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Article

Xiaowei Zhang and N.F. Maxemchuk

In multihop wireless networks, the number of neighbors has an important role in the network performance since links are dynamically formed between a node and its…

Abstract

Purpose

In multihop wireless networks, the number of neighbors has an important role in the network performance since links are dynamically formed between a node and its neighbors. This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper quantitatively studies the effects of the average number of neighbors in multihop wireless networks on the network connectivity, the number of hops needed to traverse a certain distance, which can be used to determine the hop diameter of a network, and the total energy consumed by packet transmission, which can be used to choose an optimum average number of neighbors that minimizes the energy consumption. This paper also presents an analysis of the energy consumption that can be applied to a wide range of access protocols and show the effect of a variety of factors.

Findings

Results show that the minimum average number of neighbors to guarantee the overall network connectivity depends on the size of a network coverage. There is a sharp knee in the network connectivity with decrease of the average number of neighbors, N. If the distance between a source and destination, d, is known, the number of hops needed to reach the destination is usually between d/R∼2d/R, where R is the transmission range. A larger average number of neighbors N leads to a smaller number of hops to traverse a certain distance, which in turn results in a smaller traffic load caused by relaying packets. However, a bigger N also causes more collisions when a contention medium access scheme is used, which leads to more energy consumed by packet transmission. The results show that the optimum N which minimizes the energy is obtained by balancing several factors affecting the energy.

Originality/value

The paper provides a useful study on the effects of the number of neighbors in multihop wireless networks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Ch Rajendra Prasad and Polaiah Bojja

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are used in the proposed protocols Model 1 and Model 2. Model 1 intends to improve the data transmission rate and Model 2 intends to reduce energy consumption in the WBANs. These models are simulated for fixed deployment and priority-based data transmission, and performance of the network is analyzed under four constraints on WBANs.

Design/methodology/approach

Advancements in wireless technology play a vital role in several applications such as electronic health care, entertainment and games. Though WBANs are widely used in digital health care, they have restricted battery capacity which affects network stability and data transmission. Therefore, several research studies focused on reducing energy consumption and maximizing the data transmission rate in WBANs.

Findings

Simulation results of the proposed protocol exhibit superior performance in terms of four network constraints such as residual energy, the stability of the network, path loss and data transmission rate in contrast with conventional routing protocols. The performance improvement of these parameters confirms that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and consumes less energy than traditional algorithms.

Originality/value

The Model 1 of the proposed work provides maximum data extraction, which ensures reliable data transmission in WBANs. The Model 2 allocates minimal hop count path between the sink and the sensor nodes, which minimizes energy consumption in the WBANs.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article

Natasha Ramluckun and Vandana Bassoo

With the increasing acclaim of Wireless Sensor Networks and its diverse applications, research has been directed into optimising and prolonging the network lifetime. Energy

Abstract

With the increasing acclaim of Wireless Sensor Networks and its diverse applications, research has been directed into optimising and prolonging the network lifetime. Energy efficiency has been a critical factor due to the energy resource impediment of batteries in sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm therefore aims at extending lifetime of sensors by enhancing load distribution in the network. The scheme is based on the chain-based routing technique of the PEGASIS (Power Energy GAthering in Sensor Information Systems) protocol and uses Ant Colony Optimisation to obtain the optimal chain. The contribution of the proposed work is the integration of the clustering method to PEGASIS with Ant Colony Optimisation to reduce redundancy of data, neighbour nodes distance and transmission delay associated with long links, and the employment an appropriate cluster head selection method. Simulation results indicates proposed method’s superiority in terms of residual energy along with considerable improvement regarding network lifetime, and significant reduction in delay when compared with existing PEGASIS protocol and optimised PEG-ACO chain respectively.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. 16 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article

Ouadoudi Zytoune, Youssef Fakhri and Driss Aboutajdine

Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) are a crucial challenge for which the goal is maximizing the system lifetime. Since the sensor nodes are with limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) are a crucial challenge for which the goal is maximizing the system lifetime. Since the sensor nodes are with limited capabilities, these routing protocols should be simple, scalable, energy‐efficient, and robust to deal with a very large number of nodes, and also self‐configurable to node failures and changes of the network topology dynamically. The purpose of this paper is to present a new algorithm for cluster forming in WSN based on the node energy required to transmit to the base station.

Design/methodology/approach

Rotation selection of cluster‐head considering the remoteness of the nodes to the sink, and the network node residual energy.

Findings

The simulation results show that this algorithm allows network stability extension compared to the most known clustering algorithm.

Originality/value

Giving a probability to become cluster‐head based on the remoteness of the node to the sink.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Chao Sha, Ruchuan Wang, Haiping Huang and Lijuan Sun

Energy consumption is a fundamental concern in wireless multimedia sensor networks, even more than that in traditional wireless sensor networks. In fact, sensors are…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy consumption is a fundamental concern in wireless multimedia sensor networks, even more than that in traditional wireless sensor networks. In fact, sensors are battery‐constrained devices, while multimedia applications, which require higher transmission rates and more extensive processing capacity, produce large quantities of data. The purpose of this paper is to propose a method which could save multimedia nodes' energy during their sleeping and transmitting phases and effectively bring down energy consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the location and direction angle of nodes, areas of the overlapping sensing region between adjacent nodes could be calculated and a sleeping strategy is carried out to reduce energy consumption of inactive nodes. Moreover, an improved image comparison and block transmission methods by utilizing the sequence similar detection arithmetic theory is brought up as well to further save the node's energy.

