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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Khahan Na-Nan

Employee work adjustment (EWA) represents the ability of individuals to adjust effectively to working conditions, supervisors, the environment and their peers. To deal…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee work adjustment (EWA) represents the ability of individuals to adjust effectively to working conditions, supervisors, the environment and their peers. To deal with work adjustment in different environments, companies need to both understand and continually assess their employees. The purpose of this paper is to develop an instrument to measure EWA for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in three stages to develop a measurement scale for EWA. First, 18 questions were developed as a questionnaire based on concepts and theories of EWA and validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) into four dimensions such as work, supervisor, environment and peer adjustments. Then, a survey was conducted for 360 new employees in SMEs. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity were tested along the four adjustment dimensions.

Findings

This research extended and broadened the EWA concept to provide theoretical support for the adjustment of intelligence research. Four dimensions were developed to measure EWA including aspects of work, supervisor, environment and peer.

Research limitations/implications

The EWA model was examined using EFA and CFA only. Questionnaire results suggested that concrete constructs were stronger because of single-source, self-assessed data collection as the sample included only employees of SMEs in high-growth sectors of Thailand. EWA findings exhibited a good fit but results require further future refinement and validation using a larger sample size and sampling area.

Practical implications

The EWA questionnaire has practical use regarding management behaviour and can assist companies and practitioners to better understand the required adjustments for new employees at start-up. This knowledge will help managers to encourage and support newcomers to work better and deliver effective results. Managers and practitioners can develop and hone work adjustment practices for new recruits according to the four dimensions proposed here.

Originality/value

The validity of this EWA questionnaire will facilitate the future study on boundaries with EWA measurements spanning SMEs contexts. Empirical research results verified that EWA assessment offered new perspectives to explore vital individual work adjustments that are necessary for new recruits to succeed. This instrumental support will help researchers to effectively understand EWA and explore its potential in future studies.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Vivien Supangco and Wolfgang Mayrhofer

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: what factors affect work role transition outcomes of Filipino employees in Singapore? What is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: what factors affect work role transition outcomes of Filipino employees in Singapore? What is the influence of type of expatriation on work role transition outcomes? Two outcomes of interest are work adjustment and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

An e-mail containing the link to a web-based structured questionnaire was sent to Filipinos working in local and multinational organizations in Singapore, who were also encouraged to forward the link to other Filipinos working in Singapore. The number of respondents totals 106. We used regression analysis to address the research question.

Findings

Work adjustment and job satisfaction do not share common factors, indicating differences in their dynamics. Work adjustment is singly explained by the individual factor: the self-efficacy beliefs of the global employees. It is not influenced by the content and context of work but by the disposition of the individual alone. On the other hand, job satisfaction is explained by job factors (role discretion and role conflict) and organizational or job context factors (supervisory support and perceived organizational support). It is not explained by self-efficacy belief. Both work role adjustment and job satisfaction are not influenced by whether or not the global employee is company assigned or self-initiated.

Research limitations/implications

Given the nonprobabilistic sampling employed, results of the study, in a strict sense, apply only to the individuals who participated in the survey. In addition, cross-sectional nature of the study also limits inference on causality.

Practical implications

The null results of gender, marital status, and age imply that these are not good indicators of success and are not a good basis for selection. However, one important dimension to consider in recruitment is self-efficacy belief. Managers also need to nurture self-efficacy of existing employees by enabling them to experience success and for the managers to consciously develop and maintain high self-efficacy belief themselves to serve as role model of employees. Moreover, organizations can enhance and manage job satisfaction by providing support from both the supervisor and the organization, and designing jobs that provide role discretion and less role conflict. In addition, the null result of type of expatriation suggests that pre-departure support erodes through time such that companies that send employees to foreign subsidiaries must continue to provide support beyond the pre-departure phase and highlight the role of host country operations in providing job content and context conducive to job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study furthers the understanding of work role transition outcomes of people from Asia and the developing world who work in countries other than their own. It also broadens our perspective of work role transition by looking at two outcomes: work adjustment and job satisfaction. Moreover, this study provides an important contribution to the literature by examining the differences in outcomes of company assigned and self-initiated global employees.

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Ma Eugenia Sánchez Vidal, Raquel Sanz Valle and Ma Isabel Barba Aragón

This paper aims to analyze the repatriation adjustment process of international employees in the Spanish context. The paper also aims to test the applicability of Black et

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the repatriation adjustment process of international employees in the Spanish context. The paper also aims to test the applicability of Black et al.'s repatriation adjustment model for Spanish repatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports on empirical quantitative research, based on data from 124 Spanish repatriates. Multiple regression analysis and factor analysis are used to test the hypotheses of the study.

Findings

The findings provide evidence for some of the relations proposed in the model but they do not support the model as a whole. The paper questions the existence of the different dimensions of expectations/adjustment and the importance of some of the factors included in the model.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is not very large; some bias could appear as only repatriates who continue working in their companies were questioned. Future research should conduct longitudinal studies.

