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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Stefanie E. Naumann, Barbara D. Minsky and Michael C. Sturman

There has been much debate about people’s perceptions of entitlement. We trace the history of the different uses of entitlement perceptions across fields in order to…

Abstract

There has been much debate about people’s perceptions of entitlement. We trace the history of the different uses of entitlement perceptions across fields in order to develop a typology that identifies two dimensions: level of entitlement and degree of reciprocity. We conclude that a historical, cross‐disciplinary examination of the construct of employee entitlement will improve our understanding of the role of entitlement perceptions in the workplace. Specifically, we suggest that each of the four combinations of the entitlement and reciprocity dimensions points to a different employee‐organization relationship and, thus, requires a different motivational tool.

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Management Decision, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Mary Dana Laird, James J. Zboja, Paul Harvey, Lisa M. Victoravich and Anupama Narayan

Guided by Hobfoll’s (1989) conservation of resources theory, we examined how psychological entitlement moderates the negative relationship between work-family conflict…

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by Hobfoll’s (1989) conservation of resources theory, we examined how psychological entitlement moderates the negative relationship between work-family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 119 accountants from the Midwestern United States, we tested our hypotheses with hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate a strong, negative relationship between WFC and job satisfaction for employees low in psychological entitlement, but an insignificant relationship for entitled employees.

Practical implications

The results suggest that some entitlement may be beneficial to employees when coping with WFC. However, organizations should limit WFC in order to foster their least entitled employees’ job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigates how psychological entitlement affects employees' reactions to WFC. Not only does it contribute to the growing body of research that examines how this individual difference affects workplace functioning, but it suggests there may be some benefits to entitlement, which largely has been disparaged.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Kenneth J. Harris, Ranida B. Harris, Matthew Valle, John Carlson, Dawn S. Carlson, Suzanne Zivnuska and Briceön Wiley

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work and family. Specifically, we focus on intention to turnover in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work and family. Specifically, we focus on intention to turnover in the work domain, work-family conflict in the work-family domain, and family burnout in the family domain. Furthermore, this study examines the moderating role of entitlement, a personality variable, in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 253 people who were using technology to complete their work over two time periods, the relationships were examined using hierarchical moderated regression analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that both techno-overload and techno-invasion were significantly related to greater turnover intentions, higher work-family conflict, and greater family burnout. In addition, entitlement played a moderating role such that those who were higher in entitlement had stronger techno-overload-outcome and technostress invasion-outcome relationships.

Practical implications

These findings may provide managers key insights to help manage employees, especially those with an inflated sense of entitlement, to mitigate the serious negative outcomes associated with techno-overload and techno-invasion. In particular, both techno- overload and techno-invasion had minimal impact on negative outcomes when employee entitlement was lower. However, when employee entitlement was higher, techno-overload and techno-invasion had considerable negative effects.

Originality/value

Due to the ubiquitous nature of information-communication technology (ICT) in organizations today, individuals often experience techno-overload and techno-invasion. This research utilized conservation of resources theory to examine these relationships. This study established the relationships of both techno-overload and techno-invasion with key organizational and family outcomes and points to the critical role of the personality variable, entitlement, in this process. The results provide theoretical and practical advancement in the role of technology with people in organizations today.

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Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Robyn L. Brouer, Angela S. Wallace and Paul Harvey

This chapter presents an investigation of the relationship between psychological entitlement and stress. Empirical and conceptual evidence is considered suggesting that…

Abstract

This chapter presents an investigation of the relationship between psychological entitlement and stress. Empirical and conceptual evidence is considered suggesting that Conservation of Resources (COR) theory may apply differently to employees with a heightened sense of entitlement. Using attribution and COR theory, a conceptual framework is offered predicting that entitlement is positively associated with subjective stress, based on the logic that psychologically entitled employees develop unjustifiably inflated levels of self-evaluative internal coping resources such as self-esteem and self-efficacy that promote unmet expectations. It is also proposed that political skill and the ability to manage perceptions of competency may attenuate this relationship. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the challenges associated with managing psychologically entitled employees.

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The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Book part
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Valentini Kalargyrou, Emmanuel Kalargiros and Paul Harvey

This study examines influence and motivational tactics for effectively managing entitled employees, a potential connection between generations and levels of entitlement

Abstract

This study examines influence and motivational tactics for effectively managing entitled employees, a potential connection between generations and levels of entitlement, managerial challenges, and sources and characteristics of entitled employees. The study uses qualitative methods and data from hospitality leaders. Increased legislature and use of technology, the structure of the educational system, and changes in social norms are promoting entitlement in the workplace. Generation Y hospitality employees hold a higher sense of entitlement than past generations and possess that sense of entitlement even before entering the workforce. The most favorable reactions of entitled employees were attributed to the use of exchange and coalition tactics where entitled employees find pride in their employment and management promotes teamwork and accountability.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-956-9

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Emily M. Zitek and Verena Krause

When subordinates violate a policy, authority figures have to decide whether to be strict and make them face the consequences or be lenient and not enforce the policy. In…

Abstract

When subordinates violate a policy, authority figures have to decide whether to be strict and make them face the consequences or be lenient and not enforce the policy. In this chapter, we argue that when an authority figure treats a subordinate leniently, that subordinate is more likely to develop an elevated sense of entitlement, which then has various negative consequences for the authority figure and the subordinate’s group members. Drawing on the literature on the sources and consequences of psychological entitlement, we put forward propositions relating to authority leniency and subordinate entitlement. In summary, we propose (a) that single acts of leniency may lead subordinates to feel entitled to future leniency, (b) that repeated leniency may lead subordinates to develop a general sense of entitlement, and (c) that leniency and the resulting entitlement can have many negative consequences such as increasing group conflict and causing low performance. We report preliminary results in support of some propositions. For example, we show that leniency that can be attributed to something external to the subordinate may prevent the subordinate from feeling entitled. Last, we call for additional research. We hope that our chapter will cause authority figures to consider the consequences of treating subordinates leniently, including the possibility that the subordinates will subsequently feel entitled.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-504-2

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Alexandra Polyakova, Zachary Estes and Andrea Ordanini

Companies often provide preferential treatment, such as free upgrades, to customers. The present study aims to identify a costly consequence of such preferential treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies often provide preferential treatment, such as free upgrades, to customers. The present study aims to identify a costly consequence of such preferential treatment (i.e. opportunistic behavior) and reveal which type of customer is most likely to engage in that negative behavior (i.e. new customers).

