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Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Paul E. Levy, Steven T. Tseng, Christopher C. Rosen and Sarah B. Lueke

In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed…

Abstract

In recent years, practitioners have identified a number of problems with traditional performance management (PM) systems, arguing that PM is broken and needs to be fixed. In this chapter, we review criticisms of traditional PM practices that have been mentioned by journalists and practitioners and we consider the solutions that they have presented for addressing these concerns. We then consider these problems and solutions within the context of extant scholarly research and identify (a) what organizations should do going forward to improve PM practices (i.e., focus on feedback processes, ensure accountability throughout the PM system, and align the PM system with organizational strategy) and (b) what scholars should focus research attention on (i.e., technology, strategic alignment, and peer-to-peer accountability) in order to reduce the science-practice gap in this domain.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-709-6

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Article

Jonas Lechermeier, Martin Fassnacht and Tillmann Wagner

While digital media changed the nature of communication in service contexts, often allowing customers to interact instantly with service providers, the implications and…

Abstract

Purpose

While digital media changed the nature of communication in service contexts, often allowing customers to interact instantly with service providers, the implications and opportunities for managing service employees are widely unknown. This is surprising, given that service employees are an important determinant of service firms’ success. This article examines the effects of real-time performance feedback on employees’ service performance and investigates both how and under what conditions timely feedback encourages employees’ engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments test the conceptual model and the proposed hypotheses. A field experiment uses real customer feedback gathered after interaction with the app-chat of a large telecommunications provider. It tests the effect of feedback timing on service employees’ performance and also examines the effect of feedback timing on their engagement. A subsequent scenario-based experiment then investigates the influence of selected moderators on the feedback timing–engagement relationship.

Findings

This article finds that real-time feedback leads to greater service performance than subsequent feedback. Furthermore, real-time feedback positively affects service employee engagement through the perceived controllability of the feedback and the service situation. Finally, feedback valence, task goals, individuals’ need for closure (NCL), and gender interact with feedback timing to influence employee engagement.

Originality/value

This research investigates the potential of real-time performance feedback for service firms, combines and extends a variety of literature streams, and provides recommendations for the future management of service employees.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

Jui-Chen Peng and Julian Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among supervisor feedback environment (SFE), leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships among supervisor feedback environment (SFE), leader-member exchange (LMX), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Specifically, it analyzed the mediating role of LMX.

Design/methodology/approach

With the data collected from 258 subordinate-supervisor pairs at various organizations in Taiwan, the authors examined the hypotheses by conducting structural equation modeling analyses.

Findings

The results revealed that: SFE is positively related to LMX; LMX is positively related to OCB, and negatively related to WDB; furthermore LMX fully mediates the relationships among SFE and both OCB and WDB.

Research limitations/implications

This data are collected in Taiwan, hence it may affect the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

Previous studies investigating the relationship between the feedback environment and organizational outcome variables focus on positive outcome variables. Thus, studies examining whether there is a negative effect on negative outcome variables such as WDB are insufficient. The study addresses this deficiency by including WDB as an outcome variable. The results empirically indicate that SFEs are negatively related to WDBs, but the effect diminishes when LMX is controlled.

Social implications

This study presents the following practical implications for managers. To reduce employee deviant behavior, to improve employee supplementary performance, and further improve overall organizational operating performance, organizations can adopt methods for implementing SFE that promote good interpersonal relationships between supervisors and employees, and thus increase employees’ positive expression of OCB, and reduce deviant behavior.

