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Book part
Publication date: 18 June 2004

Donald F Kuratko, R.Duane Ireland and Jeffrey S Hornsby

Environmental uncertainty, turbulence, and heterogeneity create a host of strategic and operational challenges for today’s organizations (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1998). To…

Abstract

Environmental uncertainty, turbulence, and heterogeneity create a host of strategic and operational challenges for today’s organizations (Brown & Eisenhardt, 1998). To cope with the challenge of simultaneously developing and nurturing both today’s and tomorrow’s core competencies, firms increasingly rely on effective use of corporate entrepreneurship (Covin & Miles, 1999). These facts make it imperative that managers at all levels actively participate in designing and implementing a strategy for corporate entrepreneurship actions. The recent literature reveals that there is a general although certainly not a complete consensus around the position that successful corporate entrepreneurship (CE) is linked to improvement in firm performance (Ireland et al., 2001). Covin, Ireland and Kuratko (2003) suggest that corporate entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as a legitimate path to high levels of organizational performance and that the understanding of corporate entrepreneurship as a valid and effective practice with real, tangible benefits is occurring across firm type and managerial levels. Other researchers cite corporate entrepreneurship’s importance as a growth strategy (Kuratko, 1993; Kuratko et al., 1993; Merrifield, 1993; Pinchott, 1985; Zahra, 1991; Zahra & Covin, 1995; Zahra, Kuratko & Jennings, 1999). As an example, Dess, Lumpkin and McGee (1999) note that, “Virtually all organizations – new start-ups, major corporations, and alliances among global partners – are striving to exploit product-market opportunities through innovative and proactive behavior” – the type of behavior that is called for by corporate entrepreneurship. Barringer and Bluedorn (1999) suggested that in light of the dynamism and complexity of today’s environments, “…entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors are necessary for firms of all sizes to prosper and flourish.” Developing an internal environment that cultivates employees’ interest in and commitment to creativity and the innovation that can result from it contributes to successful competition in today’s competitive arenas. A valuable and appropriate internal organizational environment is a product of effective work (often within the context of corporate entrepreneurship) by managers at all levels (Floyd & Lane, 2000).

Details

Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-267-2

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Giang Hoang, Tuan Trong Luu, Tuan Du and Thuy Thu Nguyen

Employee’s service innovative behavior lays the groundwork for bottom-up innovation and ongoing service improvement in service firms. Therefore, it is vital for service…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee’s service innovative behavior lays the groundwork for bottom-up innovation and ongoing service improvement in service firms. Therefore, it is vital for service organizations to understand the antecedents of employees service innovative behavior. Drawing upon the social cognitive theory, this study aims to develop a research model that examines the effects of ethical and entrepreneurial leadership on service innovative behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 178 managers and 415 employees working in 178 small- and medium-sized (SME) hotels in Vietnam.

Findings

The findings showed that ethical leadership has direct and indirect effects on service innovative behavior, while entrepreneurial leadership only influences service innovative behavior via intrinsic motivation. In addition, trust in leader moderates the effect of intrinsic motivation on service innovative behavior

Research limitations/implications

The study advances current scholarly research on leadership by combining the two areas of entrepreneurial and ethical leadership into one theoretical model and examines how these leadership styles generate hospitality employees’ service innovative behavior through the mediating effect of intrinsic motivation and the moderating effect of trust in leader.

Practical implications

The findings of this research offer significant implications for SME hotels and their managers. In their recruitment processes, hotels should search for particular personality traits, which have been found to predict ethical and entrepreneurial leadership. Hospitality firms also need to encourage communication between leaders and co-workers to enhance employees’ intrinsic motivation.

Originality/value

There are calls for research to examine whether both entrepreneurial and ethical leadership styles can be integrated to enhance employees’ positive outcomes. Evidence about the mechanism linking entrepreneurial and ethical leadership to service innovative behavior is limited. With this stated, the current study makes significant contribution to leadership and innovation literature by filling in these voids.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2022

Cong Doanh Duong, Ngoc Thang Ha, Thi Loan Le, Thi Lan Phuong Nguyen, Thi Hong Tham Nguyen and Thanh Van Pham

This study aims to achieve two objectives: First, to investigate the moderating influences of Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)-related psychological distress on the process of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to achieve two objectives: First, to investigate the moderating influences of Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19)-related psychological distress on the process of entrepreneurial cognition; and second, to close the gap between entrepreneurial intention and behavior of higher education institutions students.

