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Article

R. Duane Ireland, Donald F. Kuratko and Michael H. Morris

The purpose of this article is to introduce and discuss the “Entrepreneurial Health Audit”. This organizational tool is used to assess a firm's entrepreneurial intensity

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to introduce and discuss the “Entrepreneurial Health Audit”. This organizational tool is used to assess a firm's entrepreneurial intensity, diagnose organizational characteristics low in entrepreneurial intensity, and to create an understanding of the processes needed to foster a corporate entrepreneurship strategy as a means of improving organizational performance. This article is part two or a two‐part series.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the existing literature, case studies, and the authors' own research and experiences with a diverse mix of companies, the paper develops a three‐stage “Entrepreneurial Health Audit.” Top‐level managers can use this tool to determine their firm's ability to act entrepreneurially at a point in time.

Findings

The paper describes how managers assess and improve their firm's entrepreneurial health. In the first stage, the “Entrepreneurial Intensity” instrument is used to measure the degree and frequency of entrepreneurship occurring within the firm. In the second stage, the “Corporate Entrepreneurship Climate Instrument” is used to identify why the firm has developed its current level of entrepreneurial intensity. Finally, the third stage of the “Entrepreneurial Health Audit” fosters commitment to a work environment supporting entrepreneurial behavior, thereby enhancing the degree and frequency of corporate entrepreneurship within the firm.

Research limitations/implications

The paper raises a number of questions regarding how organizations stimulate entrepreneurial behavior and undertake organizational changes to facilitate these actions. It provides a tool top‐level managers can use across time continuously to increase their firm's ability to be entrepreneurial.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates to managers how to approach the concept of entrepreneurship within an established organization, including how to diagnose characteristics constraining the firm's entrepreneurial potential and how to build commitment encouraging entrepreneurial behaviors.

Originality/value

The paper fills an existing void between researchers and practitioners in terms of how firms can take steps to transform their current entrepreneurial potential into the “ideal” characteristics studied in entrepreneurship research. It offers a unique organizational tool to use to assess an individual firm's potential to be entrepreneurial.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article

Kai Yao, Xiaolin Li and Bang Liang

Drawing on the knowledge-based view, the purpose of this study is to investigate the differential effects of failure normalization (FN) and failure analysis (FA) on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based view, the purpose of this study is to investigate the differential effects of failure normalization (FN) and failure analysis (FA) on entrepreneurial resilience (ER) and examines how firms’ knowledge breadth (KB) and knowledge depth (KD) moderate these effects in distinctive ways.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed-methods approach, including a two-wave survey study among 226 entrepreneurial high-tech firms in China and a qualitative study.

Findings

The findings reveal that FA has a stronger positive effect on ER than FN. KB enhances the effect of FA on ER, whereas KD enhances the effect of FN on ER but buffers the effect of FA on ER.

Practical implications

The study advocates that entrepreneurs need to be aware of the importance of ER and strengthen the reflection on failure. Additionally, the study suggests that entrepreneurs should match FN and FA with firms’ knowledge characteristics. With this match, KB and KD can exert greater impacts on the effect of failure learning on ER.

Originality/value

Knowledge can influence the effect of learning on firm capability. However, such an effect in entrepreneurial firms linking to ER remains to be explored. This study contributes to ER from the failure learning perspective and extends knowledge management theory in the entrepreneurship context.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part

Birton Cowden and Jintong Tang

This chapter provides a theoretical evaluation of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) to demonstrate some of its current shortcomings for being a construct to categorize…

Abstract

This chapter provides a theoretical evaluation of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) to demonstrate some of its current shortcomings for being a construct to categorize entrepreneurial firms. To do this, we explore all the facets of how a firm can be entrepreneurial and the nuances of how firms can differ in their entrepreneurial approach, which EO currently does not capture. We argue that while EO’s rise in popularity stems from its simplicity, this simplicity has provided it with longevity challenges to keep up with evolving entrepreneurial behaviors within firms. We note these issues in hopes to extend the life of EO, and we provide future recommendations on how to put EO on that path.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Book part

Dalal Alrubaishi, Helen Haugh, Paul Robson, Rachel Doern and William J. Wales

This study investigates the impact of socioemotional wealth (SEW) on family firm entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in Saudi Arabia, and the moderating effect of…

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of socioemotional wealth (SEW) on family firm entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in Saudi Arabia, and the moderating effect of generational involvement on this relationship. Our data set comprises 241 privately, wholly owned family firms. We examine EO as a strategic orientation expressed in terms of both firm behavior and how managers approach risk-taking attitudinally. Our study finds that SEW is positively related to firmsentrepreneurial behavior, but not managerial attitudes toward risk-taking. However, the positive effects of SEW on firmsentrepreneurial behavior diminish as the number of generations involved in the family business increases. The broader implications for enabling entrepreneurship within Arab transforming economies adhering to strong cultural tribalistic norms are discussed.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Book part

