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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Wolfgang Lattacher and Malgorzata Anna Wdowiak

Failure plays a pivotal role in entrepreneurial learning. Knowledge of the learning process that enables an entrepreneur to re-emerge stronger after a failure, though…

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Abstract

Purpose

Failure plays a pivotal role in entrepreneurial learning. Knowledge of the learning process that enables an entrepreneur to re-emerge stronger after a failure, though considerable, is fragmented. This paper systematically collects relevant literature, assigns it to the stages of the experiential learning process (concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation; Kolb, 1984), evaluates the research coverage of each stage and identifies promising avenues for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This systematic literature review follows the guidelines articulated by Short (2009) and Tranfield et al. (2003), using Web of Science and EBSCO as primary data sources. Kolb’s (1984) experiential learning theory provides a basis for organizing the identified material into a framework of entrepreneurial learning from failure.

Findings

The literature provides insights on all stages of the process of entrepreneurial learning from failure. Particularly well elaborated are the nature of failure and its triggering effect for reflection, the factors influencing reflection, the contents of the resulting learning and their application in entrepreneurial re-emergence. Other topics remain under-researched, including alternative modes of recovery, the impact of personal attributes upon reflection, the cognitive processes underlying reflection, the transformation of failure-based observations into logically sound concepts and the application of this learning in non-entrepreneurial contexts.

Originality/value

This review provides the most complete overview of research into the process of entrepreneurial learning from failure. The systematic, theory-based mapping of this literature takes stock of current knowledge and proposes areas for future research.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Syed Awais Ahmad Tipu

This paper aims to review the academic literature on entrepreneurial reentry after failure in an attempt to highlight the contribution to the knowledge, identify research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the academic literature on entrepreneurial reentry after failure in an attempt to highlight the contribution to the knowledge, identify research gaps and outline an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Several databases such as ABI/Inform Global, Academic Search Complete, Business Source Premier and Emerald Full Text were used to find peer-reviewed journal articles. Different search terms were used, such as entrepreneurial reentry, failure of habitual entrepreneurs, reentry intentions, entrepreneurial failure, serial entrepreneurship and venture failure. A total of 27 articles were finally selected and included in the final analysis. Using thematic codes, the selected articles were manually coded.

Findings

The concept of entrepreneurial reentry after failure has recently gained some attention from entrepreneurship scholars, but still, there are significant gaps in the literature. A wide range of entrepreneurship theories can potentially provide the necessary impetus to guide future research. The current literature remains largely inconclusive with inconsistent findings. This underlines the need to focus on this domain to conduct more studies to develop knowledge. The available literature is largely focused on exploring antecedents of entrepreneurial reentry after failure. Therefore, the author’s understanding remains limited with regard to other aspects of entrepreneurial reentry after failure, such as context of reentry and outcomes of reentry. Moreover, future studies also need to include the developing country context for better understanding of entrepreneurial reentry after failure.

Originality/value

To the best of the author's knowledge, the current paper is the first identifiable review of the literature on entrepreneurial reentry after failure. The suggested areas of future research will potentially help in addressing the identified research gaps and further strengthening the theoretical foundations of this emerging research domain. Identified themes in the literature will also potentially help aspiring entrepreneurs to better understand the antecedents, contextual settings and outcomes of reentry after failure. This practical perspective will help failed entrepreneurs in particular to be more aware of the dynamics of reentry after failure and better manage the reentry process.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2017

Constantino García-Ramos, Nuria Gonzalez-Alvarez and Mariano Nieto

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of the institutional environment on entrepreneurial failure of certain characteristics, both formal (regulatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of the institutional environment on entrepreneurial failure of certain characteristics, both formal (regulatory complexity and tax pressure) and informal (social capital and fear of failure).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data drawn from a panel of 37 countries over a period of nine years (2006-2014).

Findings

Results show that the greater the regulatory complexity, the higher the rate of entrepreneurial failure; also that the higher the country’s stock of social capital, the lower the rate of entrepreneurial failure. Finally, the greater the tax pressure, the lower the rate of business failure.

Research limitations/implications

Among the limitations of this paper is the difficulty of directly measuring the variables it analyses, making it necessary to use proxies.

Practical implications

This study has important practical implications for policymakers. First, the study provides important insights on how regulatory complexity positively affects entrepreneurial failure. In other words, the study represents a response to the call for the development of a better regulatory environment since this plays a significant role in entrepreneurial failure. Second, regarding tax pressure, the authors found that the greater the tax pressure, the lower the rate of entrepreneurial failure. In this respect, entrepreneurs, academics and policymakers should be aware of this result. Finally, this study also demonstrates the important role of social capital in preventing entrepreneurial failure.

