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Article

Ramesh Dangol and Anthony Kos

– The purpose of this paper is to propose a new way to distinguish a firm’s dynamic capabilities from operational capabilities.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new way to distinguish a firm’s dynamic capabilities from operational capabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual paper/literature review.

Findings

Current literature on dynamic capabilities posits that dynamic capabilities are those firm capabilities that can induce change in other capabilities, while operational capabilities are static. Distinguishing between these capabilities in this manner is not helpful because changes occur continuously in all capabilities to at least some extent. In addition, empirical studies show that even task-level operational capabilities can change on their own and can induce change in other capabilities. In contrast to focussing on the presence or lack of change to determine if a capability is dynamic or operational, this paper distinguishes between them by determining a priori the expected nature of the outcome. By focussing on the outcomes of change rather than the changes themselves, this paper proposes that capabilities should be considered operational if they produce outcomes that can be predicted using probability distribution while those capabilities that produce outcomes that cannot be predicted using probability distribution should be considered dynamic.

Research limitations/implications

Future research on dynamic capabilities should not only investigate whether or not change is occurring, but the outcome of change to understand whether a change is precipitated by dynamic or operational capabilities.

Originality/value

Existing dynamic capabilities literature is unclear about how to distinguish between dynamic capabilities from operational capabilities. Previous research attempts to distinguish these capabilities by arguing dynamic capabilities are those firm capabilities that can induce change in other capabilities, while operational capabilities are static and do not induce change. This is not particularly helpful. A clear distinction between dynamic and operational capabilities could facilitate further advancement of the dynamic capability literature; this study makes a rudimentary effort to distinguish between them.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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Article

Ana Cristina O Siqueira and Benson Honig

Ingenuity can be viewed as the use of creativity to develop innovation within constraints. The authors investigate how entrepreneurial ingenuity is enhanced by…

Abstract

Purpose

Ingenuity can be viewed as the use of creativity to develop innovation within constraints. The authors investigate how entrepreneurial ingenuity is enhanced by self-imposed ethical constraints, by using a case study of sustainability-driven technology enterprises in an emerging economy. The authors find that self-imposed ethical constraints can enhance entrepreneurial ingenuity because they encourage entrepreneurs to solve more complex problems as a result of considering the impact of the business on a more diverse set of stakeholders. The aim of this study is to show that while additional resources are normally considered an advantage, a dearth of resources can be a source of competitive advantage leading to ingenuity. By self-imposing ethical constraints, founders increase engagement of stakeholders who shape the firm’s industry toward greater sustainability knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used semi-structured interviews which are typically the most important data source in the Gioia methodology because they provide both retrospective and present accounts by individuals experiencing the phenomenon of theoretical interest (Gioia et al., 2012). The authors focused on founders at each enterprise who had sufficient knowledge to speak comprehensively and authoritatively about their organizations. The goals of the semi-structured interview protocol were to focus on the research question, avoid the use of terminology that could lead interviewees in their answers and maintain flexibility to explore spontaneous themes during the interviews.

Findings

The authors examined the influence of entrepreneurial ingenuity on the creation of knowledge in an organization's environment. They defined entrepreneurial ingenuity as a type of organizational ingenuity (Lampel et al., 2014a, 2014b) and by focusing on the role of ethical constraints, examined the conditions under which it is influenced. They emphasized that ethical constraints warrant consideration in the knowledge management process (Rechberg and Syed, 2013) because they can stimulate entrepreneurial ingenuity. The authors also investigated the relevance of ethical constraints for founders of social enterprises in Brazil, an emerging economy of growing interest to knowledge management scholars.

Research limitations/implications

This study brings the following three main contributions. First, by incorporating the scope of social entrepreneurship, the research contributes to the perspective that both ethics and innovation can positively coexist within an organization while contributing to knowledge management creation and success (Borghini, 2005; Schumacher and Wasieleski, 2013). Second, the authors establish ethics as an important type of constraint that can spark ingenuity and help break through the constraints of bounded awareness for knowledge management (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 2012). Third, by highlighting the role of self-imposed ethical constraints, this study helps answer a recent call for research on “entrepreneurial actions that benefit others” (Shepherd, 2015, p. 490) addressing “What are the constraints that disable or obstruct an organization’s normal routines from alleviating human suffering?..It could be less about whether it is good or bad to ignore constraints and more about which constraints are ignored and which are abided by” (Shepherd, 2015, pp. 499, 501, emphasis added).

