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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2008

Cameron M. Ford and Diane M. Sullivan

Entrepreneurship research has grown in both quality and quantity over the past decade, as many theoretical innovations and important empirical research findings have been…

Abstract

Entrepreneurship research has grown in both quality and quantity over the past decade, as many theoretical innovations and important empirical research findings have been introduced to the field. However, theoretical approaches to understanding entrepreneurship remain fragmented, and empirical findings are unstable across different contexts. This chapter describes features of a multi-level process view of new venture emergence that adds coherence to the entrepreneurship theory jungle and brings order to idiosyncratic empirical results, by explaining how ideas become organized into new ventures. The centerpiece of this effort is enactment theory, a general process approach specifically developed to explain organizing processes. Enactment theory – and Campbellian evolutionary theorizing more generally – has a long history of use within and across multiple levels of analysis. Consequently, the description here illustrates how organizing unfolds across multiple levels of analysis and multiple phases of development. After describing the theorizing assumptions and multi-level process view of new venture organizing, the chapter explores implications of applying this perspective by suggesting new research directions and interpretations of prior work. The aim is to advocate process theorizing as a more productive approach to understanding new venture emergence.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-553-6

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Marcos Paulo Valadares de Oliveira and Robert Handfield

The purpose of this study is to examine supplier financial risk through the lens of Enactment Theory, to explore the role of transparency and communication on buyers…

1363

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine supplier financial risk through the lens of Enactment Theory, to explore the role of transparency and communication on buyers’ perceptions of supplier default risk. The authors develop a theoretical model proposing that buyer communication with suppliers leads to preemptive actions that may prevent supplier financial default and fewer supply disruptions. The results suggest that reducing equivocality in buyers through communication with suppliers leads to understanding of financial factors not captured through third-party financial indicators, leading to proactive risk mitigation activities that prevent disruptions during recessionary economic cycles. This research proposes that transparency and communication reduces equivocality in buyers, spurring them to take contractual actions that reduces, financial default in key suppliers, which leads to fewer supply disruptions.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data collected from 175 firms in the North America and Brazil during a period of the global recession is used to test the impact of communication with suppliers on supply chain disruptions in periods of economic crisis. This relationship is mediated by proactive contract renegotiation and supplier financial health, supporting a model grounded in Enactment Theory.

Findings

Results show that buyers who regularly assess and develop an understanding of their key suppliers’ financial conditions are more likely to re-negotiate contracts that revise payment terms, leading to improved supplier working capital and fewer supply chain disruptions.

Research limitations/implications

Validation of industry-specific financial ratios and figures could provide a richer set of insights and some quantitative measures for establishing baseline on what levels of financial ratios actually result in disruptions. However, future research should consider using a cross-sectional sample and, in addition, a qualitative approach to capture risk from a greater variety of industries and supply chain dynamics.

Originality/value

The notion of effective communication flows as a means for reduction of supplier disruption risk is aligned with Enactment Theory views that emphasize the benefits of risk reduction. Equivocality is reduced in buyers through information exchange and formal assessments in complex environments. This research suggests that while such communication does not have a direct effect on supply disruption risk, it is mediated through proactive buyer actions to improve supplier financial health and contract re-negotiation mechanisms that may preempt financial distress. These are important lessons learned that provide guidelines for supply chain executives in future economic recessions that may occur in the coming years.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Storytelling-Case Archetype Decoding and Assignment Manual (SCADAM)
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-216-0

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2018

Francois Bernard Duhamel, Isis Gutiérrez-Martínez, Sergio Picazo-Vela and Luis Luna-Reyes

Collaborations between public administrations and private sector represent a specific challenge to manage contractual and organizational relationships among partners with…

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborations between public administrations and private sector represent a specific challenge to manage contractual and organizational relationships among partners with different goals, working cultures, norms, rules and processes. Therefore, the main research question of this paper is: What are the antecedents of effective collaboration in public-private IT outsourcing relations? Thus, the purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of collaborative interface characteristics as scaffolding structures to manage public-private IT outsourcing relations effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Two cases of public-private IT outsourcing relationships in Mexico were used to compare and contrast the main antecedents of collaborative interface characteristics. Case selection was based on the success in each case, as perceived by the collaborating members involved. A successful case and a less successful case of application development for the provision of public services from two state administrations in Mexico were chosen. Data gathering took place via face-to-face interviews.

Findings

The quality of the organizational interface depends on the interactions between exchange of knowledge and mutual trust, along with the commitment between partners. Trust, commitment and knowledge sharing interacted to enhance interface characteristics that have an impact on public and political values.

Research limitations/implications

This paper used and extended an outsourcing technology enactment model to emphasize the quality of organizational interfaces as a main antecedent for the success of public-private IT outsourcing relations.

