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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Stuart Reid

The study seeks to shed light on the generative principles of enterprising by examining the practices of enterprisers in six lifestyle enterprises in Sweden. It presents a…

Abstract

Purpose

The study seeks to shed light on the generative principles of enterprising by examining the practices of enterprisers in six lifestyle enterprises in Sweden. It presents a fresh approach to the study of lifestyle enterprises, resolving a nuanced treatment of the concepts of capital and habitus as often drawn upon in studies using the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a grounded theory approach to examine enterprising practices in six lifestyle enterprises in Sweden. Study materials are derived principally from ethnographic observations and active interviews. The analytical procedure follows that of grounded theory, the analysis proceeding from the first field contacts and developing iteratively as the corpus expanded, with empirical themes giving way to formative concepts and sensitizing to the theoretical architecture of Pierre Bourdieu.

Findings

The findings offer insights into lifestyle enterprising, revealing how resourcing practices of capital deployment give shape to its practice. The findings reveal that capital deployment practices are not simply about conversion but may also involve practices, without substantive change to capital forms. Furthermore, the findings highlight that habitus significantly influences capital deployment practices.

Research limitations/implications

Although the findings are limited to the study context, the study offers theoretical implications for study of enterprising. One is to highlight the importance of cultural capital in enterprising practices. Another is to highlight the variable construction of capitals, arising in connection to habitus. In pointing to the central generative role of habitus, the study suggests that cultural capital may underpin the formation of social capital. Overall, the findings indicate that researchers need to consider the mediating effects of habitus when investigating enterprising practices. More widely, this study responds and lends weight to, recent calls for more holistic and integrated treatments using Bourdieu's theory to further understandings of entrepreneurship as practice.

Practical implications

This study offers implications for policy relating to enterprising practice. In particular, findings suggest that it might be wise to consider the alignment of habitus between those who provide and receive support, or in other words, having providers with the right cultural competence to offer useful help. It may be important for policy agents to be able to relate to the worldviews of those they seek to support.

Originality/value

The study directly responds to recent calls for more holistic and integrated approaches to the nascent line of inquiry using Bourdieu’s theory to gain insight into entrepreneurship as a practice, particularly in relation to the undertheorized phenomenon of lifestyle entrepreneurship. In doing so, the study serves to advance the practice-oriented conceptualization of lifestyle entrepreneurship as lifestyle entrepreneuring. The paper also offers a conceptual framework to assist researchers investigating enterprising practice.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Tiantian Liu, Keith Walley, Geoff Pugh and Paul Adkins

The purpose of this study is to generate insight into the effects of entrepreneurship education in China by conducting a preliminary scoping study of the enterprising

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to generate insight into the effects of entrepreneurship education in China by conducting a preliminary scoping study of the enterprising tendency of university students studying business.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a self-administered questionnaire based on the General Measure of Enterprising Tendency v2 (GET2) test to measure the enterprising tendency of a group of Chinese university students. Decision trees, using the Chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID) approach, and multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the enterprising tendency of respondents.

Findings

The findings from this study indicate that the students have an overall medium level of enterprising tendency and strengths in some enterprising characteristics. The findings reveal that gender, family business, hometown and entrepreneurship education are significantly related to enterprising tendency but that age, household income, parents’ education and occupation are not.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study is based on a relatively small sample taken from just one university in Beijing, the findings suggest that the enterprising tendency of students can be encouraged by entrepreneurship education. Combined with evidence that entrepreneurship education is at a relatively early stage of development in China, this finding suggests considerable scope to increase student’s enterprising tendency by extending, creating a more favourable environment for and improving the methods used to deliver entrepreneurship education. Enterprising tendency can be argued to naturally result in entrepreneurial intention; however, this extension is beyond the scope of this study, which is restricted to the analysis of enterprising tendency.

