrants in West Canada. These immigrants had been employed professionals under the “Skilled Workers” immigration category but later became entrepreneurs. None of the entrepreneurs in this study had prior business ownership experience, and many of them said that they had never thought about running businesses until they came to Canada.

Findings

A process model of entrepreneurial identity construction is presented. This paper advances the literature on entrepreneurship through the identification of three stages in the development of entrepreneurial identity: identity exploration, entrepreneurial mindsets building, and narrative development.

Originality/value

This study has important implications for the understanding of the exploratory and discovery mode of entrepreneurial identity construction. This study also moves away from the contextual and structural hypotheses as the sole explanations for the high rate of self-employment among immigrant entrepreneurs, and provides a useful starting point for a deeper understanding of the agency of immigrant entrepreneurs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Robert Smith

As a result of a plethora of scholarly articles by feminist scholars of entrepreneurship, it is now widely accepted that the notion of entrepreneurship is ideologically…

Abstract

Purpose

As a result of a plethora of scholarly articles by feminist scholars of entrepreneurship, it is now widely accepted that the notion of entrepreneurship is ideologically skewed towards masculine ideology. Although this body of work has been quietly acknowledged, it has not invoked a reply, or refutation, from male entrepreneurship scholars. Nor has it led to an increase in studies about the influence of masculinity on entrepreneurial behaviour or identity. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to begin to address this by analysing an alternative social construction of entrepreneurship relating to how masculinity influences entrepreneurial identity in print. The data used are text from the thinly veiled biographical novel Cityboy written in an aggressive and unashamedly masculine style. Whilst the focus is not upon entrepreneurs per se, it is upon the male‐oriented entrepreneurial institution that is the “city.”

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach used in this paper is that of biographical analysis; supported by a supplementary analysis of similar biographies of traders; this is triangulated by photographs downloaded from the internet. This approach allows rich data to be collected from practical sources permitting a comparative approach to be adopted. The approach has obvious limitations but is a practical method.

Findings

The results from this empirical study are tentative but illustrate that the socially constructed nature of the “city trader” as an entrepreneurial identity is portrayed as being a manly pursuit; and how such discrimination is inherent within an institutionalised systemic behaviour in which men are encouraged to be risk‐takers and players. This institutionalised “boyish” behaviour is used to build up a masculine identity rooted in Thatcherite enterprise culture. Although no clear conclusion can be articulated because of the subjective nature of the interpretation, links with accepted entrepreneurship theory are drawn. It is thus an exploratory study into the pervasiveness of masculine doxa in constructing entrepreneurial identity. The paper makes an incremental contribution by acknowledging the power of male dominance in shaping entrepreneurial realities albeit the conclusions are mainly drawn from one book.

Research limitations/implications

This paper opens up the field for further studies of skewed masculine entrepreneurial identities under the rubric of the “bad boy entrepreneur.”

Originality/value

In critically discussing and acknowledging the male genderedness of entrepreneurial identity in a particular system, this paper makes a contribution to the understanding of the socially constructed nature of how to tell, understand and appreciate stories which present an entrepreneurial identity. Granted the hero of the story is fictional but the overlaps with the accepted storylines of entrepreneur stories are illuminating. The paper provides another heuristic device for understanding the social construction of gendered entrepreneurial identities, making it of interest to feminist scholars of entrepreneurship and to social constructionists alike.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Steven A. Stewart, Gary J. Castrogiovanni and Bryant Ashley Hudson

Professional service entrepreneurs (PSEs) paradoxically practice their profession in highly institutionalized contexts that require intense socialization, while also…

Abstract

Purpose

Professional service entrepreneurs (PSEs) paradoxically practice their profession in highly institutionalized contexts that require intense socialization, while also enacting another role as an entrepreneur. Activities consistent with entrepreneurship may be unnecessary for – and possibly contradictory with – activities consistent with professional roles. The purpose of this paper is to address the question of how two highly important role identities (professional and entrepreneurial) relate to entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in professional firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey methodology, the authors measure entrepreneurial and professional role identity importance, and PSE’s perceptions of firm-level EO, using a sample of 138 medical practitioners who own and operate their own small-to medium-sized professional practices. In this paper, the authors examine the associations of the importance of these identities, and the relative importance of one to another, with EO.

Findings

The authors find that a PSE’s entrepreneurial role identity importance is positively related to the EO dimensions of risk taking and innovativeness, while professional role identity importance is negatively related to risk taking. Additionally, the authors find that the degree of relative importance (centrality) of an entrepreneurial role identity to a professional role identity is related positively to the EO dimensions of risk taking, innovativeness, and proactiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This is a cross-sectional study. As such, the authors examine associations rather than a process. The sample is limited to professional medical practitioners in the USA who own and operate their own practices.