Practical implications

Effectively designing work practices and contracts implies the development of flexible contracts, objects and routines to adjust project requirements to fulfill better public-private goals. Such flexible contracts and practices are only possible in a trusting environment where participants shape their mutual understanding of the project.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on public-private IT outsourcing relationships by offering a theoretical framework on key antecedents and processes of success of these relationships.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Wing Lam

The aim of this paper is to make sense of the “funding gap” by exploring how and why informal entrepreneurial finance is made available to entrepreneurs. By challenging…

14538

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to make sense of the “funding gap” by exploring how and why informal entrepreneurial finance is made available to entrepreneurs. By challenging the epistemological and ontological assumptions of the “funding gap”, an enactment perspective of entrepreneurial finance, supported by a social constructionist stance, is proposed in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The study on which this paper reports was conducted through a longitudinal fieldwork process. Networks in two Chinese cities, Shanghai and Hong Kong, were chosen because of their differences in institutional context yet exceptionally high level of entrepreneurial activities.

Findings

This paper highlights the active role entrepreneurs play in managing their financial needs in the process of new venture creation. The results show that entrepreneurs are actively managing the demand as well as supply of entrepreneurial finance to narrow the “funding gap”. Furthermore, individuals work to fill the funding gap by creating required start‐up capital. In other words, the “funding gap” is not static or concrete; rather it is dynamic, manageable and in many cases is within individuals' power and ability to overcome.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper are particularly important to all stakeholders, including policy makers, educators, researchers, entrepreneurs and nascent entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the conceptual, methodological and practical knowledge in advancing understanding of the “funding gap”. First, it provides insight into the relationship between entrepreneurs and their environment that shapes the “funding gap”. Second, the findings suggested that a positive, supportive enterprise culture can be particularly useful in driving individuals towards entrepreneurship. Third, in terms of methodology, the author argues that an “inside‐looking‐lout”, interpretive, multi‐stage fieldwork and network as unit of analysis is particularly distinctive in revealing the complex process of managing entrepreneurial finance in the process of new venture creation.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes and Solimun

This study aims to (1) examine the mediating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance, and (2) examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to (1) examine the mediating effect of strategic orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance, and (2) examine the mediating effect of innovations on the effect of environmental uncertainties on performance of the business in the aviation industry in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design was conducted through a survey, and the testing form was carried out using “Relationship Causal Studies” or a study to analyze the causality among environmental uncertainties, strategic orientation, innovations and performance of branches/stations of airlines in the Indonesian aviation industry. The sample was selected by determining the number of branches/stations of the Indonesian airlines to be selected into the sample, then more than one unit managers were selected as respondents representing their respective branches/stations. The number of the target sample in this study was 250 branches. Techniques used to address the hypotheses of the present study were Descriptive Analysis and Structural Model Analysis. The inferential statistical analysis focuses on the subject of the analysis and data interpretation to draw conclusions.

Findings

These research findings provide a contextual overview of the aviation industry in Indonesia that activities to make innovations in airline branches play a vital role in encouraging business performance. Moreover, the analysis shows that the more innovative a branch the better its business performance. This corroborates the finding (Spacapan and Bastic, 2007; Talke, 2007) that being highly innovative can ensure sustainable and long-term business performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this research suggest that innovations mediate the effect of environmental uncertainties on business performance. These findings corroborate the results of previous studies that suitability between strategic orientation and innovations of a company in response to environmental uncertainties will affect performance of the company (Li and Gima, 2001; Manu, 1992). These findings also strengthen the view that companies with a higher level of innovations (innovative) have better business performance and competitive advantages (Kessler and Chakrabarty, 1996; Salavou et al., 2004; Spacapan and Bastic, 2007). Furthermore, based on findings, it can be interpreted that management that is able to overcome barriers to innovations, maximize innovation resources and achieve the target of innovations in the form of creation of better products/services will have better performance. The ability of the management to identify and overcome barriers to innovations and maximize the sources of innovation will generate products or services that can be accepted by the customers and eventually these products and services will be able to compete with better business performance (Blumentritt and Danis, 2006).

Practical implications

Findings of this research indicate the positive and significant mediating effect between environmental uncertainties on business performance, through the mediation of innovations, competitive conditions of the industrial environment which can encourage organizations to evolutionarily be more innovative in managing business to compete in the long term (Franke, 2007). This is also consistent with the theory of evolutionary economics (Nelson and Winter, 2000) that the old strategy may not suit the changes in the environment, and therefore companies should continue to seek new breakthroughs with persistent improvement and innovations.

Social implications

Dynamic and competitive conditions of the industrial environment require organizations to more intensively explore sources (capabilities) of innovations and accelerate generation of the innovations (Franke, 2007; Berry et al., 2006; Dobni, 2006; Davila et al., 2006; Spacapan and Bastic, 2007). Contextually, it appears that the competitive conditions of the aviation industry in either the short term or in the long term require business actors to be more innovative and to survive (Franke, 2007).

Originality/value

Innovations in business models as a new effort in improvisation specific to the business stage of the basic model (not very valuable) become more advanced business processes to produce products that are more valuable for consumers, at a more efficient cost with better profitability (Chesbrough, 2007b). So far, research on the role of innovations in response to environmental uncertainties and implementation of strategies to improve the performance of the environment-strategy-performance (ESP) model is still done partially so that there is no comprehensive model to describe the role of innovations in this ESP model, or let us say that a gap between theories and opportunities to do further research on the role of innovations in the ESP model exists.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Chantal van Esch, William Luse and Robert L. Bonner

This study examined the effects of gender and pandemic concerns on mentorship seeking behavior during the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the effects of gender and pandemic concerns on mentorship seeking behavior during the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its relationship to self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the data collected from 253 academics in a quantitative survey administered online.