Originality/value

In line with the findings, this study provides proof of how the institutional framework can have an influence on entrepreneurial failure.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

George Acheampong and Ernest Yaw Tweneboah-Koduah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between past entrepreneurial failure and future entrepreneurial intentions. It also considers the moderating role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between past entrepreneurial failure and future entrepreneurial intentions. It also considers the moderating role of past entrepreneurial failure on the relationship between attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) and entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the Ghana Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey (2013) are used to test the hypotheses developed after an extensive literature review. The empirical specification was estimated with a probit of standard form and marginal derivatives estimated for the purposes of interpretation.

Findings

The mean future entrepreneurial intent is 63.2 per cent of the sample with 75 per cent having failed in the past and 60 per cent never failed before. Also, only 20.9 per cent of the interviewed entrepreneurs have failed at a past entrepreneurial activity. Past entrepreneurial failure has a positive effect on future entrepreneurial intentions. The interaction between attitude and failure yields a positive effect on future entrepreneurial intentions. The same effects can be reported for the interactions between subjective norms and failure as well as PBC and failure.

Originality/value

In this study, the authors are able to show that the mean moderational effects are important but they can be deceptive. Rather, a decomposition helps the authors to disaggregate these effects to better understand the underlying mechanisms.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2021

Kai Yao, Xiaolin Li and Bang Liang

Drawing on the knowledge-based view, the purpose of this study is to investigate the differential effects of failure normalization (FN) and failure analysis (FA) on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based view, the purpose of this study is to investigate the differential effects of failure normalization (FN) and failure analysis (FA) on entrepreneurial resilience (ER) and examines how firms’ knowledge breadth (KB) and knowledge depth (KD) moderate these effects in distinctive ways.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a mixed-methods approach, including a two-wave survey study among 226 entrepreneurial high-tech firms in China and a qualitative study.

Findings

The findings reveal that FA has a stronger positive effect on ER than FN. KB enhances the effect of FA on ER, whereas KD enhances the effect of FN on ER but buffers the effect of FA on ER.

Practical implications

The study advocates that entrepreneurs need to be aware of the importance of ER and strengthen the reflection on failure. Additionally, the study suggests that entrepreneurs should match FN and FA with firms’ knowledge characteristics. With this match, KB and KD can exert greater impacts on the effect of failure learning on ER.

Originality/value

Knowledge can influence the effect of learning on firm capability. However, such an effect in entrepreneurial firms linking to ER remains to be explored. This study contributes to ER from the failure learning perspective and extends knowledge management theory in the entrepreneurship context.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Xiaoyu Yu, Xiaotong Meng, Gang Cao and Yingya Jia

Conflict between work and family is a significant issue for entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of entrepreneurial failure on both…

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict between work and family is a significant issue for entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of entrepreneurial failure on both family–work conflict (FWC) and work–family conflict (WFC) and the moderating role of perceived control of time and organizational slack based on conservation of resources (COR) theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a questionnaire to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial failure, FWC/WFC, perceived control of time and organizational slack. Data were collected from the Chinese context in 2018 and as a result received 318 valid questionnaires, obtaining a response rate of 63.6 per cent.

Findings

The study finds that entrepreneurial failure has a significant relationship with FWC but a nonsignificant relationship with WFC and that perceived control of time and organizational slack moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial failure and FWC/WFC.

Originality/value

This study aligns the field of family–work (work–family) conflict and entrepreneurial failure. It addresses a research gap in the conflict literature by introducing one form of resource loss: entrepreneurial failure as a source of conflict between work and family based on COR theory and the work–home resources model. The study also enriches the literature on the social cost of entrepreneurial failure by exploring the crossover effect of entrepreneurial failure on conflicts in the family domain. Furthermore, the study advances the understanding of managing conflict between work and family after entrepreneurial failure.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2017

Jeff Stambaugh and Ronald Mitchell

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the process that occurs before an entrepreneurial failure event provides a coached learning setting that creates entrepreneurial

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the process that occurs before an entrepreneurial failure event provides a coached learning setting that creates entrepreneurial expertise.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper drawing on the literatures of expert information processing theory and deliberate-practice expertise development to suggest a model and propositions that flow from the analysis.

Findings

Adding to the expert performance literature – specifically the introduction of the notion of emergent practice – this paper proposes that the intensity of the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, the duration of the fight, the content required in that fight, and the clarity and rapidity of feedback received, are associated with the creation of entrepreneurial expertise.