Originality/value

This study makes an original contribution to knowledge as it is one of the first studies to explore enterprising tendency among university students in China. It has value for government, policymakers and university program designers in that it provides direction for entrepreneurship education in China.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Harry Matlay

This paper aims to explore the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders on developing enterprising graduates in UK higher education institutions (HEIs).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the influence of primary, secondary and tertiary stakeholders on developing enterprising graduates in UK higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal telephone surveys were conducted annually over a ten‐year period (2000 to 2009) to document and analyse a total of 331 stakeholders' influence on developing enterprising graduates in UK HEIs.

Findings

The findings highlighted a number of interesting trends relating to their involvement in, and impact on, entrepreneurship education provision in UK HEIs. A wide range of stakeholders can influence the development of enterprising graduates. Primary stakeholders, such as students, teaching and research staff, managers and administrators emerged as most influential in the development of enterprising graduates. Their influence, representing both the demand and supply sides of entrepreneurship education, was significant and directly relevant to the development of enterprising graduates in UK HEIs.

Practical implications

The results emerging from this longitudinal research study provide valuable stakeholder perspectives into the development of enterprising graduates in UK HEIs. Policy makers should use these findings to inform relevant entrepreneurship education policies and initiatives, focus them on the specific needs of UK students and ensure that scarce resources are targeted efficiently to develop successful graduate entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This study provides an empirically rigorous insight into stakeholder involvement in developing enterprising graduates in the UK. It provides valuable longitudinal data relating to the influence of a wide range of stakeholders on the development of enterprising graduates in UK HEIs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Tiia Randma and Urve Venesaar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the national education standard (curriculum, NC) supports the development of enterprising behaviour and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the national education standard (curriculum, NC) supports the development of enterprising behaviour and the constructivist approach to learning at the general education level?

Design/methodology/approach

New methodology was designed based on the assessment of the evidence and frequency of the incidence of the indicators supporting enterprising behaviour in the text of the NC. A content analysis method is used to systematically code and categorize the target indicators from the text of the NC. According to the frequency of indicators that support enterprising behaviour the extent of support is assessed in different parts of the NC.

Findings

The findings of this study show that, while the general part of the NC fully reflects the development of attitudes and skills related to enterprising behaviour, in the competences and learning outcomes of the other parts of the NC, some indicators of enterprising behaviour have only moderate support. This shows that entrepreneurial attitudes are not fully recognized as an educational aim in general education, and for the purposes of moving from a behaviourist to a constructivist educational approach, rethinking and reformulating the learning outcomes in the NC is necessary.

Research limitations/implications

The critical aspects are: first, NC formats may differ between countries, and hence, the suggested analysis may suffer from limited replicability; second, the most critical aspect is that the present work analyses only the learning outcomes of the written NC, which is the basis for real action in the classroom.

Practical implications

The contribution of the current study may be summed up in three main issues: first, methodology for evaluating the extent to which the NC supports the development of enterprising behaviour; second, the need to rethink and reformulate the learning outcomes in the NC (e.g. for natural sciences); and third, evidence of the conflict between the expectations of society and the aims of education. The research results are providing objective feedback to educational experts, policymakers and practitioners to help schools innovate and support the education of enterprising people in general education.

Social implications

The research is an initiative supported by society and directed to support the learning of entrepreneurial behaviour of pupils at the schools of general education and use of constructivist learning approach.

Originality/value

The current study is contributing to the methodology of analysing the written national curricula at the general education level for identification the evidence and frequency of the indicators of enterprising behaviour in different parts of curriculum. The methodology elaborated and the results of this study may be considered applicable for the analysis of NC in other countries. In the future, the NC in connection with real teaching practice should be studied, focusing on finding new solutions to support the education of enterprising people in schools.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Matthias Pepin

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework of reflection that opens the way to a fuller understanding of what is meant by learning to be enterprising in schools…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework of reflection that opens the way to a fuller understanding of what is meant by learning to be enterprising in schools, particularly during the basic schooling of students (at both the primary and secondary levels). Working from Dewey's philosophy of experience, the paper advances a new definition, in processual terms, of being enterprising and a related model of learning to be enterprising.