Findings

Women and those with higher levels of concern about the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to seek mentorship. During this time of uncertainty role modeling was sought more than career support and psychosocial support. All three functions of mentorship seeking were positively associated with higher levels of self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The present study finds that individuals turn to mentors when they are concerned about macro-level events (e.g. a global pandemic). Additionally, individuals who self-identify as women sought mentorship to a greater extent than men. In this way, it is not only the situation that matters (like women having fewer resources and more demands than men) but also the perception of a situation (like how concerned individuals were about the COVID-19 pandemic). Additionally, this paper helps to further develop the understanding of the mentorship function of role modeling.

Practical implications

Organizations and mentors ought to be cognizant of role modeling during times of crisis, especially for women, this may be counterintuitive to the inclination to provide career and psychosocial support for mentees.

Originality/value

This study examines the gendered implications for mentoring during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study specifically examines mentorship seeking behavior and its influence on self-efficacy during uncertain times.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Mary B. Curtis and Eileen Z. Taylor

This study aims to examine how public accounting firms can use developmental mentoring to increase knowledge sharing (KS) among employees directly and indirectly through…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how public accounting firms can use developmental mentoring to increase knowledge sharing (KS) among employees directly and indirectly through affective organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a survey of public accounting professionals to elicit participants’ demographics and their perceptions of KS, mentoring relationships and organizational commitment in their workplace.

Findings

The findings support that two categories of challenges found in developmental mentoring, demonstrating dedication and resilience and career goal and risk orientation, are directly associated with increased KS and they, along with a third, measuring up to mentor’s standards, indirectly influence KS through their positive effect on organizational commitment. Applying social exchange theory, these challenges contribute to a reciprocal relationship between the protégé and mentor, which builds the relationship between the protégé and organization.

Practical implications

This study provides information about developmental mentoring that human resource professionals and managers in public accounting firms can use to address two persistent challenges facing them: increasing employees’ organizational commitment and encouraging employees to share their knowledge with others at work.

Originality/value

This study examines the concept of developmental mentoring, adopting three categories of mentoring challenges and applying them in the context of public accounting to examine their effect on KS.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

David Starr‐Glass

This article, which is conceptual and exploratory in nature, aims to examine the use of sustained liminality in the initiation phase of the mentoring relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This article, which is conceptual and exploratory in nature, aims to examine the use of sustained liminality in the initiation phase of the mentoring relationship. Liminality is the non‐structured transitional phase in transformative cultural and social change: a place betwixt‐and‐between, where previous and future norms are suspended. The article argues that providing an explicit liminal phase in mentoring relationships allows mentor and mentees to consider the nature of the relationship and the eventual process through which its goals might be accomplished.

Design/methodology/approach

The article reflects on experiences gained in using a liminal approach to the mentoring process with distance transnational mentees. It presents the case for the use of what is termed threshold work in addressing the transition from non‐mentored to mentored status. It understands mentoring as a ritual enactment that requires a reassessment of cultural assumptions for participants with differing national identities.

Findings

The article is conceptual in nature and presents only anecdotal outcomes derived from informal discussion with mentees. It argues that, based on these initial experiences, more evidence‐based research might be usefully conducted to examine the effect of a liminal approach on the mentoring process, at both relational and outcomes levels, particularly when mentor and mentee are distanced spatially and by national culture.

Originality/value

This article presents a novel perspective for approaching the initiation phase of the mentoring process. Although used in other contexts, liminality is infrequently employed in mentoring. The utilization of liminality may be particularly valuable in approaching novice mentees who have different national cultural backgrounds and prior educational experiences. As such, the article provides useful insights for practitioners, especially in academic environments.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2020

David Swanson, Lakshmi Goel, Kristoffer Francisco and James Stock

General theories have been criticized for their inability to explore the mechanics of more specific domain knowledge and understand how, when and where general theory

Abstract

Purpose

General theories have been criticized for their inability to explore the mechanics of more specific domain knowledge and understand how, when and where general theory applies to and extends domain knowledge in supply chain management (SCM). Middle-range theorizing (MRT) is a potential solution to this limitation. This paper aims to assist researchers in understanding the relationship between MRT and general theorizing (GT) and connecting MRT research findings to general theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This research provides a structured literature review of 518 articles, from eight journals in logistics, SCM and operations management. Theoretically based articles are analyzed by primary domain and SCM context.

Findings

There are frameworks for conducting MRT; however, the literature does not sufficiently assist researchers in understanding how middle-range (MR) theory should relate to general theory. Findings include a better understanding of underserved areas in SCM, guideline frameworks for understanding when to apply MRT, when to apply GT and how MRT knowledge can be connected to SCM domain knowledge.

Originality/value

This study provides a timely and appropriate compilation of theory research in SCM, including significant implications for both theory and practice, by helping to articulate the evolving philosophy of science in SCM.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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