G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Book part

Daniel R. Clark and Jeffrey G. Covin

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them…

Abstract

The literature on international entrepreneurship offers two competing views on why new ventures internationalize: (a) the nature of the opportunity pulls them international or (b) the founder pushes the firm international. While these two internationalization drivers are not independent, they do represent unique causal mechanisms. Previously, the tools available to understand the entrepreneur’s disposition toward internationalization were limited. The present study uses the theoretical foundation of the international entrepreneurial orientation construct and from it develops and tests an attitudinally-based individual-level measure of disposition toward internationalization. To ensure the validity and reliability of the new measure, termed International Entrepreneurial Orientation Disposition, studies were conducted to: develop new scale items, examine their psychometric properties and construct validity, and demonstrate criterion validity. A strong measurement model is developed using structural equation modeling (CFI = 0.93, RMSEA = 0.07), and the measure is shown to be useful as a predictor of perceived international venture attractiveness.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Book part

Monika Petraite and Vytaute Dlugoborskyte

The chapter is structured as follows: in the first part, we provide the framework for the analysis of the formation of the born global firm, whereas the entrepreneurial

Abstract

The chapter is structured as follows: in the first part, we provide the framework for the analysis of the formation of the born global firm, whereas the entrepreneurial, strategic, and network-based factors are conceptually linked and leading toward a global champion. The analytical model proposes the analysis of strategic choices as defining factors at the level of entrepreneurial behavior, firm strategy, and network. The case study methodology is provided in the second part of the chapter. The third part provides the empirical linkages of entrepreneurial, strategy based, and network factors’ manifestations and underpinnings in R&D intensive entrepreneurial born global firms. These are followed by discussion and conclusions enclosing empirically grounded framework that explains the emergence of R&D intensive entrepreneurial-hidden champions from the perspective of entrepreneurial firm and network theories.

Details

Global Opportunities for Entrepreneurial Growth: Coopetition and Knowledge Dynamics within and across Firms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-502-3

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Book part

Minet Schindehutte, Michael H. Morris and Donald F. Kuratko

The present study examines entrepreneurship in established firms holistically and critically. The authors start by reviewing previous research and highlight a variety of…

Abstract

The present study examines entrepreneurship in established firms holistically and critically. The authors start by reviewing previous research and highlight a variety of definitional, conceptual, methodological, contextual, and temporal factors that have been confounding the research. The authors then present a multidimensional framework that specifies a more nuanced picture of the determinants, motives, activities, and consequences of corporate in established firms. Finally, the authors discuss conceptual, methodological, and practical implications, as well as outline future research avenues.

Details

The Challenges of Corporate Entrepreneurship in the Disruptive Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-443-7

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Article

Shingairai Grace Masango and Paul Lassalle

There is a growing interest in exploring the interface between international marketing and entrepreneurial opportunities. This paper contributes by defining and…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing interest in exploring the interface between international marketing and entrepreneurial opportunities. This paper contributes by defining and elucidating entrepreneurial action in early internationalising software firms and the corresponding emergent international marketing activities. Entrepreneurial action in early internationalising software firms is explored through the operationalisation of a reconceptualised entrepreneurial opportunity construct and the associated entrepreneurial learning processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts an inductive approach, which traces the evolution of five early internationalising propriety software South African firms; from the new venture idea to the establishment of the international entrepreneurial opportunity.

Findings

The findings provide support for entrepreneurial action guided by: prior industry experience, entrepreneurial alertness, opportunity confidence and two levels of entrepreneurial learning; experiential and double-loop learning. Learning by doing allows for the continuous evaluation of the new venture idea leading to the international entrepreneurial opportunity. Market responsiveness and continuous product development resulting in the emergence of the firm's inward international marketing activities constitute the key outcomes of entrepreneurial action.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to a specific technology context, which is young software firms whose inward directed internationalisation activities coalesce around the development of their proprietary software technology.

Originality/value

Based on an original dataset of early internationalising software firms from South Africa, this paper inductively operationalises and conceptualises entrepreneurial action as the combined interaction of four key constructs: contingent effects, attitudes to opportunities, learning by doing and entrepreneurial activities leading to the firm's inward international marketing activities and a diversified international client and end-user base.

Content available
Article

Pi-Shen Seet, Noel Lindsay and Fredric Kropp

This study presents and validates a theoretical model linking individual characteristics of the founding or lead innovative entrepreneur of a start-up venture – the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study presents and validates a theoretical model linking individual characteristics of the founding or lead innovative entrepreneur of a start-up venture – the entrepreneur's values, entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial self-efficacy – to the firm's entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and market orientation (MO) and, ultimately, to firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

We conducted a survey on a stratified random sample of founders of early-stage South Australian micro- and small enterprises with a response rate of 24% (N = 204). Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the model.

Findings

The study found that there is a significant relationship between the individual lead entrepreneur and firm strategies developed in early-stage firms in explaining firm performance. It also found that internal values are positively related to entrepreneurial attitude. Entrepreneurial attitude is positively related to entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EO innovativeness. In turn, entrepreneurial self-efficacy is related to innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking. The proactiveness dimension of EO and entrepreneurial attitude is related to MO. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy, innovativeness and MO are related to firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to entrepreneurial ventures in South Australia and may lack generalisability in other states and countries.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the understanding of the heterogeneity within self-employed individuals, in particular among innovative entrepreneurs, by expanding insights regarding antecedents and consequences of the entrepreneurial process. It develops insights into the links of individual-level constructs with firm-level constructs to develop a more meaningful understanding of new venture creation and performance. It enhances our knowledge of the heterogeneity within the group of self-employed by exploring the individual entrepreneurial antecedents of performance in early-stage firms.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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