Findings

With the help of the mobile nodes and by dividing the network into grids, sensing direction of multimedia node as well as the area of the overlapping sensing region could be obtained which provide a basis for the sleeping strategy. Furthermore, energy consumption on transmission is also reduced by only transmitting the unmatched blocks. Simulation results show that this method obtains satisfactory performance on prolonging the networks' lifetime.

Originality/value

This paper is of value in presenting an effective energy‐saving strategy for wireless multimedia sensor networks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Maulin Patel, S. Venkateson and R. Chandrasekaran

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy

Abstract

A critical issue in the design of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks is the efficient utilization of resources such as scarce bandwidth and limited energy supply. Many routing schemes proposed in the literature try to minimize the energy consumed in routing or maximize the lifetime of the sensor network without taking into consideration limited capacities of nodes and wireless links. This can lead to congestion, increased delay, packet losses and ultimately to retransmission of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper presents a Minimum‐cost Capacity‐constrained Routing (MCCR) protocol which minimize the total energy consumed in routing while guaranteeing that the total load on each sensor node and on each wireless link does not exceed its capacity. The protocol is derived from polynomial‐time minimum‐cost flow algorithms. Therefore protocol is simple and scalable. The paper improves the routing protocol in (1) to incorporate integrality, node capacity and link capacity constraints. This improved protocol is called Maximum Lifetime Capacity‐constrained Routing (MLCR). The objective of MLCR protocol is to maximize the time until the first battery drains its energy subject to the node capacity and link capacity constraints. A strongly polynomial time algorithm is proposed for a special case of MLCR problem when the energy consumed in transmission by a sensor node is constant. Simulations are performed to analyzed the performance of the proposed protocols.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article

Nabeena Ameen, Najumnissa Jamal and Arun Raj

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook, but because of sensor's resource limitations and other prerequisites, optimal dual route discovery becomes an issue of concern. WSN along with central sink node is capable of handling wireless transmission, thus optimizing the network's lifetime by selecting the dual path. The major problem confronted in the application of security mechanisms in WSNs is resolving the issues amid reducing consumption of resources and increases security.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the proposed system, two metrics, namely, path length and packets delivery ratio are incorporated for identifying dual routes amid the source and destination. Thereafter by making use of the distance metric, the optimal dual route is chosen and data transmission is carried out amid the nodes. With the usage of the recommended routing protocol high packet delivery ratio is achieved with reduced routing overhead and low average end to end delay. It is clearly portrayed in the simulation output that the proposed on demand dual path routing protocol surpasses the prevailing routing protocol. Moreover, security is achieved make use of in accord the data compression reduces the size of the data. With the help of dual path, mathematical model of Finite Automata Theory is derived to transmit data from source to destination. Finite Automata Theory comprises Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) that is being utilized for Dual Path Selection. In addition, data transition functions are defined for each input stage. In this proposed work, another mathematical model is 10; introduced to efficiently choose an alternate path between a receiver and transmitter for data transfer with qualified node as relay node using RR Algorithm. It also includes Dynamic Mathematical Model for Node Localization to improve the precision in location estimation using Node Localization Algorithm. As a result a simulator is built and various scenarios are elaborated for comparing the performance of the recommended dual path routing protocol with respect to the prevailing ones.

Findings

Reliability and fault-tolerance: The actual motive in utilizing the approach of multipath routing in sensor network was to offer path resilience in case of a node or link failures thus ascertaining reliable transmission of data. Usually in a fault tolerant domain, when the sensor node is unable to forward the data packets to the sink, alternative paths can be utilized for recovering its data packets during the failure of any link/node. Load balancing: Load balancing involves equalizing energy consumption of all the existing nodes, thereby degrading them together. Load balancing via clustering improves network scalability. The network's lifetime as well as reliability can be extended if varied energy level's nodes exist in sensor node. Quality of service (QoS): Improvement backing of quality of service with respect to the data delivery ratio, network throughput and end-to-end latency stands very significant in building multipath routing protocols for various network types. Reduced delay: There is a reduced delay in multipath routing since the backup routes are determined at the time of route discovery. Bandwidth aggregation: By dividing the data toward the same destination into multiple streams (by routing all to a separate path) can aggregate the effective bandwidth. The benefit being that, in case a node possesses many links with low bandwidth, it can acquire a bandwidth which is more compared to the individual link.

Research limitations/implications

Few more new algorithms can be used to compare the QoS parameters.