Practical implications

In this study, the authors show that entrepreneurs facing ethical dilemmas experience a unique cycle of equilibration, essentially throwing customary norms of equilibrium into disequilibrium. Treating ethics as both a lever and a constraint allows a more unique set of problems to be solved through knowledge management and entrepreneurship, so solutions to these problems can themselves become new sustainability-driven businesses.

Social implications

This study opens up several opportunities for future research. The authors conducted a study with five sustainability-driven enterprises from Brazil. New research may benefit from examining a larger number of organizations in other countries to investigate potential environmental differences that affect ingenuity and knowledge management. This study highlights the notion of ethical constraints as enabling mechanisms, and thus self-imposed ethical constraints merit a more systematic consideration as a key additional factor that may inspire disruptive innovation (Christensen, 2013), blue-ocean strategy (Kim and Mauborgne, 2004), as well as value-creation for stakeholders (Tantalo and Priem, 2016).

Originality/value

Resources are critical to both knowledge management and entrepreneurial activity and have been examined from numerous perspectives (Alvarez & Busenitz, 2001; Barney, Wright, & Ketchen, 2001; Moustaghfir and Schiuma, 2013). Entrepreneurs following a creation strategy depend less on accumulating existing knowledge and resources before beginning, and more on forming new knowledge or relationships that do not yet exist. They do this through a process of entrepreneurial trial and error (Alvarez & Barney, 2007, 2010). From a knowledge management perspective, individual knowledge sharing through both experimentation and learning by doing provide consistently high levels of knowledge sharing (Burns, Acar and Datta, 2011). This research emphasizes that constraints, such as limited resources and self-imposed ethical standards, can be a source of advantage leading to ingenuity and knowledge creation.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 23 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Book part

Aníbal López and Pedro Neves

Entrepreneurs and their ventures face innumerous constraints (e.g., lack of funding, lack of business skills, and lack of social support) since the moment business…

Abstract

Entrepreneurs and their ventures face innumerous constraints (e.g., lack of funding, lack of business skills, and lack of social support) since the moment business opportunities are identified and chased, until the venture comes to reality. Scholars have conceptualized constraints as obstacles in nature, that is, as always undermining entrepreneurs’ behavior. Nonetheless, prior research has presented conflicting results. Specifically, a same constraint may or may not have a negative effect on entrepreneurs’ action. As advanced by Van Gelderen, Thurik, and Patel (2011), this suggest that “the nature of [entrepreneurial] problems is essentially evaluative, and therefore subjective.” Accordingly, a same constraint may be seen as a problem by one person but not by another. This chapter explores the evaluative nature of entrepreneurial constraints. Based on the cognitive appraisal framework (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) – which argues that constraints are not the direct precipitating cause of a behavior, but rather the person’s appraisal of challenge and threat that determines the response – this chapter argues that distinct appraisals (i.e., challenge vs threat) of a same entrepreneurial constraint will be associated with distinct degrees of effort from entrepreneurs (i.e., enhanced vs reduced, respectively). This chapter provides a useful framework for entrepreneurship scholars to study the nuanced effect of entrepreneurial constraints on entrepreneurs’ behavior.

Details

The Entrepreneurial Behaviour: Unveiling the cognitive and emotional aspect of entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-508-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part

Anayo D. Nkamnebe and Esther N. Ezemba

Igba-Boi model of entrepreneurship incubation among the Igbos in south-eastern Nigeria records outstanding and robust successes in producing entrepreneurs with global…

Abstract

Igba-Boi model of entrepreneurship incubation among the Igbos in south-eastern Nigeria records outstanding and robust successes in producing entrepreneurs with global impact. Therefore, the need to understand its nature, process, driving force, challenges and make suggestions to reinvigorate it has become urgent and valid. Also, with the persisting overbearing influence of Western and lately Asian philosophies in the development of business theories and practice, it is long overdue to mainstream Africa's entrepreneurial philosophy into extant discourse; this chapter contributes to this effort. Such an attempt follows the belief that Africans with their indigenous systems hold higher hope for the development of the continent. Since the rest of the world had at some point in history leveraged on Africa's civilisation to forge ahead, this chapter argues that Africa stands to contribute to the global search for efficient incubation of entrepreneurs using the Igba-Boi model. The chapter is guided by and framed with reviewed publications, philosophies and theories that explain Igbos' construction of social realities and worldview. Structural functionalism and conflict theories offer in-depth insight in explaining the success story of the Igba-Boi institution. The chapter, in particular, adopts the Igbos' interpretation of their cosmos, its eschatological implications in explaining their tenacity and doggedness in successfully meeting all the requirements for graduating from Igba-Boi incubation system. By discussing Igba-Boi as a socioeconomic institution, this chapter draws attention to areas of neglect for improvement in order to harness its high potentials for enhancing its contribution to business practice in Africa and development of the continent.