Practical implications

The study provides evidence of the relevance of facilitating repatriates' adjustment, as it affects their performance. The study also shows that some variables can facilitate the process. In particular, having a mentor and frequent communication with home during the expatriation has been found to help the repatriates to create accurate expectations, which, in turn, affect their general adjustment. Social capacity and the fact that the repatriates had not adjusted completely overseas also facilitate readjustment. Finally, work autonomy on return and social status have been found to positively affect work adjustment.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by examining the repatriation model of Black et al. that has not been thoroughly analyzed before wither as a whole regarding its applicability to non‐Anglo‐Saxon countries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Susan MacDonald and Nancy Arthur

The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of Black et al.’s theoretical framework of repatriation adjustment as it relates to career planning for employees

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an examination of Black et al.’s theoretical framework of repatriation adjustment as it relates to career planning for employees with international work experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach combines narrative with argument and analysis.

Findings

This paper expands on re‐entry adjustment to include additional research on repatriation, and discusses the utility of these theoretical propositions for individual and organizational career planning.

Research limitations/implications

Suggestions for future research include repatriation strategies, incorporating concepts from the literature on other life transitions, and the importance of recognizing psychological variables in work adjustment.

Originality/value

Implications for career development are also discussed to help employees and career counsellors understand the impact of working internationally and to help organizations design ways to help employees integrate their expertise and experience through proactive and supportive repatriation practices.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2022

Hao Huang, Hong Liu, Xingguang Zhao, Hanrong He and Yusen Ding

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research study is to explore the influence of perceived organizational support (POS) on organizational embeddedness and organizational identification in the simulated home environment. Another objective of this study is to provide an effective cross-cultural adjustment model adopted by many Chinese enterprises operating overseas. Furthermore, it examines the mediating effects of organizational embeddedness and organizational identification on POS and expatriate adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this quantitative research study was acquired from a questionnaire survey completed by 326 expatriates from Chinese enterprises in a power station in Bangladesh, and regression analyses were conducted using SPSS software.

Findings

The study found that POS of expatriates is positively correlated with their organizational embeddedness and organizational identification, and it positively impacts expatriate adjustment. Moreover, the study also evaluated that organizational embeddedness and organizational identification positively influence expatriate adjustment. Finally, it was demonstrated that organizational embeddedness mediates the relationship among living POS, emotional POS and expatriate adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships among work POS, emotional POS and work adjustment. Organizational identification mediates the relationships between work POS and interaction adjustment.

Practical implications

The research results demonstrate that the living, work and emotional support to the expatriates from the projects department of Chinese enterprises is of particular importance for their better adjustment in overseas engineering projects. Furthermore, these results are particularly conducive to the successful management of employees accommodated in fully-closed and semi-closed simulated homes.

Originality/value

In the setting of a simulated home in the overseas engineering projects, this research study has demonstrated for the first time that the living, work and emotional support provided by an organization can effectively help its expatriate workers acclimatize during their overseas placement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Syed Bashir

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether, in a culturally diverse society such as the UAE, organizations employing expatriates can improve expatriate retention…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether, in a culturally diverse society such as the UAE, organizations employing expatriates can improve expatriate retention by providing expatriate employees with support aimed at facilitating their cross‐cultural adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in two phases; first, a pilot study was conducted to test the instrument. In the second phase, a survey with 54 items on a five‐point Likert scale was distributed to 900 academic and administrative staff working at 12 Higher Colleges of Technology in five UAE emirates via company's internal e‐mail.

Findings

The results show that there is a positive relationship between organisational support and expatriates' cross‐cultural adjustment that includes work, general and interaction adjustment.

Practical implications

This study is a synthesizing research that examines the relationship between organisational support and expatriates' cross‐cultural adjustment in a Middle Eastern environment. HR practitioners' and management researchers' concerns that seek to predict the selection of individuals who can live and work successfully in cross‐cultural setting, are explored in this study.

Originality/value

Global competition and reduction in trade barriers have increased the demand for individuals who can work effectively in a foreign environment. In the United Arab Emirates, the expectation is for the number of expatriates to increase in the coming years, with a corresponding expectation that, as the number of expatriates is growing, the expatriate failure rate is also increasing. Thus, the way in which organisational support programs affect the expatriate's perceptions of the company should be of particular importance for making decisions regarding which programs to offer.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Joris van Ruysseveldt, Tonnie van Wiggen-Valkenburg and Karen van Dam

The purpose of this study is to develop the self-initiated work adjustment for learning (SIWAL) scale that measures the adjustments that employees make in their work to…

1484

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop the self-initiated work adjustment for learning (SIWAL) scale that measures the adjustments that employees make in their work to enhance learning, based on theories and research on workplace learning, work adjustment and work design.

Design/methodology/approach

The SIWAL scale was validated in two independent studies. Study 1 (n = 208) focused on the internal consistency and factor structure of the SIWAL scale. Study 2 (n = 178) re-examined the factorial structure using confirmatory factor analysis and investigated scale validity.

