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Maciej Duszczyk and Kamil Matuszczyk

The main purpose of the chapter is to explain the impact of labour market security on migration-related decisions, especially in terms of push-pull factors theory. There…

Abstract

The main purpose of the chapter is to explain the impact of labour market security on migration-related decisions, especially in terms of push-pull factors theory. There are different ways to understand work-related security; the chapter discusses the importance of job security, employment security and income security from labour migration perspective. The article presents the existing body of literature on theoretical concepts as well as on some methodological facets of the measurements of the level of particular aspects of work-related security. Special attention is paid to labour migrants in terms of their working conditions in both sending and receiving countries. An overview of previous migration studies proves that the issue of migrants’ labour market security was not the subject of any in-depth analyses. There are, however, many examples of research showing that, under certain conditions, migration decisions are influenced by, among others, the generosity of a welfare state, stability of job and the desire to achieve the so-called normal life. In the case of migrants from third countries (e.g. from Ukraine), income security is of particular importance alongside remuneration.

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Book part

Kamil Matuszczyk

The aim of the chapter is a comparative analysis of the level of labour market security in four countries representing different social models: the United Kingdom…

Abstract

The aim of the chapter is a comparative analysis of the level of labour market security in four countries representing different social models: the United Kingdom, Germany, Poland and Ukraine. For this purpose, Eurostat, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), European Social Survey (ESS) and European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) data were used. They allowed to show significant differences which occurred in 2004–2017 in the situation of the employees in the analysed countries. The analysis showed that employees in both the United Kingdom and Germany are characterised by a relatively high level of labour market security, but such security is provided in two different ways – in the former country employment security is more important, while job security prevails in the latter. Despite a significant improvement in employment conditions in Poland and Ukraine, the objective and subjective situation of employees there remains much worse than is the case in Germany and the United Kingdom. All the differences between the studied countries confirm the thesis regarding the flows of migrant workers seeking a satisfactory level of labour market security.

Details

Why Do People Migrate?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-747-3

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Article

Juan-Francisco Martínez-Cerdá, Joan Torrent-Sellens and Inés González-González

The purpose of this paper is to prove that e-learning, in union with another variable, builds a statistically significant relationship for estimating improvements in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prove that e-learning, in union with another variable, builds a statistically significant relationship for estimating improvements in employment security, i.e., transition to employment of the same or higher job security as the previous year.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from Eurostat 2007-2013 in 28 European countries, and after carrying out analysis of 261 regression models between the e-learning variable, along with another variable related to working conditions, education, or e-skills levels of citizens.

Findings

This study provides evidence about: there is a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.05) between employment security (dependent variable), e-learning and another variable (independent variables) in 60.7 percent of 28 European countries analyzed (p-value<0.05 for at least one of these two independent variables); and there is a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.05) in 75 percent of 28 countries (p-value<0.1 for at least one of these two independent variables). Consequently, a set with the minimum number of useful indicators for calculating the employment security is proposed: e-learning, labor transition, tertiary education, temporary employees, e-job search and e-skills.

Practical implications

Moreover, several similarities between studied countries are found, helping to formulate various recommendations based on complementarities between being an employee and using lifelong e-learning systems as a way for improving employment security.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to provide evidence of the relationship between e-learning and job security in Europe, in view of this, it should be considered as a key element and essential to any European policy related to work.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article

Jacob Nunoo, Kwabena Nkansah Darfor, Isaac Koomson and Abigail Arthur

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of employment security on moonlighting in Ghana as a means to inform policy on enforcing issues of employment security.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of employment security on moonlighting in Ghana as a means to inform policy on enforcing issues of employment security.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper followed the work of Shishko and Rostker (1976) by applying their approach to the sixth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey data. The paper created an employment index from four variables and used the ordered logit as the main estimation technique.

Findings

The findings indicated that, as a person with a single job becomes more secured in employment, the likelihood of moonlighting is decreased by 0.03, while for those with two and three or more jobs, the likelihood of moonlighting increased by 0.0297 and 0.0008, respectively, with increasing employment security. This implies that, workers can be made to stick to single jobs by providing them with higher levels of employment security, but once they take on two or more jobs, providing them with employment security will engender the tendency to increase their moonlighting behavior the more.

Originality/value

With the current harsh economic conditions in the country and the urgent need for multiple jobs (moonlighting) as a risk coping mechanism, little has been done on the role employment security plays as a catalyst or otherwise. This paper fills the gap by employing a comprehensive index on employment security in the case of Ghana.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Peace Kumah, Winfred Yaokumah and Eric Saviour Aryee Okai

This study aims to develop a conceptual model and assess the extent to which pre-, during- and post-employment HR security controls are applied in organizations to manage…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a conceptual model and assess the extent to which pre-, during- and post-employment HR security controls are applied in organizations to manage information security risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model is developed based on the agency theory and the review of theoretical, empirical and practitioner literature. Following, empirical data are collected through a survey from 134 IT professionals, internal audit personnel and HR managers working within five major industry sectors in a developing country to test the organizational differences in pre-, during- and post-employment HR security measures.

