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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Josée Bloemer and Gaby Odekerken‐Schröder

The paper aims to investigate the impact of employee relationship proneness (RP) on the three different types of attitudinal loyalty (affective, calculative, and normative…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the impact of employee relationship proneness (RP) on the three different types of attitudinal loyalty (affective, calculative, and normative commitment (NC)) and relate these different types of attitudinal loyalty to employee loyalty behaviours in terms of word‐of‐mouth, intention to stay (ITS), benefit insensitivity (BI), and complaining (COM).

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical research among 199 employees of a bank was conducted to test the hypothesized model.

Findings

Structural equation modelling results reveal that employee RP is a strong antecedent of affective and NC. Affective commitment plays a pivotal role in creating all positive loyalty behaviours of employees, whereas NC only supports ITS and BI while it has a negative impact on COM. Calculative commitment has a negative impact on BI and COM.

Research limitations/implications

As a result of the single industry, cross sectional design the external validity of the findings is somewhat limited.

Practical implications

The main practical implication of the study is that banks should incorporate RP when assessing potential employees. These relationship prone employees are most likely to exhibit affective and NC, which can be considered as the foundation of employees' loyalty behaviours.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that we develop an extended model on the complex phenomenon of employee loyalty which is generally acknowledged as one of the important building blocks of customer loyalty and the organizational performance of a bank.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Swati Dhir, Tanusree Dutta and Piyali Ghosh

The purpose of the present study is to empirically test a model that illustrates how person–job fit (PJF), person–organization fit (POF) and perceived supervisor support…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to empirically test a model that illustrates how person–job fit (PJF), person–organization fit (POF) and perceived supervisor support (PSS) as individualistic factors affect job satisfaction and employee loyalty in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of the Indian managerial executives was conducted with a structured questionnaire to validate the proposed model. Responses of a sample of 220 have been tested using PLS–SEM modelling approach.

Findings

The factors PJF, POF and PSS are inferred to have significant impact on job satisfaction and also improve employee loyalty. In comparison to PJF and PSS, POF has emerged as the most influential determinant of the proposed model.

Practical implications

HR managers can adopt relevant practices and promote organizational policies in order to have loyal employees. This would also help organizations in increasing overall productivity at both individual and organizational levels. Recruiters could be provided with necessary tools and measures to find better and accurate means of mapping POF and PJF.

Originality/value

Establishing PJF, POF fit and PSS as individual-specific constructs, and job satisfaction as a mediator, leading to employee loyalty, is a significant contribution to research. This study finds uniqueness in the Indian context, in which these constructs have mostly been explored in isolation or as dyadic relations. Review of existing studies indicates an overlap of factors that influence both job satisfaction and employee loyalty.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Afshin Jahanbazi Goujani, Arash Shahin, Ali Nasr Isfahani and Ali Safari

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of job satisfaction on hostage employee loyalty in Isfahan Province Gas Company (IPGC).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of job satisfaction on hostage employee loyalty in Isfahan Province Gas Company (IPGC).

Design/methodology/approach

The statistical population of this study included the formal recruited employees of IPGC out of which, 212 employees have been selected using a stratified random sampling method. A questionnaire has been developed and used for data collection regarding job satisfaction and employee loyalty. In this study along with the other studies of the authors, employees of IPGC were classified into four different categories on the basis of loyalty matrix, and the majority (78 percent) of them were located in the hostage category. Structural equation modeling has been used for data analysis.

Findings

The findings imply that job satisfaction does not have a significant influence on the loyalty of hostage employees.

Practical implications

Organizations are encouraged to identify the individual and organizational factors and obstacles, take necessary measures to increase job satisfaction and maintain the level of employee loyalty and gradually shift them from the hostage category to the apostle category, which results in an increased number of loyal and satisfied employees.

Originality/value

This study indicates how the application of the concepts of loyalty matrix, particularly its hostage category, can be expanded in the field of organizational behavior management.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Rishipal

The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of employee loyalty and counter-productive work behaviour (CWB) among employees working in the Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of employee loyalty and counter-productive work behaviour (CWB) among employees working in the Indian hospitality sector. The study also compared the status of employee loyalty among managers, who exhibit either very high and or very low traits of CWB. The study also examined the factors responsible for the high tendency of employee loyalty and for that of CWB.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected by using questionnaire and interview methods from employees and managers working in hotels situated in the National Capital Region (NCR), Delhi, India. A sample of total 220 junior and middle level managers and other employees was taken and a selected sample was tested for tendencies of employee loyalty and CWB and analyzed to interpret the findings.