Originality/value

This paper helps to better understand why some professional firms are more entrepreneurial than others. The findings suggest that, even in the conservative context of professional services, the PSEs entrepreneurial role centrality is consistent with the EO of the firm’s strategies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2014

Robert Smith

The purpose of this study is to consider entrepreneurial imagery that sheds light on differing and emerging patterns of female entrepreneurial identity which illustrate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to consider entrepreneurial imagery that sheds light on differing and emerging patterns of female entrepreneurial identity which illustrate shifts in the locus of power that challenge masculine hegemony and power structures. As a concept, power has an image component, and shifts in power are often conveyed by subtle changes in the cultural semiotic. Globally, images of female-entrepreneurship are socially constructed using stereotypes which are often pejorative. The semiotics of gendered identity as a complex issue is difficult to measure, assess and understand. Gender has its own semiotic codes, and, universally, images of female-entrepreneurship are socially constructed using pejorative stereotypes. Entrepreneurial imagery can shed light on differing and emerging patterns of female-entrepreneurial identity illustrating shifts in the locus of power that challenge masculine hegemony and power structures. Artefacts, images and semiotics construct alternative gendered social constructs of the entrepreneur to the heroic alpha-male. The imagery associated with the female-entrepreneur is either said to be invisible, or associated with “Pinkness” and the “Pink Ghetto”. Therefore, images, forms and presence associated with gendered entrepreneurial identities have been explored.

Design/methodology/approach

One hundred images of female-entrepreneurship were analysed semiotically using photo-montage techniques to identify common stereotypical representations, archetypes and themes. The resultant conceptual typology highlights the existence of near universal, archetypal gendered entrepreneurial stereotypes including the Business Woman; the Matriarch; the Diva; and the Pink-Ghetto Girl.

Findings

Although the results are subjective and open to interpretation, they illustrate that the contemporary female-entrepreneur, unlike their male counterparts, is not forced to adopt the persona of the “conforming non-conformist” because they have more options available to them to construct an entrepreneurial identity.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends research into entrepreneurial identity by considering visual imagery associated with socially constructed stereotypes. In looking beyond images associated with the “Pink-Ghetto” the author challenges stereotypical representations of the appearance of female-entrepreneurs, what they look like and how they are perceived.

Originality/value

This study widens knowledge about entrepreneurship as a socio-economic phenomenon via images forming part of enterprising identity, a physical manifestation of nebulas phenomena acting as “visual metaphors” shaping expected constructs.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Ying Zhang and Marina G. Biniari

This study unpacks how organizational members construct a collective entrepreneurial identity within an organization and attempt to instill entrepreneurial features in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study unpacks how organizational members construct a collective entrepreneurial identity within an organization and attempt to instill entrepreneurial features in the organization's existing identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on the cases of two venturing units, perceived as entrepreneurial groups within their respective parent companies. Semi-structured interviews and secondary data were collected and analyzed inductively and abductively.

Findings

The data revealed that organizational members co-constructed a “corporate entrepreneur” role identity to form a collective shared belief and communities of practice around what it meant to act as an entrepreneurial group within their local corporate context and how it differentiated them from others. Members also clustered around the emergent collective entrepreneurial identity through sensegiving efforts to instill entrepreneurial features in the organization's identity, despite the tensions this caused.

Originality/value

Previous studies in corporate entrepreneurship have theorized on the top-down dynamics instilling entrepreneurial features in an organization's identity, but have neglected the role of bottom-up dynamics. This study reveals two bottom-up dynamics that involve organizational members' agentic role in co-constructing and clustering around a collective entrepreneurial identity. This study contributes to the middle-management literature, uncovering champions' identity work in constructing a “corporate entrepreneur” role identity, with implications for followers' engagement in constructing a collective entrepreneurial identity. This study also contributes to the organizational identity literature, showing how tensions around the entrepreneurial group's distinctiveness may hinder the process of instilling entrepreneurial features in an organization's identity.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Bramesada Prasastyoga, Fieke Harinck and Esther van Leeuwen

Three studies aimed to investigate the role of perceived value of entrepreneurial identity (i.e. one's evaluation of the worthiness of one's entrepreneurial role) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Three studies aimed to investigate the role of perceived value of entrepreneurial identity (i.e. one's evaluation of the worthiness of one's entrepreneurial role) in the relationship between motives for entrepreneurship and business growth motivation among small-business owners.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted online (Studies 1 and 2) and one study in the field in Indonesia (Study 3); both employed a cross-sectional design with a mixed correlational and experimental approach.

Findings

Opportunity-based entrepreneurship, but not necessity-based entrepreneurship, was positively associated with perceived value of entrepreneurial identity. Perceived value of entrepreneurial identity was a positive predictor of future time perspective and growth-pursuit intentions. Study 2 further showed the potential of increasing the salience of both personal and others' positive views of one's business for increasing one's perceived value of their entrepreneurial identity.

Research limitations/implications

The investigation of perceived value of entrepreneurial identity in this paper extends current knowledge regarding the mechanism through which motives for entrepreneurship predict business growth motivation.

Practical implications

The paper provides practitioners and policy-makers with useful insights into the importance of small-business owners' perceived value of entrepreneurial identity for business growth motivation, and offers suggestions on how to increase it.

Originality/value

The paper sheds light on the important role of perceived value of entrepreneurial identity in explaining the association between motives for entrepreneurship and business growth motivation.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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