Design/methodology/approach

Scales from previous studies have been adopted to develop a questionnaire survey. An online survey questionnaire then is carried out to collect the data; the final sample includes 405 university students. The validity and reliability of scales are tested throughout Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. Hypothesized correlations were then tested via structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results confirm the important roles of perceived behavioral control and entrepreneurial intention in encouraging entrepreneurial behavior, whereas attitude toward entrepreneurship is strongly and positively related to intention to engage in a business venture. Yet, subjective norms are not found to have an impact on entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial attitude-intention link has been negatively moderated by Covid-19-related psychological distress. Also, Covid-19-related psychological distress can lessen the entrepreneurial intention–behavior linkage of higher education institutions students.

Practical implications

The study provides useful recommendations for practitioners such as educators and policymakers to promote higher education institutions students' entrepreneurship, especially in the global crisis context of the spread of Covid-19.

Social implications

Being aware of the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the entrepreneurship process and translations from intention into behavior to become entrepreneurs provide useful insights to nascent entrepreneurs, community and our society to limit the negative influence of the Covid-19 pandemic and help us overcome this crisis.

Originality/value

Addressing the entrepreneurial intention–behavior gap is considered as the biggest contribution of this study. Moreover, the association between perceived behavioral control and entrepreneurial behavior, overlooked by previous studies, is also tested in this study. Furthermore, the findings confirm that psychological distress caused by Covid-19 can inhibit the cognitive process of entrepreneurship.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2017

Pingying Zhang and Kevin W. Cain

Entrepreneurial intention is regarded as a useful and practical approach to understanding actual entrepreneurial behavior. Planned behavior has been widely applied to…

1882

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial intention is regarded as a useful and practical approach to understanding actual entrepreneurial behavior. Planned behavior has been widely applied to examine entrepreneurial intention. Nevertheless, how risk aversion affects entrepreneurial intention using the model of planned behavior is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated model based on planned behavior to examine the direct and indirect effect of risk aversion on entrepreneurial intention concurrently.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper first uses factor analysis to study the latent constructs underlying determinants of planned behavior, risk aversion, and entrepreneurial intention. Then, it applies the technique of structural equation modeling to explore relationships among latent constructs. There are 306 survey responses collected from dental school students to run the analysis.

Findings

The determinants of planned behavior are positively associated with entrepreneurial intention. There is no direct relationship between risk aversion and entrepreneurial intention. Risk aversion only indirectly reduces entrepreneurial intention through determinants of planned behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the integrated model may be constrained by the sample context of dental students. Replicating the model by using other samples with various educational backgrounds can strengthen the implication of the study. Another limitation is the weakness of the cross-sectional study design, leaving room for improvement by using longitudinal data in the future.

Practical implications

Risk aversion only indirectly reduces entrepreneurial intention. To establish an environment with a strong entrepreneurial intention, a focus on developing a positive attitude and strengthening entrepreneurial skills are perhaps more fruitful than lowering risk aversion. This study also suggests that non-business students may need additional business education to improve the perception of self-efficacy.

Originality/value

The integrated model of this paper is original. The development of the model draws support from planned behavior adjusted to the context of starting a business.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Muhammad Shoaib Farooq

Although entrepreneurial behaviour is considered a key element for economic development, yet very less is known about the determinants of factors leading towards…

1401

Abstract

Purpose

Although entrepreneurial behaviour is considered a key element for economic development, yet very less is known about the determinants of factors leading towards entrepreneurial intention and behaviour. In order to bridge this gap, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of social support and entrepreneurial skills in determining entrepreneurial behaviour of individuals. Developing on the base of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study investigates the relationship between social support, entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurial behaviour along with existing constructs of the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and entrepreneurial intention).

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 281 respondents using a simple random sampling method, and the variance-based partial least-squares, structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach was used for testing the proposed conceptual model.

Findings

Findings of this study have validated the proposed model, which have an explanatory power of 68.3 per cent. Moreover, findings reveal that social support and entrepreneurial skills have a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention of individuals. However, an unanticipated and non-significant relation between subjective norms and entrepreneurial intention is also found.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the limited scope of this study, a multi-group analysis is not possible, which is considered as a limitation of this study. Moreover, due to time constraints, this study is conducted within a specified time-frame; however, a longitudinal study over a period of three to six years can overcome this limitation.

Practical implications

Findings of this study are expected to have substantial implications for policy makers, future researchers and academicians. Outcomes of this study can help to better understand the cognitive phenomenon of nascent entrepreneurs. Moreover, it is expected that this study can serve as a torch-bearer for policy makers to develop better entrepreneurial development programmes, policies and initiatives for promoting self-employment behaviour.