Originality/value

It can be argued that when supervisors and subordinates form good relationships, the supervisors would provide favorable feedback that may result in more OCBs and less WDBs. It is also possible to argue that the traditional LMX theory suggests that supervisors are dominant in determining the quality of LMX, and therefore good LMX relationships cannot be developed based on supervisory feedback. This study shows otherwise, and addresses the rival hypothesis by drawing from previous studies and theories as well as in comparing the proposed alternative model by conducting χ2 differences.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Hisham Hamid Hawass

The purpose of this study is to examine the direct effect of paternalistic leadership on the employee’s feedback orientation in the Egyptian public sector. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the direct effect of paternalistic leadership on the employee’s feedback orientation in the Egyptian public sector. It also investigates the mediating effect of the employee’s workplace well-being on the relationship between paternalistic leadership and feedback orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a questionnaire that consists of measures adopted from existing and tested scales. A mediation analysis is conducted using structure equation modelling to examine the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The findings reveal that paternalistic leadership is positively associated with feedback utility, accountability, awareness and self-efficacy. Moreover, the employee’s workplace well-being significantly mediates the proposed relationship between paternalistic leadership and the aforementioned dimensions of feedback orientation.

Originality/value

The relationship between paternalistic leadership and feedback orientation has received an extremely limited academic attention. This study hypothesizes a mediation model which investigates the leadership, well-being and feedback associations in the traditionally under-researched Egyptian context.

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Article

Janine van der Rijt, Piet Van den Bossche and Mien S.R. Segers

– The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the position of employees in the organizational hierarchy is important in explaining their feedback seeking behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the position of employees in the organizational hierarchy is important in explaining their feedback seeking behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a social network perspective by using an ego-centric network survey to investigate employees ' feedback seeking behaviour within their professional networks. Data were collected from an online questionnaire among 243 employees working in a large multinational organization located in The Netherlands.

Findings

Results indicate that employees frequently seek feedback from colleagues within the same department. However, managers or leaders seek significantly less feedback from colleagues in the same department and from coaches, as compared to others. Furthermore, employees perceive the feedback they receive from managers/leaders, coaches, and colleagues in the same department as useful.

Originality/value

The study findings extend the existing literature on the dynamics of feedback seeking of employees across different hierarchical levels. Methodologically, an egocentric network survey was used to investigate the employees ' relationships within their professional network. The findings suggest that this approach, novel in research on feedback seeking, is valuable and promising.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article

Paul Lyons and Randall Bandura

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways a manager in a coaching role may influence employees to embrace a learning orientation based upon the growth mindset…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the ways a manager in a coaching role may influence employees to embrace a learning orientation based upon the growth mindset. Conceptual in nature, this paper uses recent research, interpretations, explanations and suggestions to propose how manager-as-coach can informally and formally apply basic interventions to assist employee learning and change.

Design/methodology/approach

Based upon a review of relevant literature of theory and practice using several search tools, the authors have isolated a few critical areas to explore to include role of the coach, performance appraisal – the stimulus for manager-as-coach interaction with an employee, feedback orientation and environment, the growth mindset and learning orientation and the dynamics of self-regulated learning. Information from these areas is integrated to inform practitioners of approaches to take in a manager-as-coach role.

Findings

Included for each of the main segments presented are specific, practitioner “Commitment advice/action agendas” for manager-as-coach to stimulate and guide employee learning. These agendas contribute sound, practical information to the body of information concerned with manager-as-coach.

Originality/value

A contribution this work makes is to propose how learning orientation and the growth mindset are intertwined to the extent they assist the manager-as-coach supply the motivational support for employee learning. The resultant learning may lead to one or more of: improved work performance, individual development, attitudes toward learning and increased employee commitment or engagement.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Sylvie Guerrero, Denis Chênevert, Christian Vandenberghe, Michel Tremblay and Ahmed Khalil Ben Ayed

Relying on the theories of substitutes for leadership and psychological empowerment, this study aims to explore how perceptions of customer positive feedback can…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on the theories of substitutes for leadership and psychological empowerment, this study aims to explore how perceptions of customer positive feedback can substitute for managers’ transformational leadership in driving frontline employees’ psychological empowerment and, in turn, task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the research hypotheses with frontline employees working in 17 equipment rental stores. Employees completed a questionnaire about customer positive feedback, transformational leadership and psychological empowerment, and supervisors completed a separate questionnaire about employees’ task performance. A total of 178 employee-supervisor dyads formed the final sample of the study.