Findings

In both studies, the SIWAL scale showed good psychometric characteristics, i.e. a clear two-factorial structure and internal reliable sub-scales. The findings also indicated convergent, divergent and concurrent validity.

Research limitations/implications

Using the SIWAL scale, future research could focus on the individual, social and organizational predictors and outcomes of SIWAL, collect supervisor and peer ratings to further validate this self-report scale and investigate lower-educated workers.

Practical implications

Organizations might try to enhance their employees' SIWAL through organizational policies, such as supportive leadership, and a learning climate.

Originality/value

This study provides a first step toward a better understanding of what workers do to enhance their workplace learning. The study findings indicate that employees address two adaptive behaviors: adjusting job responsibilities and adjusting social interactions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Li‐Yueh Lee, Sou Veasna and Wann‐Yih Wu

This study aims to examine the significance of transformational leadership and social support for expatriate adjustment and performance. This study also extends relevant…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the significance of transformational leadership and social support for expatriate adjustment and performance. This study also extends relevant literature on expatriate management to examine the relationships among transformational leadership, social support, expatriate adjustment, and expatriate performance through a mechanism taking into account the moderating roles of cultural intelligence and socialization experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample was collected from 156 expatriate managers of Taiwanese multinational company (MNC) subsidiaries operating in China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS 21 and hierarchical regression in SPSS 19 were used to test eight research hypotheses.

Findings

The SEM results indicated that transformational leadership and social support make significant contributions to expatriate adjustment and performance. The moderating roles of socialization experience and cultural intelligence were also confirmed in this study.

Originality/value

This study extends a theoretical model of transformational leadership and social support to examine expatriate adjustment and performance based on social learning and social exchange theories. Using a specific Chinese context, the current paper highlights the value and necessity of cross‐cultural adjustment for successful expatriation.

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Sachiko Takeda, Davide Secchi and Jeff Bray

Multinational corporations (MNCs) at their foreign subsidiaries hire local employees, whose cultural values may differ from the organisations' home cultures. Such value…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational corporations (MNCs) at their foreign subsidiaries hire local employees, whose cultural values may differ from the organisations' home cultures. Such value differences may pose managerial difficulties, making it critical to observe whether working at MNCs changes local employees' cultural values, reducing these differences. This study investigates how and to what extent local employees from a collectivistic culture acculturate their ethics-related values when working at MNCs' foreign subsidiaries. The authors examine (1) whether local employees change their values to become closer to the MNCs' home cultures, and if so, (2) whether the cultural distance between the MNCs' home and host national cultures affect the degree of such adaptation.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected through stratified random sampling from Thai employees of a Japanese-owned MNC (n = 196), a UK-owned MNC (n = 143) and a Thai-owned organisation (n = 137), all operating in Thailand. Hypotheses were developed using Berry's bidimensional acculturation model and were tested using OLS and logistic regression analyses.

Findings

The study's findings indicate that MNCs' local employees from collectivistic cultures adopt Berry's integration acculturation strategy and acculturate their ethics-related values – collectivism, ethical relativism, collective responsibility preference and executive pay differentiation tolerance – towards the values prevalent in MNCs' home cultures. Overall, acculturation is greater when cultural distance is greater. New insights are presented in relation to collective responsibility preference and pay differentiation tolerance.

Originality/value

Findings add to current knowledge on acculturation in management by (1) providing new insights into value acculturation (2) utilising Berry's acculturation model to analyse employees' acculturation within an organisation in the context of an emerging economy, outside the more frequently studied topic of mergers and acquisitions, and (3) investigating the impact of cultural distance on the degree of employee acculturation outside the field of expatriate adjustment.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Cameron Newton, Stephen T.T. Teo, David Pick, Marcus Ho and Drew Thomas

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) as a buffer to job stressors on employee adjustment.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) as a buffer to job stressors on employee adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the job demands resources model, this study examined 306 nurses in the healthcare sector to test a model of job stressors, EI, and their interactions nursing adjustment outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and psychological health). The hypothesized model predicted that higher trait EI would act as a buffer to the potential negative effects of stressors on employee adjustment. Two-way moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses was used to test the model in addition to interaction effects.

Findings

The results of this study revealed mixed results in terms of the expected main effects of EI and the five significant moderating effects. While some interactions support a buffering hypothesis; contrary to expectations, a buffering effect was also found for those with low EI.

Research limitations/implications

The findings enable a better understanding how EI moderates the effects of stressors on important work outcomes in healthcare. Additionally, the implications from this study allows healthcare administrators and managers to improve staffing and work outcomes through identifying and selecting staff who are characterized by higher trait EI or alternatively, train staff in self-awareness and dealing with emotional behaviors.

Practical implications

HR managers could focus on selecting staff, who possessed higher trait EI for roles where overload and ambiguity are endemic to the job performed. Training could also be used to enhance EI among managers to focus on self-awareness and dealing with emotional behaviors.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to understanding how EI moderates the relationships between work stressors and workplace adjustment and wellbeing.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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