Originality/value

Findings of this study are a unique step forward and offer new insights towards a better understanding of the determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour. Moreover, this study extends Ajzen’s (1991) TPB in the context of entrepreneurial behaviour. By introducing and investigating the impact of two new variables, i.e. social support and entrepreneurial skills in the TPB and by validating the proposed model with PLS-SEM approach, this study makes a sizeable theoretical, methodological and contextual contribution in the overall body of knowledge.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Leonidas A. Zampetakis and Vassilis Moustakis

While the term “entrepreneurship” was almost exclusively associated with private sector, it is now found with increasing frequency in the literature on the public sector…

3616

Abstract

Purpose

While the term “entrepreneurship” was almost exclusively associated with private sector, it is now found with increasing frequency in the literature on the public sector and public administration. However, research on public entrepreneurs remains restricted to top and middle managers and elected politicians and focuses on policy promotion and initiatives concerning public sector transformation. The perpose of the present article is to extend earlier research to the empirical assessment of entrepreneurial behaviour among front line staff in the Greek public sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale of entrepreneurial behaviour was assessed. A short, self‐report questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 237 public servants working at prefecture level, which is the second level of government in Greece. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the entrepreneurial behaviour scale contributed to the formation of a hierarchical factor structure with a super‐ordinate entrepreneurial behaviour factor and three lower‐level factors.

Research limitations/implications

The reported research relied on self‐reports and on a sample from the Greek public sector. Moreover, data are cross‐sectional and alternatives relationships may exist. Future research should be multinational and longitudinal to test the assumptions of the present study and should encompass variables of actual entrepreneurial behaviour.

Practical implications

The research findings demonstrate that the concept of “public entrepreneurship” is relevant for the average civil servant and reveals facets of entrepreneurial behaviour of front line staff. Moreover, the study finds evidence that there is a positive correlation between the supportive context, as expressed by encouragement of initiatives and access to managerial information, and entrepreneurial behaviour among public servants. As a result, policy makers should take the appropriate measures to build a supportive context for public entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The research findings are original and unique and are based on established models and theories from the literature on private sector entrepreneurship. The results are based on a sample of public servants working in different prefectures in Greece. In addition, respondents come from different organisational units across each prefecture. The research findings are useful to academics and to policy makers interested in fostering public entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Sanna Joensuu-Salo, Anmari Viljamaa and Elina Varamäki

This study aims to contribute to entrepreneurial intention research by examining the theory of planned behavior model in a longitudinal follow-up of the same individuals…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to contribute to entrepreneurial intention research by examining the theory of planned behavior model in a longitudinal follow-up of the same individuals from a point at which they were studying until six to eight years after graduation and the link between entrepreneurial intention and actual behavior. The objectives of the paper are as follows: to examine the development and temporal stability of entrepreneurial intention and to examine the link between entrepreneurial intention and actual start-up behavior in a longitudinal setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this research originate in Finland and consist three data collection waves between years 2008 and 2018. In the second wave, 282 respondents were reached, and in the third wave, 89 respondents were reached. For examining the stability of entrepreneurial intention, latent growth curve modeling was used. In addition, a logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the link between intention and behavior.

Findings

The results suggest that entrepreneurial intention is a stable construct over time. High and low levels of entrepreneurial intention remain quite stable. Entrepreneurial intention measured during study time significantly explains entrepreneurial behavior both after one to three years (Exp (B) 2,069***) and after six to eight years (Exp (B) 1,830*). Gender and role models are significant factors in predicting entrepreneurial behavior.

Originality/value

This study provides new information on the stability of entrepreneurial intention in a rare longitudinal setting. The study verifies the value of intention measures in predicting entrepreneurial behavior in the long term.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Pratim Datta, Jessica Ann Peck, Ipek Koparan and Cecile Nieuwenhuizen

While much has been debated about venture formation and demise, the behavioral dynamics of why entrepreneurs intend to continue and persevere post-startup have received…

Abstract

Purpose

While much has been debated about venture formation and demise, the behavioral dynamics of why entrepreneurs intend to continue and persevere post-startup have received scant attention and scrutiny. Building upon the rich tapestry of entrepreneurial cognition, the purpose of this paper is to forward entrepreneurial continuance logic as a theoretical framework to empirically investigate the antecedents, contingencies and mediators of entrepreneurial continuance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using observations from surveying 156 practicing entrepreneurs across the USA, UK, South Africa and India, this research offers interesting findings.