Findings

The results provided support for our hypotheses. Psychological empowerment fully mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and task performance. Moreover, customer positive feedback moderated the indirect relationship between transformational leadership and task performance such that it was significant and positive only when customer feedback was low.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the service marketing literature by showing that customer positive feedback can substitute for managers’ leadership in helping frontline employees feeling more in control of their work and psychologically empowered. Another useful contribution for practitioners is that customers may have a positive impact on frontline employees’ motivation state, which past research has little explored.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Isabel Raemdonck and Jan-Willem Strijbos

Theoretical explanations for the diverse reactive feedback from secretarial employees in different career phases are relatively unexplored. However, research examining age…

Abstract

Purpose

Theoretical explanations for the diverse reactive feedback from secretarial employees in different career phases are relatively unexplored. However, research examining age differences in the impact of feedback suggests that the effects of performance feedback may differ for employees in the early career phase and employees in the late career phase. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This contribution reports an experimental study on feedback perceptions and attribution by 173 secretarial employees of 12 Dutch organizations. Each participant responded to one of eight scenarios, which varied in terms of feedback content, sender status, and sender performance appraisal. Feedback perceptions were measured in terms of perceived fairness, acceptance, usefulness, willingness to improve and affect. An additional scale measured attribution.

Findings

The results reveal that elaborated specific feedback is perceived as more adequate, irrespective of feedback sender status and appraisal. Complex three-way interaction effects were found for educational level on affect and attribution, and for career phase on willingness to improve and affect. Low-educated employees reacted more strongly to supervisor feedback. Employees in the late career phase were more oriented towards the content of the feedback than feedback sender status, whereas the latter was of more concern for employees in the early and middle career phase.

Practical implications

In order for feedback to be considered as adequate, it is necessary to formulate the feedback as specific and as elaborated as possible. Employees in their late career phase especially react differently in comparison to employees in early and middle career phases. They are more inclined “to opt for quality” and appreciate elaborated feedback from a high experienced sender. Human resource managers should be aware of this in their policy towards employees in their late career phase

Originality/value

The present study shows that feedback content and sender characteristics (status and performance appraisal) differentially affect feedback perceptions and attribution. In addition, the study reveals that perceptions and attributions of performance feedback might be mediated by educational level and career phase.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article

Jochen Wirtz, Siok Kuan Tambyah and Anna S. Mattila

Customer feedback can help to identify problem areas and strengths, and generate ideas for service improvements. Most feedback is given to frontline employees directly…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer feedback can help to identify problem areas and strengths, and generate ideas for service improvements. Most feedback is given to frontline employees directly rather than submitted through formal channels. UZnfortunately, employees tend to be reluctant to report such unsolicited feedback. This paper seeks to explore key drivers of employees' willingness to report customer feedback to facilitate organizational learning. Specifically, the paper examines the joint effects of relational social capital, structural social capital, feedback valence (FV) (positive versus negative), and the intended use of information (service improvement versus performance evaluation) on employees' willingness to report unsolicited customer feedback back to the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used two studies. First, semi‐structured in‐depth interviews of employees across organizational levels in two service firms were conducted to explore the relationships between the variables of interest. Second, a quasi‐experimental study was conducted in which FV and intended use of information were manipulated in a true experimental design, and respondents' organization served as backdrop to measure relational and structural social capital.

Findings

FV and the intended use of information moderate the impact of social capital on employees' reporting intention. Specifically, the authors found that social capital had a positive impact on employees' willingness to report negative feedback used for evaluation purposes (social capital was less important when used for service improvements). In contrast, for positive feedback, social capital had a positive impact when feedback was used for service improvements (but less so in an evaluation context where staff were naturally motivated to report positive feedback).

Practical implications

Firms need to boost social capital to enhance employees' willingness to report negative feedback that is used for performance evaluation, and positive feedback that is used for understanding and cementing strengths. Social capital can be enhanced through increasing trust and a shared vision (through open and frequent communications), and through providing incentives (rewards and recognition) and improved reporting processes, infrastructure, and training.

Originality/value

Service employees' reporting behavior of customer feedback received is important but under‐researched. This paper is a first step into understanding the drivers of employees' willingness to report such feedback.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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