Findings

Using analysis of variance, the findings reveal significant differences among the organizations. Financial institutions perform better in employee background checks, terms and conditions of employment, management responsibilities, security education, training and awareness and disciplinary process. Conversely, healthcare institutions outperform other organizations in post-employment security management. The government public institutions perform the worst among all the organizations.

Originality/value

An integration of a conceptual model with HR security controls is an area that is under-researched and under-reported in information security and human resource management literature. Accordingly, this research on HR security management contributes to reducing such a gap and adds to the existing HR security risk management literature. It, thereby, provides an opportunity for researchers to conduct comparative studies between developed and developing nations or to benchmark a specific organization’s HR security management.

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Book part

Partha Gangopadhyay, Agung Suwandaru and Walid Bakry

Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social…

Abstract

Public employment in India is often viewed as a source of job security. Hence, public employment seems to propel human security in India away from poverty and social exclusion. In the recent work, a significant attention has been accorded to understand how globalisation has impacted on job security and thereby human security in many developing countries. The literature revolves around two opposing effects of globalisation on the human security in a country: firstly, the efficiency hypothesis posits that globalisation tends to reduce the size of the government of a country to enable the country to attain comparative advantage for gainfully trading in the global economy. A reduction in the capacity of the government is argued to lead to a decline in public employment and, hence, a decline in human security with rising globalisation. Secondly, the compensation hypothesis argues that the size of government, and hence public employment, will increase with globalisation mainly to suitably manage a domestic economy in a complex global setting with an increased role of government for creating social stability and social security. Depending on the relative strengths of the mutually opposing forces of globalisation on public employment, the impact of globalisation on the human security of a country is ambiguous. A gap in the existing literature is a lack of documentation of the Indian experience. In this work, the authors seek to empirically test if globalisation has increased, or decreased, job security in India.

Details

New Frontiers in Conflict Management and Peace Economics: With a Focus on Human Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-426-5

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Book part

Maciej A. Górecki, Kamil Matuszczyk and Monika Stec

The main aim of this chapter is to analyse the impact of labour market security on contemporary Polish labour migrants’ choices and perceptions of their destination…

Abstract

The main aim of this chapter is to analyse the impact of labour market security on contemporary Polish labour migrants’ choices and perceptions of their destination countries. Qualitative and quantitative empirical data were used to explain the differences between two main states enjoying popularity as destination countries for the migrants from Poland: the United Kingdom and Germany. The concepts of Varieties of Capitalism and of social models were used to explain differences between the analysed countries. Presented data confirm that some of the migrants choose countries where they can accomplish labour market security through job security (i.e. Germany), while others find their way better in countries where the model based on employment security is favoured (i.e. the United Kingdom). Special attention was also paid to Ukrainian workers in Poland, who prefer some elements of employment security alongside income security.

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Abstract

Details

Why Do People Migrate?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-747-3

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Abstract

Purpose

Young adults are living and working in uncertain economic climates and increasingly exposed to precarious work. Are preferences for job security and actual job stability a result of proximal conditions, or do experiences in adolescence also play a role? The adolescent’s environment and experiences may help explain differences in preferences with regards to stable work, as well as work outcomes in early adulthood.

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, I use data from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test three facets of the adolescent experience between ages 14 and 18 – parental work and educational characteristics, adolescents’ academic achievement, and youth employment – as factors shaping (1) respondents’ preferences for stable employment, (2) respondents’ perceived job insecurity, and (3) respondents’ likelihood of being in nonstandard work in early adulthood, age 31–32, approximately 15 years later.

Findings

Adolescent experiences and environments are related to young adults’ preferences for stable employment, likelihood of being in nonstandard work, and likelihood of reporting job insecurity in early adulthood, suggesting the significance of early life experiences as well as the importance of intergenerational transmission processes for the early adult years.

Originality/value

This study points to the important role of adolescent experiences in initiating a trajectory of work preferences and attainment.

Details

Adolescent Experiences and Adult Work Outcomes: Connections and Causes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-572-2

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Article

Ghada Barsoum

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it seeks to voice the concerns of educated youth in Egypt as they describe their work options and preferences. Second, it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it seeks to voice the concerns of educated youth in Egypt as they describe their work options and preferences. Second, it seeks to highlight the gravity of the policy gap in addressing work informality, drawing on some of the international experience in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research in the form of in-depth interviews, desk-review of policies, and descriptive statistical analysis of a recent national survey of labour in Egypt.

Findings

A large proportion of educated youth work within the realm of informality and there is a clear policy gap in addressing this issue. Contrary to what would be expected, young people value access to social security and work stability. They face systemic hurdles related to access to such benefits. Because of the legacy of guaranteed government hiring of the educated in Egypt, young people express a great appreciation of work in the government, for virtually being the only employer offering job stability and social security in the labour market.

Research limitations/implications

This paper addresses a gap in the literature on youth employment in Egypt, where there is a dearth of research focusing on the lived experience of employment precariousness. The majority of studies in this field relies on statistics with little qualitative research voicing the views of this group.

Practical implications

Reforms are more urgent than timely to extend social security and other measures of social protection to workers within the informal economy.

Originality/value

The paper builds on primary data and provides insights about the way educated youth perceive their working conditions and options. The paper also provides a discussion of the social security system in Egypt, its coverage, and possible reform approaches.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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