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Inefficiencies in the power sector resulting from underinvesting and underselling reduce the ability of governments to adequately finance energy projects. The purpose of…
Inefficiencies in the power sector resulting from underinvesting and underselling reduce the ability of governments to adequately finance energy projects. The purpose of this paper is to explore mechanisms of energy financing, benefits and challenges associated with innovative financing of energy infrastructure as well as strategies to improve innovative financing of energy infrastructure.
Questionnaires were used to elicit responses from respondents. Seventy-eight responses were retrieved. Mean score ranking, Kruskal–Wallis test and discriminant validity were the analysis conducted.
Partial credit guarantee; partial risk guarantee; credit enhancement; and loan guarantees were the significant mechanisms. Production efficiency; reduce pressure on public budgets; access to management expertise; and self-sustainability of infrastructure facilities were the significant benefits. Lack of transparency and adequate data for risk assessment; high up-front cost; heterogeneity, complexity, and presence of a large number of parties; and lack of a clear benchmark for measuring investment performance were the severest challenges. Complete transparency and accountability; political stability and public view on private provision of energy infrastructure services; and macroeconomic environment were the significant strategies.
This study is beneficial to energy sector as the current government of Ghana hints on willingness to involve private sector in management of the power sector.
The novelty of this study is that it is a pioneering study in Ghana on innovative financing of energy infrastructure.
Over the past three decades, new off-grid electrification infrastructures – as micro-grids and other solar solutions – have moved from innovative initiatives, conducted by…
Over the past three decades, new off-grid electrification infrastructures – as micro-grids and other solar solutions – have moved from innovative initiatives, conducted by NGOs and private stakeholders, to a credible model promoted by international organizations for electrification of rural areas in developing countries. Multiple conditions support their spread: major technological advances in the field of renewable energies (panels, batteries), intensive Chinese industrial production allowing lower prices, institutional reforms in Africa including these solutions in major national electrification programmes, and, finally, an opening to the private sector as a supposed guarantee of the projects’ viability. However, while the development of this market calls for significant investments, a vast set of calculations and a strong “micro-capitalist” doctrine, all involved in their design, experts admit that a large proportion of projects hardly survive or even fail.
This chapter investigates these failures by exploring the ecology of such infrastructures, designed for “the poor.” It discusses “thinking infrastructures” in terms of longevity by focusing on economic failures risks. The authors argue that the ecology of the infrastructure integrates various economic conversions and exchanges chains expected to participate in the infrastructure’s functioning. By following energy access solutions for rural Africa in sub-regions of Senegal and Madagascar, from their political and technical design to their ordinary life, the authors examine the tensions and contradictions embedded within the scripts of balance supposed to guarantee their success.
The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies…
The chapter analyses the role of smart grid technology in the German energy transition. Information technologies promise to help integrate volatile renewable energies (wind and solar power) into the grid. Yet, the promise of intelligent infrastructures does not only extend to technological infrastructures, but also to market infrastructures. Smart grid technologies underpin and foster the design of a “smart” electricity market, where dispersed energy prosumers can adapt, in real time, to fluctuating price signals that register changes in electricity generation. This could neutralize fluctuations resulting from the increased share of renewables. To critically “think” the promise of smart infrastructure, it is not enough to just focus on digital devices. Rather, it becomes necessary to scrutinize economic assumptions about the “intelligence” of markets and the technopolitics of electricity market design. This chapter will first show the historical trajectory of the technopolitical promise of renewable energy as not only a more sustainable, but also a more democratic alternative to fossil and nuclear power, by looking at the affinities between market liberal and ecological critiques of centralized fossil and nuclear based energy systems. It will then elucidate the co-construction of smart grids and smart markets in the governmental plans for an “electricity market 2.0.” Finally, the chapter will show how smart grid and smart metering technology fosters new forms of economic agency like the domo oeconomicus. Such an economic formatting of smart grid technology, however, forecloses other ecologically prudent and politically progressive ways of constructing and engaging with intelligent infrastructures.
The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS…
The purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. The effect is examined for each country separately and also collectively by combining each country.
Ordinary least square regression method is applied to examine the effects of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth for each country. Panel data techniques such as panel least square method, panel least square fixed-effect model and panel least square random effect model are used to examine the collective impact by combining all countries in BRICS. The dynamic panel model is also incorporated for analysis in the study.
The results of the study are mixed. The association between infrastructure investment and development and economic growth for countries within BRICS is not robust. There is an insignificant relationship between infrastructure investment and development and economic growth in Brazil and South Africa. Energy and transportation infrastructure investment and development lead to economic growth in Russia. Telecommunication infrastructure investment and development and economic growth have a negative relationship in India, whereas there is a negative association between transport infrastructure investment and development and economic growth in China. Panel data results conclude that energy infrastructure investment and development lead to economic growth, whereas telecommunication infrastructure investment and development are significant and negatively linked with economic growth.