Findings

The findings reveal that the tendency of employee loyalty among managers in the hospitality sector was high, whereas the status of CWB was low. Results also predicted that the tendency of employee loyalty was high among the managers with low traits of counter-productive behaviour and very low among managers with a higher tendency of CWB. Factors such as compensation and benefits, job security and growth and satisfaction were found to be responsible for high tendency of employee loyalty; the controlling of factors such as ignoring or arguing with others, physically damaging organizational property, stealing organizational or employee’s property, intentionally working slowly, doing work incorrectly, neglecting to follow procedures, taking longer breaks than allowed, coming late and leaving early was responsible for a high degree of CWB.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted by involving lower and middle level hospitality sector managers in the NCR Delhi region only. To generalize the findings effectively, a more comprehensive study should be conducted that also involves senior level managers.

Originality/value

There are relatively few prior studies of the factors addressed in this study which has sought to explore an under-research aspect of workplace behaviour.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Lu-Ming Tseng and Jui-Yun Wu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of ethical leadership on the financial professionals’ loyalty by focusing on the mediating effects of perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of ethical leadership on the financial professionals’ loyalty by focusing on the mediating effects of perceived psychological contract fulfillment (PPCF) and organizational identification (OI).

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was used in this research.

Findings

Financial professionals in Taiwan were recruited for the sample. The results revealed that the professionals’ experiences of ethical leadership positively associated with their loyalty toward their companies. The results further showed that the PPCF and OI significantly mediated the relationship.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined how ethical leadership could stimulate financial professionals’ loyalty. The findings of this study may provide some implications for those involved in the practice of leadership and employee loyalty programs. On the other hand, the focus of Taiwan is unique and helps improve the generalizability of previous studies on the relationship between ethical leadership and employee identification.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Khojasteh Rahimpour, Hadi Shirouyehzad, Milad Asadpour and Mehdi Karbasian

The purpose of this study is to propose a model to evaluate the performance of organizational units considering intellectual capital (IC) and employee loyalty approach…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a model to evaluate the performance of organizational units considering intellectual capital (IC) and employee loyalty approach applying principal component analysis and data envelopment analysis (PCA-DEA) method.

Design/methodology/approach

Organization units are considered as decision-making units, IC components including human capital (HC), structural capital (SC) and customer capital are inputs and employee loyalty is output. The principal component analysis was used to converts inputs and outputs into the independent variables. As a return to scale is variable, a modified envelopment input-oriented BCC model applied to obtain the efficiency of organization units. Also, all units of organization are ranked. Eventually, sensitivity analysis performed to show how input variables influence on output variable.

Findings

Operation, design and construction, production planning, internal affairs, quality control and security were recognized as efficient units. Also, units of operation, internal affairs and quality control ranked first to third, and the human resource unit earned the last rank. In addition, results of sensitivity analysis on input variables showed that the order of impact intensity is: customer capital, HC and SC, respectively.

Originality/value

Existence a framework for the development of human resource strategies and prioritization in the allocation of organizational resources to improve the performance of the organization considering human resources is vital. Most of the previous studies, just have examined the impact of IC on different dimensions of organizational performance. Meanwhile, evaluating the performance of IC with employee loyalty approach, using PCA-DEA simultaneously can evaluate and measure the impact of IC on the performance of the organization and its units regarding employee loyalty, which has a significant impact on improving the organization’s level of IC and human resource management.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Bridget Rice, Kathy Knox, John Rice, Nigel Martin, Peter Fieger and Anneke Fitzgerald

Employee loyalty is generally a very positive trait. However, when loyal employees are confronted with dysfunctionality in the workplace the impact on their well-being can…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee loyalty is generally a very positive trait. However, when loyal employees are confronted with dysfunctionality in the workplace the impact on their well-being can be significant. The purpose of this paper is to assess the interaction of employee loyalty and employee experience of inter-professional dysfunction in a hospital setting to predict employee job tension.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the analysis of a cross-sectional attitudinal survey of employees within a hospital setting in Australia. The authors use OLS regression and an SPSS macro (by Hayes, 2013) to assess the regions of significance of the interaction effects.