Details

Indigenous African Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-033-2

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Article

Thomas A. Bryant and Joseph E. Bryant

The modern economy of North America has been built on nearly five centuries of natural resource exploitation. Wetlands have been part of that pattern, with drainage and…

Abstract

The modern economy of North America has been built on nearly five centuries of natural resource exploitation. Wetlands have been part of that pattern, with drainage and filling used to convert them to higher economic values. Ecological research and social value changes have been accumulating in the last half of the twentieth century, however, and suggest that such behaviour is becoming less acceptable. Whereas the social incentives for entrepreneurs used to be unmitigated in their encouragement of the elimination of wetlands, evolving values suggest a radical restructuring is under way. The dividing line between heroic entrepreneurial exploitation and vilification for ecosystem damage is best understood as a shifting zone of uncertain values. Prudent entrepreneurs will monitor those value shifts closely.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Book part

Matthew M. Mars

In Chapter 5, contemporary innovative conditions and environments are outlined. Particular attention is given to the description of the role of innovation in the new…

Abstract

In Chapter 5, contemporary innovative conditions and environments are outlined. Particular attention is given to the description of the role of innovation in the new knowledge-based economy, as well as to the intersection of entrepreneurship and innovation.

Details

A Cross-Disciplinary Primer on the Meaning and Principles of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-993-6

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Book part

Roopinder Oberoi

This chapter primarily aims to revisit and explore the theoretical underpinnings of social entrepreneurship and dwell into what unfolds while amalgamating the…

Abstract

This chapter primarily aims to revisit and explore the theoretical underpinnings of social entrepreneurship and dwell into what unfolds while amalgamating the conventionally considered to be dissimilar design of business entrepreneurship and the social impact? Can the prefix “social” of social entrepreneurship transform the innate characteristics of entrepreneurship? Is social entrepreneurship an essentiality in a ground-breaking playing field in the business research to facilitate new theories and concepts or a rehash of the corporate responsibility debate? Is it just an appellation or does the underscored social label and its construct allow for new possibility to be explored into the sociality of entrepreneurship along with the new-fangled entrepreneurialism in society? The chapter attempts to decode these more germane and interwoven issues like do we have to tell apart between a capitalist entrepreneurship and a non-capitalist one? Or between pioneering and replicative entrepreneurs. Can we sanctify the political in the social spheres and who (which actors) actually sets the discourse of social needs. The chapter also tracks multiple cases in the Indian locale to determine the robust application of the concept while unpacking the Indian context of social entrepreneurship. These cases are randomly selected from assorted sectors and are wide in its sweep and scope. These cases highlight on the lived experiences, where the task is truly played out. This adds to the sensibilities of new entrepreneurs and policy framers who face the challenges.

Details

Corporate Responsibility and Stakeholding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-626-0

Keywords

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Article

Subhanjan Sengupta and Arunaditya Sahay

This paper aims to facilitate researchers, academicians and entrepreneurs gain insights on the social entrepreneurship concept and future research opportunities in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to facilitate researchers, academicians and entrepreneurs gain insights on the social entrepreneurship concept and future research opportunities in the context of the Asia-Pacific countries (APAC).

Design/methodology/approach

The diversity of social entrepreneurship phenomenon visible in 101 journal publications was reviewed and analyzed to identify research perspectives and opportunities, with special focus on papers published on the APAC context between 1998 and 2015. The keywords for search were “social entrepreneurship”, “social enterprises”, “social entrepreneur” and the names of all countries in APAC.

Findings

The study identifies three prominent themes in need of more research in the APAC countries: contextual, institutional and personal factors surrounding social entrepreneurship; usage of market orientation by social enterprises to generate economic and social value; and impact of social entrepreneurship education on generating talent pool for social enterprises.

Originality/value

During the review on the social entrepreneurship concept, it was felt that most research originated from both sides of the Atlantic rather than the APAC. Interestingly, no review was found on research published on social entrepreneurship as perceived and practiced in APAC. Therefore, this paper would be of particular value to any researcher who would conduct social entrepreneurship research in the Asia-Pacific context. Asia-Pacific offers immense scope for empirical research for theory generation and theory testing in different contexts.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Tensions and paradoxes in temporary organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-348-7

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