Practical implications

Proposed mechanism with feedback ascertains improvised delivery ratio compared to the single path protocol since in case of link failure, the protocol has alternative route. In case there are 50 nodes in the network, the detection mechanism yields packet delivery of 95% and in case there are 100 nodes, the packet delivery is lowered to 89%. It is observed that the packet rate in the network is more for small node range. When the node count is 200, the packet ratio is low, which is lowered to 85%. With a node count of 400, the curve depicts the value of 87%. Hence, even with a decrease in value, it is superior than the existing protocols. The average end-to-end delay represents the transmission delay of the data packets that have been successfully delivered as depicted in Figure 6 and Table 3. The recommended system presents the queue as well as the propagation delay from the source to destination. The figure depicts that when compared to the single path protocol, the end-to-end delay can be reduced via route switching. End-to-end delay signifies the time acquired for the delay in the receival of the the retransmitted packet by each node. The comparison reveals that the delay was lower compared to the existing ones in the WSN. Proposed protocol aids in reducing consumption of energy in transmitter, receiver and various sensors. Comparative analysis of energy consumptions of the sensor in regard to the recommended system must exhibit reduced energy than the prevailing systems.

Originality/value

On demand dual path routing protocol. Hence it is verified that the on demand routing protocol comprises DFA algorithms determines dual path. Here mathematical model for routing between two nodes with relay node is derived using RR algorithm to determine alternate path and thus reduce energy consumption. Another dynamic mathematical model for node localization is derived using localization algorithm. For transmitting data with a secure and promising QoS in the WSNs, the routing optimization technique has been introduced. The simulation software environment follows the DFA. The simulation yields in improvised performance with respect to packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end-to-end delay and routing overhead. So, it is proved that the DFA possesses the capability of optimizing the routing algorithms which facilitates the multimedia applications over WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article

Anurag K. Srivastava, Sukumar Kamalasadan, Daxa Patel, Sandhya Sankar and Khalid S. Al‐Olimat

The electric power industry has been moving from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated market structure in many countries. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The electric power industry has been moving from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated market structure in many countries. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the existing markets to study advantages, issues involved and lessons learnt to benefit emerging electricity markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a comprehensive review of existing competitive electricity market models in USA (California), UK, Australia, Nordic Countries (Norway), and developing country (Chile) to analyze the similarities, differences, weaknesses, and strengths among these markets based on publically available data, literature review and information.

Findings

Ongoing or forthcoming electricity sector restructuring activities in some countries can be better designed based on lessons learnt from existing markets and incorporating their own political, technical and economical contexts. A template for design of successful electricity market has also been presented.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to a comparative analysis of five markets and can be extended in the future for other existing and emerging electricity markets.

Practical implications

The discussed weaknesses and strengths of existing electricity markets in this study can be practically utilized to improve the electricity industry market structures leading to several social benefits including lower electricity cost.

Originality/value

The comprehensive review and analysis of five existing markets, physically located in different continents, may be used as an assistance or reference guide to benefit the emerging electricity markets in other countries.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Content available
Article

Aaqil Somauroo and Vandana Bassoo

Due to its boundless potential applications, Wireless Sensor Networks have been subject to much research in the last two decades. WSNs are often deployed in remote…

Abstract

Due to its boundless potential applications, Wireless Sensor Networks have been subject to much research in the last two decades. WSNs are often deployed in remote environments making replacement of batteries not feasible. Low energy consumption being of prime requisite led to the development of energy-efficient routing protocols. The proposed routing algorithms seek to prolong the lifetime of sensor nodes in the relatively unexplored area of 3D WSNs. The schemes use chain-based routing technique PEGASIS as basis and employ genetic algorithm to build the chain instead of the greedy algorithm. Proposed schemes will incorporate an energy and distance aware CH selection technique to improve load balancing. Clustering of the network is also implemented to reduce number of nodes in a chain and hence reduce delay. Simulation of our proposed protocols is carried out for homogeneous networks considering separately cases for a static base-station inside and outside the network. Results indicate considerable improvement in lifetime over PEGASIS of 817% and 420% for base station inside and outside the network respectively. Residual energy and delay performance are also considered.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article

Shiow‐Fen Hwang, Kun‐Hsien Lu, Tsung‐Hsiang Chang and Chyi‐Ren Dow

This paper aims to balance the total energy consumption and the transmission delay for data gathering application in wireless sensor networks.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to balance the total energy consumption and the transmission delay for data gathering application in wireless sensor networks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a hierarchical grid structure to reduce the total energy consumption, and utilizes a tree architecture to decrease the transmission delay.

Findings

In the results, the proposed method performs better, in terms of the number of rounds and the energy × delay cost, than other data gathering protocols with different network sizes and node densities. Moreover, the proposed method also provides good coverage preservation in different environments.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, sensor nodes are assumed to be uniformly distributed, homogenous, energy‐constrained. Each sensor node also has ability to adjust its transmission power. For practice, the proposed method needs location information of sensor nodes and the radio interference between sensor nodes during data transmissions should be considered.

Practical implications

The proposed method can significantly reduce the delay time and may be suitable for real‐time data gathering applications.

Originality/value

This paper combines hierarchical grid structure with tree architecture to minimize the energy × delay cost for data gathering application.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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