Design/methodology/approach

The backdrop of this theoretical article is enterprise education, currently associated with a broader view of entrepreneurship. The text begins with a critique of existing definitions of being enterprising, showing their limitations from an educational point of view. It then proposes an exploration of Dewey's philosophy of experience and its educational corollaries, all with a view to sketching out a model of learning to be enterprising.

Findings

John Dewey's philosophy of experience provides a basis for characterizing the notion of being enterprising in relation to two distinct phases – namely, charting a guiding direction for the action to be undertaken and putting the plan of action to the test in experience. Dewey also highlights the importance of reflexivity throughout this entire process. The coherent structuring of these elements lays the groundwork for a model of learning to be enterprising that simultaneously takes into account action and reflection in the classroom entrepreneurial experience.

Originality/value

Being enterprising is closely bound up with action, thus prompting many authors to set out a parallel between enterprise education and experiential learning, with most working from the model proposed by Kolb. The paper returns to the philosophical bases elaborated by Dewey and his vision of experiential learning, associated with his oft‐quoted maxim of “learning by doing.” The value of this conceptual effort consists in acquiring a more operational representation of learning to be enterprising in schools.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Robert D. Costigan, Richard C. Insinga, J. Jason Berman, Selim S. Ilter, Grazyna Kranas and Vladimir A. Kureshov

This study examines the relationship of a supervisor's affect‐based trust and cognition‐based trust to a subordinate employee's self‐ratings of enterprising behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship of a supervisor's affect‐based trust and cognition‐based trust to a subordinate employee's self‐ratings of enterprising behavior, which includes creativity, risk taking, initiative, motivation, and assertiveness, and to the supervisor's and coworker's ratings of the subordinate's enterprising behavior. The extent to which the power distance and in‐group collectivism cultural variables moderate the relationship between affect‐based trust and enterprising behavior is assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses of US, Turkish, Polish, and Russian supervisor‐subordinate‐coworker triads were collected in a number of firms. Regression results were employed to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings of this study show that the supervisor's cognition‐based trust and affect‐based trust of the employee are associated with that employee's enterprising behavior. Significant two‐way interactions indicate that the relationship between affect‐based trust and enterprising behavior is stronger in the three collectivist countries than in the individualist USA. The moderating effects of power distance, on the other hand, appear to be negligible.

Originality/value

The main implication of this study's results is that human relations theories, which are based on the supervisor's top‐down trust of the subordinate employee, may be more effective in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Robert D. Costigan, Richard C. Insinga, J. Jason Berman, Grazyna Kranas and Vladimir A. Kureshov

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between an employee's trust of coworkers and that employee's enterprising behavior. The extent to which cultural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between an employee's trust of coworkers and that employee's enterprising behavior. The extent to which cultural dimensions, in‐group collectivism and power distance, moderate the trust‐behavior relationship is considered.

Design/methodology/approach

A rigorous research methodology was employed to minimize potential problems with common method variance. Trust ratings were provided by 135 US, 203 Turkish, 100 Polish, and 86 Russian focal employees. Their 524 coworkers provided enterprising behavior ratings for these focal employees.

Findings

The results show that both cognitive‐ and affect‐based trusts of coworkers is associated with enterprising behavior. The findings also indicate that the affect‐based trust/enterprising behavior relationship is stronger in higher power distance cultures than in lower power distance cultures. In‐group collectivism, however, does not moderate the trust enterprising behavior relationships.

Originality/value

Trust is thought to nurture enterprising behavior in the workplace. This study looks at the relationship between trust of coworkers and enterprising behavior, an under investigated but key behavior in the modern organization. The moderating role of power distance implies that organizational interventions promoting affect‐based trust in coworker relationships may have bigger payoffs as far as behavior change in the high‐power distance context than in the low.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Mohsin Shafi, Lixi Yin, Yue Yuan and Zoya

This study aims to examine issues affecting the growth and survival of traditional handicraft enterprising community in Pakistan, and analyzes their strengths, weaknesses…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine issues affecting the growth and survival of traditional handicraft enterprising community in Pakistan, and analyzes their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, as well as develops strategic solutions to overcome the problems identified for their revival.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study is based on a descriptive approach because it attempts to investigate the critical issues faced by traditional handicraft enterprising community. To operationalize the theoretical approach, this paper used a SWOT analysis of craft enterprising community. After thoroughly reviewing relevant literature, this study put forward strategic solutions for the revival of the traditional enterprising community. Moreover, secondary data on employment and gender wage gap were used to provide empirical evidence of the issues identified and emphasize the importance of strategic solutions.