Research limitations/implications

This paper complements research on learning from failure by exploring how significant learning before entrepreneurial failure either occurs or is avoided, can lead to the creation of entrepreneurial expertise.

Practical implications

This research provides guidance for entrepreneurs engaged in the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, and suggests ways for prospective supporters to better assess entrepreneurs with failed ventures in their history.

Originality/value

The paper applies the deliberate-practice concept, common in sports, games, and the arts, to an “emergent practice” setting; that is, within a real-life (marketplace) setting within which the “fight” to avoid entrepreneurial failure functions as the “coach”; and it describes how the learning necessary for the creation of entrepreneurial expertise likely takes place.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2020

Andreas Kuckertz, Elisabeth S.C. Berger and Alicia Prochotta

This study aims to investigate how Germans' misperceptions of the nature of entrepreneurship influence their attitudes towards entrepreneurial failure.

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1349

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how Germans' misperceptions of the nature of entrepreneurship influence their attitudes towards entrepreneurial failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a multivariate regression analysis, the study used data collected from a commercial online market research panel (N = 2,027) reflecting the overall German working population. Attitudinal items on business failure were used to measure the study variables. The study controlled for age, education, employment status, gender, income, whether the respondent knows a failed entrepreneur and the German federal state in which the respondent resides.

Findings

The findings suggest that reservations about failed entrepreneurs become stronger as misperceptions of the nature of entrepreneurship worsen. The results also show that failure reservations vary regionally over the 16 German federal states.

Practical implications

Nationwide efforts regarding the stimulation of entrepreneurship and the acceptance of entrepreneurial failure are insufficient for removing failure reservations, as they neglect regional cultural differences. The results suggest that it is not enough just to invest in efforts to create a failure-friendly culture, and that a better general education about the realities of entrepreneurship is a prerequisite.

Originality/value

The study generates insights into how the overall population in an innovation-driven economy perceives entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial failure. Moreover, the work delves into the reasons why parts of German society reject failed entrepreneurs. Hence, this study can aid the drafting of effective policy initiatives at the regional and national levels.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Xinmin Liu, Yanan Zhang and Liu Fan

This study aims to investigate the influence of three key categories of perceived entrepreneurial obstacles (perceived loss of financial resources, perceived loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of three key categories of perceived entrepreneurial obstacles (perceived loss of financial resources, perceived loss of customer demand and perceived loss of social support) on entrepreneurial behavior tendency through fear of failure and negative emotion to shed light on why Chinese entrepreneurship has fallen into a decline from the individual level.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 256 Chinese makers who were achieving their innovative ideas in makerspaces was used to test the research model. Then, the structural equation modeling was adopted for data analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that fear of failure is the strongest psychological barrier to entrepreneurial behavior tendency and the strongest trigger for negative emotion; both negative emotion and fear of failure are affected by entrepreneurial obstacles of perceived loss of financial resources and perceived loss of social support. However, perceived loss of customer demand is not the inducement for both fear of failure and negative emotion.

Originality/value

This study adopts stressor-strain-outcome framework in studying entrepreneurship to help understand what prevent potential entrepreneurs from stepping into entrepreneurship. In addition, this study offers a new insight into entrepreneurship by emphasizing the decisive impact of inhibitive factors on personal entrepreneurship.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Vivianna Fang He and Gregor Krähenmann

The pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities is not always successful. On the one hand, entrepreneurial failure offers an invaluable opportunity for entrepreneurs to learn…

Abstract

The pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities is not always successful. On the one hand, entrepreneurial failure offers an invaluable opportunity for entrepreneurs to learn about their ventures and themselves. On the other hand, entrepreneurial failure is associated with substantial financial, psychological, and social costs. When entrepreneurs fail to learn from failure, the potential value of this experience is not fully utilized and these costs will have been incurred in vain. In this chapter, the authors investigate how the stigma of failure exacerbates the various costs of failure, thereby making learning from failure much more difficult. The authors combine an analysis of interviews of 20 entrepreneurs (who had, at the time of interview, experienced failure) with an examination of archival data reflecting the legal and cultural environment around their ventures. The authors find that stigma worsens the entrepreneurs’ experience of failure, hinders their transformation of failure experience, and eventually prevents them from utilizing the lessons learnt from failure in their future entrepreneurial activities. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for the entrepreneurship research and economic policies.

Details

Work Life After Failure?: How Employees Bounce Back, Learn, and Recover from Work-Related Setbacks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-519-6

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