Findings

Results surface attitudinal tensions between the transactional attitudes of entrepreneurial climate, entrepreneurial responsiveness and calculative commitment and the relational attitudes of affective and normative continuance. Specifically, the authors find that affect is the strongest direct predictor of continuance intentions but only in the absence of entrepreneurial responsiveness behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Entrepreneurial responsiveness, rather than commitment, is found to be a core continuance constituent, traceable as a positive influence on continuance as a direct antecedent, a moderator and a mediator.

Practical implications

The research reveals that entrepreneurs willing to seize and adapt to a changing entrepreneurial landscape are more like to continue with their ventures, but not just driven by strict underpinnings of affect and norms but by a strong sense of economic rationality.

Social implications

Entrepreneurial continuance is an important behavioral phenomenon with substantial socio-economic consequences. Given the scant attention paid to entrepreneurial continuance – symptomatic of broader downstream effects of entrepreneurial survival and positive socio-economic spillovers, the authors embark on a systematic investigation of continuance intention as post-startup behavior.

Originality/value

The paper explains post-startup entrepreneurial behavior in several ways. First, while affective commitment, a relational attitude, still drives continuance intentions, calculative commitment, a transactional attitude, is a significant contender. Interestingly, the nature of contemporary entrepreneurship disregards continuance behavior based on norms. Second, entrepreneurial responsiveness needs to be cautiously examined in relationship to commitment and continuance. Entrepreneurial responsiveness, a transactional attitude, positively influences continuance; however, in the presence of a relational attitude such as affective commitment, the interplay reduces continuance intentions. Third, perceptions of entrepreneurial climate are found to trigger more opportunity-seeking behavior among entrepreneurs, which in turn increases an entrepreneur’s intention to continue.

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

William Walton Kirkley

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key values individuals believe in and their interpretation in the context of entrepreneurial behaviour. The study is…

12951

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key values individuals believe in and their interpretation in the context of entrepreneurial behaviour. The study is predicated on the prior work of Krueger (2007) and specifically on the premise that “deep beliefs” underpin sense making, decision making and subsequent entrepreneurial behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilised an inductive and interpretive research design within a constructivist paradigm. In phase one, Schwartz’s (1992) 54 values inventory was used to discover a core value-set associated with entrepreneurial behaviour. The results were later used as an “aide-memoire” during the second phase of in-depth interviews with 30 self-selected entrepreneurs. Interviews focused primarily on the meaning individuals attributed to those fundamental values they associated with entrepreneurial behaviour. The resulting narrative was subjected to discourse analysis and categorised into relevant themes.

Findings

Self-determined human action is based on a specific set of values which the individual uses to make decisions about how to behave in situations that are meaningful to them. Engaging in entrepreneurship is one form of self-determined behaviour that enables the individual to express and satisfy a variety of different fundamental needs. Four specific values are believed to be critical to the motivation of entrepreneurial behaviour, namely, independence, creativity, ambition and daring. The meaning attributed to each of these values is consistent with that attributed to self-determinism, self-efficacy and the identity of participants associated with entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

There are limitations to this research and the extension of the findings to a generalised population comprising individuals who may, or may not, behave entrepreneurially. This is not to say that such individuals hold values substantially different in other roles or areas of their lives outside a purely business context. The values rated by participants in this study had relevance to their view of entrepreneurial behaviour and were confined to a business perspective.The variability in meaning attributed to these values is however likely to produce a common thread focusing on control, creativity and goal-directed behaviour.

Practical implications

The study strongly suggests the presence of a specific value-set associated with entrepreneurial behaviour. The shift in emphasis to independence and being ambitious, at the expense of being creative and daring, represents one explanation for the episodic nature of entrepreneurial behaviour among individuals. The data further reveal differences in entrepreneurial behaviour within urban and rural contexts with the former being more tolerant of entrepreneurial activity because of its inherent cultural diversity

Social implications

Similarly, all participants have assimilated several different identities for the different social roles they occupy. Within those varying roles there is the possibility that both individual and group values will differ from what is reported here. The purpose of the study was to isolate as far as possible entrepreneurial behaviour and its core values independently from other types of behaviour and values. However, the likelihood does exist that values held by some individuals from other spheres of their lives could take precedence over their entrepreneurial role and thus influence their survey results.

Originality/value

The value of this study lies in exposing the underlying motivations that cause entrepreneurial behaviour. The study also discovered that shifts occur in the belief structure causing individuals to engage in managerial behaviour in preference to entrepreneurial behaviour at critical stages in the business life-cycle. The study further identifies cultural differences in individualistic vs collectivist cultures and the degrees to which entrepreneurial behaviour is accepted within urban vs rural environments.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Keywords

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