Findings

This study found that traditional handicraft producers are facing many problems that hinder their survival and growth. This paper, therefore, makes some essential strategic recommendations on how to overcome these issues. The current research argues that Pakistan’s handicraft industry must be revived; else, centuries-old traditional culture and patrimonial knowledge will vanish. Moreover, there is a need to attract foreign investment to overcome resource limitations and improve the competitive capability of the enterprising community. Notably, government intervention is necessary for the revival of the traditional handicraft industry.

Originality/value

This study provides in-depth knowledge of issues faced by the Pakistani traditional handicraft enterprising community and suggests possible strategic solutions for the problems identified. Unlike previous studies, this research also discusses the essential characteristics of traditional handicrafts that differentiate them from identical mechanized products.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2019

Angelo P. Bisignano and Imad El-Anis

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how informal migrant entrepreneurs with different legal statuses interpret their mixed-embeddedness in social and economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how informal migrant entrepreneurs with different legal statuses interpret their mixed-embeddedness in social and economic contexts. Legal status represents a key determinant in shaping accessible social networks and market opportunities that in turn influence entrepreneurial choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts an interpretative stance to explore how migrant entrepreneurs interpret mixed-embeddedness. It draws on the empirical evidence from a cross-sectional sample of 26 asylum seekers that engaged with enterprising activities in the city of Nottingham in the UK. A recursive hermeneutic process guided the iterative readings of the accounts to develop theoretical insights on how these agents reinvent their relationship with structure.

Findings

A novel theoretical framework emerges from the data analysis to present how these particular migrants use understandings of community and notions of capital to make sense of their mixed-embeddedness. The main theoretical contribution of the framework is to illustrate how groups with different legal statuses produce unique interpretations of mixed-embeddedness. This, in turn, reflects onto specific forms of enterprising and innovative entrepreneurial choices. The framework also produces an empirical contribution as it re-centres the analysis of mixed-embeddedness around the migrant entrepreneur from previous meso- and macro-level perspectives that dominated recent research.

Research limitations/implications

The paper expands knowledge on the notion of mixed-embeddedness by providing insights on how informal migrant entrepreneurs make sense of it. This can form the basis for allowing scholars to address empirically how migrant entrepreneurs reconcile their embeddedness in both social and economic contexts. In terms of practical implications, the paper paves the way for policy-makers to re-evaluate the current approach to the right of asylum seekers to pursue entrepreneurial activities.

Originality/value

The notion of mixed-embeddedness is central to research on informal migrant enterprising. Nevertheless, the concept remains fuzzy and difficult to operationalise. The paper offers an opportunity to understand how migrant entrepreneurs make sense of mixed-embeddedness so that future scholars can better explore how mixed-embeddedness reconciles agency and structure.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Elisabet Ljunggren and Elisabeth Sundin

This paper introduces the special issue’s six articles with different approaches to investigating gender perspectives on enterprising communities. The papers’ approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper introduces the special issue’s six articles with different approaches to investigating gender perspectives on enterprising communities. The papers’ approaches are presented and discussed, and the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how they relate to the two main concepts of gender and enterprising communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is conceptual.

Findings

Through the discussion of the articles, the concept of enterprising communities is found to be fuzzy and to contain a multitude of meanings. This paper elaborates on the community concept and its spatial and “of practice” dimensions.

Originality/value

First, the paper contributes by suggesting how the enterprising community concept could be delimited. Second, the research article contributes to gender perspectives on enterprising communities. It elaborates on what gendered enterprising communities are and how gender might influence enterprising communities.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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