The study is novel as time series analysis and panel data analysis are used, taking the time span for 38 years (1980–2017) to investigate the influence of infrastructure investment and development on economic growth in BRICS Countries. Time-series regression analysis is used to test the impact for individual countries separately, whereas panel data regression analysis is used to examine the impact collectively for all countries in BRICS.
The purpose of this paper is to shed light to the concept of solar electricity transfer from North Africa to Europe in the frame of Article 9 of the European Renewable…
The purpose of this paper is to shed light to the concept of solar electricity transfer from North Africa to Europe in the frame of Article 9 of the European Renewable Energy Sources (EU-RES) Directive 28/2009/EC, to explain why efforts have not been successful up to now and to provide recommendations on how to proceed.
The authors have compared the “Supergrid” concept that was pursued by some institutions in the past years with the original “TRANS-CSP” concept developed by the German Aerospace Centre in 2006. From this analysis, the authors could identify not only major barriers but also possible ways towards successful implementation.
The authors found that in contrast to the Supergrid approach, the original concept of exporting dispatchable solar power from concentrating solar thermal power stations with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) via point-to-point high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission directly to European centres of demand could be a resilient business case for Europe–North Africa cooperation, as it provides added value in both regions.
The analysis has been made in the frame of the BETTER project commissioned by the Executive Agency for Competitiveness & Innovation in the frame of the program Intelligent Energy Europe.
One of the major implications found is that due to the time lost in the past years by following a distracted concept, the option of flexible solar power imports from North Africa to Europe is not any more feasible to become part of the 2020 supply scheme.
To make them a viable option for post-2020 renewable energy systems for electricity development in Europe, a key recommendation of the project is to elaborate a detailed feasibility study about concrete CSP-HVDC links urgently.
The analysis presented here is the first to give concrete recommendations for the implementation of such infrastructure.
- Blended finance
- electrification rate
- digital finance
- grid connection
- independent power producers
- industrial revolution
- off-grid connection
- power outage
- renewable energy
- solar PVs
- sustainable development goals
- United Nations sustainable energy for all initiative
- universal access
Investment in power and electricity generation for replacing aging infrastructure with new represents a major challenge for developing countries. This paper therefore aims…
Investment in power and electricity generation for replacing aging infrastructure with new represents a major challenge for developing countries. This paper therefore aims to examine infrastructure projects’ characteristics and how socio-political and economic investment environments interplay to influence the degree of private sector participation (PPP) in infrastructure delivery in Ghana.
Using World Bank Public-private infrastructure advisory facility (PPIAF) and private participation in infrastructure (PPI) project database data from 1994 to 2013, binary logistic regression was used to: determine the probability of a higher or lower degree of PPP; and examine the significance of factors that are determinants of private investments.
The findings reveal that the private sector is more likely to invest in a higher degree of PPP infrastructure projects through greenfield and concession vehicles as opposed to management and leasing contracts. From the extant literature, drivers of PPP included infrastructure project characteristics and the social–economic–political health of the host country. However, the significance, direction and magnitude of these drivers vary.
This paper identifies investment drivers to PPP advisors and project managers and seeks to engender discussion among government policymakers responsible for promoting and managing PPP projects. Direction for future work seeks to explore competitive routes to infrastructure debt and equity finance options that finance energy projects.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relevance and use of the concept “reverse salient” in ambitious infrastructural change. Thomas Hughes, in his seminal study…
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the relevance and use of the concept “reverse salient” in ambitious infrastructural change. Thomas Hughes, in his seminal study of socio-technical system building, observed that the elimination of “reverse salients”, i.e. subsystems that because of their limited performance hold back further development, was a central driver for creativity and innovation. It is argued that in sustainable infrastructural transformations, however, reverse salients that resist change are more often neglected than addressed.
Higher education institution campuses combine laboratory-like conditions and sufficient internal complexity to be used as test-beds for ambitious sustainable change in the built environment. In this article, a neglected barrier to the transformation of a small campus into a zero emission campus is revealed, described and addressed.
In terms of substantive findings, first, it is demonstrated how parts of infrastructures that – often for good reasons – have been neglected in efforts to reduce climate impacts can be identified with the help of a historical exploration of the site and through close collaboration with local facilities managers. Second, a temporary low-tech intervention is presented that addressed the critical problems related to these “reverse salients”.
The limitations of a case study approach apply to this study. Particular caution has to be exercised in terms of generalisation. Moreover, the intervention would benefit greatly from stricter control and additional iterations of the intervention which have not yet been performed.
In addition to technology-focussed, top-down initiatives, which often struggle with actually reaching their ambitious goals in routine operation, neglected parts of campuses can contribute greatly to energy and emissions reductions. Moreover, it is demonstrated that and how local technical personnel has an important part to play in infrastructural transformations.
Concepts developed in the study of socio-technical system building have not yet been applied in the study and practice of sustainable infrastructural transformation. Their contribution is demonstrated. Moreover, living labs are notoriously difficult to evaluate. In this case study, processes and effects of an innovative living lab intervention are described and analysed. This enables a better understanding of restrictions and possibilities of experimenting in real-life settings.