Design/methodology/approach

Across two experimental studies, the authors test whether preferential treatment increases customers’ entitlement, which in turn increases their propensity to behave opportunistically. Moderated mediation analysis further tests whether that mediated effect is moderated by customers’ prior relationship with the company.

Findings

Preferential treatment increases feelings of entitlement, which consequently triggers customers’ opportunistic behaviors. New customers are more likely to feel entitled after preferential treatment than repeat customers, and hence new customers are more likely to behave opportunistically. Preferential treatment also increases customers’ suspicion of the company’s motives, but suspicion was unrelated to opportunistic behavior.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may focus on other marketplace situations that trigger entitlement and explore whether multiple occurrences of preferential treatment provide different effects on consumers.

Practical implications

Present findings demonstrate that preferential treatment can evoke opportunistic behaviors among customers. The authors suggest that preferential treatment should be provided to customers who previously invested in their relationship with a company (i.e. repeat customers) rather than new customers.

Originality/value

Prior research has focused more on the ways companies prioritize their repeat customers than how they surprise their new customers. The present research instead examines preferential treatment based on customers’ relationship with a firm (i.e. both repeat and new customers) and demonstrates behavioral and contextual effects of entitlement.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

John Forth and Alex Bryson

The literature on the union wage premium is among the most extensive in labour economics but unions’ effects on other aspects of the wage-effort bargain have received much…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on the union wage premium is among the most extensive in labour economics but unions’ effects on other aspects of the wage-effort bargain have received much less attention. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature through a study of the union premium in paid holiday entitlements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the size of the union premium on paid holidays over time, with a particular focus on how the premium was affected by the introduction of a statutory right to paid holidays. The data come from nationally representative surveys of employees and workplaces.

Findings

The authors find that the union premium on paid holidays is substantially larger than the union premium on wages. However, the premium fell with the introduction of a statutory minimum entitlement to paid leave.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine explicitly the interaction between union representation and the law in this setting. The findings indicate the difficulties that unions have faced in protecting the most vulnerable employees in the UK labour market. The authors argue that the supplanting of voluntary joint regulation with statutory regulation is symptomatic of a wider decrease in the regulatory role of unions in the UK.

Details

Journal of Participation and Employee Ownership, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-7641

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Baolong Ma, Xiaofei Li and Lin Zhang

This paper aims to demonstrate both the positive and negative effects of loyalty programs. The study proposes a model to demonstrate why and how loyalty program strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate both the positive and negative effects of loyalty programs. The study proposes a model to demonstrate why and how loyalty program strategies can result in good customer relationships and customer entitlement behaviors. Various configurations of three different loyalty program strategies are analyzed – tangible rewards, preferential treatment and perceived status.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ hypotheses were tested by analyzing the survey data of 152 frequent flyer program members in China through partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to test different configurations of the three loyalty program strategies.

Findings

A net effects analysis demonstrates that loyalty programs are a double-edged sword. While loyalty programs can improve customer relationships, strategies based on perceived status have a positive relationship to customer entitlement, which may lead customers to expect extraordinary efforts from companies, such as greater discounts and extra privileges. Using fsQCA, the authors determined four sufficient configurations of high level of relationship quality and high level of customer entitlement, which also support their findings.

Originality/value

First, this study expands the research on loyalty programs by providing an examination of their positive and negative consequences. Second, by proposing the configuration paths that lead to high level of relationship quality and high level of customer entitlement using fsQCA, this research enriches research on the net effects of loyalty programs, providing researchers and practitioners with a more comprehensive understanding of loyalty programs. Third, this research extends the concept of customer entitlement to the context of buyer–seller relationships by introducing perceived status as an important antecedent of customer entitlement and by identifying four sufficient configurations.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Wayne A. Hochwarter, James A. Meurs, Pamela L. Perrewé, M. Todd Royle and Timothy A. Matherly

The purpose of this research is to examine how attention control moderates the relationship between perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and employee attitudinal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine how attention control moderates the relationship between perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and employee attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In study 1, data were collected from 309 employees of a municipality. In the second study, the independent and dependent variables were collected two months apart (and matched) from 584 individuals working in a range of occupations and organizations.

Findings

Perceived entitlement behavior was associated with increased tension and depressed mood at work and decreased satisfaction and citizenship for employees low in attention control.

Research limitations/implications

The exclusive use of data collected via a survey methodology is a limitation. However, tests of multicollinearity offered no evidence of method inflation. Future research should expand the scope of conceptualization to consider both individual difference (i.e. mood, affect) and contextual (i.e. justice, equity) factors when considering the effects of the perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and attention control on work outcomes.

Practical implications

By having the ability to better regulate attention, the negative effects of the entitled behavior of others are minimized. Attention control can be learned or improved, and employers should attempt to develop this ability. Managers may also find it useful to find out why some employees act entitled while others do not.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the interrelationship between the perceptions of others' entitlement behavior and attention control in actual work settings. Hence, gaps in multiple bodies of literature (i.e. stress and wellbeing, organizational behavior, psychology, cognitive science) are addressed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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