Findings

The authors find, as anticipated, significant direct effects for employee loyalty and inter-professional dysfunction on employee job stress. The authors further find significant interaction effects that suggest that highly loyal employees who experience inter-professional dysfunction also experience disproportionately high levels of job tension.

Research limitations/implications

The main research implication of this research relates to the confirmation of the presence of an interaction effect between loyalty and inter-professional dysfunction in predicting employee job stress. Further, the zone of significance analysis (following Johnson and Neyman) suggests that this effect is evident at even low levels of inter-professional dysfunction.

Practical implications

Organisations should appreciate employee loyalty but should also be aware that loyal employees are more vulnerable to the negative consequences of organisational dysfunction than are employees with limited organisational loyalty.

Social implications

The paper confirms the importance of managing organisational cooperation between groups in organisations as a precursor to positive employee outcomes.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to investigate this interaction and to apply Johnson-Neyman analysis to confirm the regions of significance for the interaction effects noted.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Maha Ibrahim and Saoud Al Falasi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employee loyalty (Organizational Commitment) and its two dimensions namely, affective commitment (AC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between employee loyalty (Organizational Commitment) and its two dimensions namely, affective commitment (AC) and continuance commitment (CC) with employee engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting the study data from 50 employees who represent three managerial levels from the government sector in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Three hypotheses were developed in order to test the said relationship. Hypotheses were tested through using various testes namely: the correlation coefficient and the regression analysis from the Statistical Package for Social Science software.

Findings

The findings indicated that there is a significant relationship between loyalty and engagement. AC was found to be more important in affecting employee's engagement when compared with CC.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on a small number of employees working mostly in one single organization which limits the generalizability of the results; a limitation that does not allow for statistical generalization but allows for analytical generalization.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature of OC and more specifically to the relationship between employee loyalty and engagement in the UAE public sector. The outcome of the research draws decision makers’ attention to the importance of employeesloyalty and its impact on their engagement.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Jorge Matute, Ramon Palau-Saumell and Giampaolo Viglia

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ emotional competences affect customers’ responses in the context of emotional-driven and personalized services. Specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how employees’ emotional competences affect customers’ responses in the context of emotional-driven and personalized services. Specifically, it proposes a model to analyze the influence of employees’ emotional competence on rapport, trust and loyalty toward the service employee and the company.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical context to validate the proposed theory is the fitness realm. The sample comprises 296 clients from fitness personal training services. Data collection was carried out by means of personal surveys in three relevant fitness clubs in the city of Barcelona (Spain). The study uses partial least squares to test and validate the proposed theoretical model.

Findings

Employee emotional competence (EEC) directly affects personal loyalty, trust toward the service employee and rapport. However, higher levels of emotional skills are not significantly associated with loyalty toward the company. The results also suggest that trust significantly enhances loyalty. Interestingly, high levels of rapport between the service worker and the employee could even damage the level of loyalty toward the company.

Originality/value

Prior research documents that emotional intelligence enhances diverse positive customer outcomes, especially in emotionally charged interactions. Nonetheless, few studies have focused on analyzing how customers’ perceptions about services employees’ emotional skills are determining their attitudes and behavioral intentions. This study provides evidence on employee’s influences on consumer behaviors and outcomes, with a specific focus on EEC. It also sheds light on the unintuitive impact of customer employee rapport on loyalty toward the company.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Olivia Guillon and Cécile Cezanne

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between employee loyalty and organizational performance. It starts with the idea that the employee loyalty creates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between employee loyalty and organizational performance. It starts with the idea that the employee loyalty creates value for the organization. This statement is widely endorsed in the literature although there is little consensus on the definition of loyalty. The paper proposes a refined synthesis of the literature on the link between employee loyalty and organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses the question of whether there is a robust positive link between employee loyalty and organizational performance. The paper starts by reviewing the various, sometimes divergent, approaches to employee loyalty in the literature and then compare the different indicators of loyalty in relation to their relevance to different indicators of performance.

Findings

The paper provides a critical overview of the different existing conceptions of employee loyalty. It points out ambiguity about both the theoretical contours of the concept, and practical means of making it a source of value for the organization. The paper shows that the link between employee loyalty and performance varies according to the type of indicators used.

Research limitations/implications

The paper highlights a variety of indicators for employee loyalty to their firm and for organizational performance. But much research remains to be conducted, notably on the managerial levers that might consolidate or improve organizational performance.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to survey a fragmented theoretical field of analysis.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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