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Article

Jenny Jiwei Shi and Peter John Sewell

The purpose of this paper is to present research into approaches to employability and entrepreneurship education at two universities: one British (The University of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present research into approaches to employability and entrepreneurship education at two universities: one British (The University of Central Lancashire “UCLan”) and one Chinese (Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade “SIFT”). It explores the similarities and differences in an approach to employability and entrepreneurship education and illustrates best practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A combination of questionnaires, observations and statistical comparisons are taken from a PMI2 exchange project (Second Prime Minister's Initiative for International Education) funded by the British Council.

Findings

Fundamentally different philosophies in the two countries lead to different models and approaches. Examples of best practices in employability and entrepreneurship education in a global context are highlighted. Models of employability are discussed and the challenges, opportunities and possibilities of future work are also presented.

Practical implications

The paper will be of value to teachers and researchers forging links between universities in the UK and China, in particular those that wish to support and encourage employability and entrepreneurship within their curricula.

Originality/value

The paper helps to clarify the similarities and differences in approach to employability and entrepreneurship education in the UK and China and offers suggestions for enhancing the success of such collaborations.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

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Article

Jiwei Jenny Shi, Yudong Chen, Elena Kate Gifford and Hui Jin

The purpose of this paper is to obtain a shared understanding of entrepreneurship education and to evaluate the effectiveness of employability and enterprise division in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain a shared understanding of entrepreneurship education and to evaluate the effectiveness of employability and enterprise division in current fashion courses and amongst the students between a British and a Chinese university (UClan and SCAU).

Design/methodology/approach

It is a three‐stage action‐oriented PMI2 project (Second Prime Minister's Initiative for International Education) in fashion entrepreneurship, which was funded by the British Council. This paper presents the findings of the first stage of the research project. A combination of literature reviews, participant observation, semi‐structured interviews and focus groups were employed to deliver the results at this stage.

Findings

The findings represent similarities and differences between UClan and SCAU related to enterprise entrepreneurship education: identify rationale of evaluating fashion entrepreneurship education; and clarify a shared understanding of entrepreneurship education and the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

Due to geographical restrictions and limited resources, smaller‐scale samples were selected to gain a deeper insight into different approaches to fashion enterprise and entrepreneurship education between UClan and SCAU.

Practical implications

This research will be valuable to academics who wish to develop or enhance fashion entrepreneurship education, in particular with regards to forging links between universities in the UK and China.

Social implications

This paper will increase awareness of fashion entrepreneurship amongst students, graduates and academics.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the current knowledge and best practice of fashion entrepreneurship education.

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Article

Peter Sewell and Lorraine Dacre Pool

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the terms “employability”, “enterprise” andentrepreneurship” are currently being used, often interchangeably, within higher…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the terms “employability”, “enterprise” andentrepreneurship” are currently being used, often interchangeably, within higher education, and to propose how to clarify this issue with the terminology.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken is to discuss the three terms and some of their current conceptualisations and suggest ways to clarify the terminology. Possible methods of operationalising the three concepts within higher education are also suggested.

Findings

Employability, enterprise and entrepreneurship are high on the agendas of many higher education institutions. There is a crucial need for agreement on definitions particularly when strategies are being implemented. It is suggested that currently the terminology is often used carelessly and interchangeably, resulting in confusion for HE staff, students and employers.

Originality/value

The paper offers a clear way of defining the concepts and will be of value to anybody with an interest in employability, enterprise or entrepreneurship within higher education.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article

Afreen Huq and David H. Gilbert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible benefits of a work‐based learning (WBL) model in “social entrepreneurship” for enhancing graduate employability and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible benefits of a work‐based learning (WBL) model in “social entrepreneurship” for enhancing graduate employability and an appreciation for “responsible” entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Pre‐ and post‐course experience surveys were conducted with the yearly cohorts, followed by focus group discussions with students in each semester between 2008 and 2011. In addition, ten not‐for‐profit (NFP) industry partners were interviewed for their feedback on the enhanced curriculum.

Findings

The findings strongly validate the adoption of WBL curriculum for social entrepreneurship in enhancing graduate employability and opportunities for responsible entrepreneurship education. The case study also provides insights into how to overcome the key challenges relating to designing and implementing WBL models through a curriculum innovation in social entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

Further research with longitudinal data is needed to validate the link between students undertaking work‐based learning and enhanced graduate employability. Future research should also investigate whether there is a major difference in the associated benefits and challenges of WBL initiatives between “social” and “for‐profit” enterprises.

Practical implications

Higher education providers could consider incorporating WBL as part of their response to the employability agenda, in a climate where employers are increasingly seeking graduates who possess entrepreneurial skills and an awareness of ethical and environmental concerns emerging from the new post‐global recession economic era.

Originality/value

Social entrepreneurship has received scant attention within the field of WBL. This case study demonstrates how this field can inform the WBL model to enhance graduate employability. It also provides a case for how WBL within the NFP sector can produce more socially responsible graduates who are capable of adding value to the CSR initiatives of organisations across sectors.

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Article

Laura Galloway, Abigail Marks and Shiona Chillas

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of the role of internships for IT students and for the IT sector. The contribution of internships for career-readiness, and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a study of the role of internships for IT students and for the IT sector. The contribution of internships for career-readiness, and for the development of existing IT organisations and the creation of new ones is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys of interns and managers from host firms were conduced, followed by in-depth interviews with six interns and five organisations.

Findings

Internships are useful for increasing enterprise and employability skills and commercial awareness for IT students. IT organisations also benefit in that internships are used to recruit fresh talent. Findings regarding entrepreneurship were disappointing, with little reportage of ambitions to create new firms, nor awareness of the high likelihood of self-employed contractual work in the sector.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for research include that self-employment and business ownership are not always “successful” entrepreneurial outcomes born of agency. This requires further study.

Practical implications

Development of opportunities for experiential, real-world learning for IT students is implied, as is increased educational focus on employability and enterprise skills to best advantage students for the realities of employment in IT. There is a strong suggestion that much more needs to be done in terms of encouraging entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The paper reports the potentials of internships to interns and to organisations, and through combining these perspectives, provides comment on the utility of internships for the IT sector as a competitive, opportunity-rich global industry.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article

Robin Bell

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between students’ entrepreneurial attitudes and traits and their classification of employment six months after…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between students’ entrepreneurial attitudes and traits and their classification of employment six months after university graduation. It aims to identify what specific attitudes and traits of entrepreneurial graduates are linked to employability in a professional or managerial field.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts a quantitative approach to measure the entrepreneurial drive of final-year undergraduate business school students and regresses this measurement against the employment level of the same students six months after their graduation. The employment classification of each respondent was classified as “professional/managerial” or “non-professional/non-managerial”, in line with the Standard Occupational Classification 2010.

Findings

The research found that both proactive disposition and achievement motivation were statistically linked to the likelihood of graduates being employed in a professional or managerial position six months after graduation.

Originality/value

This research goes beyond existing literature linking entrepreneurship to employability to quantitatively examine what specific attitudes and traits can be linked to employability in recent graduates. By identifying the aspects of entrepreneurialism that have a relationship with employability, more information is available for educators who are designing entrepreneurial education programmes and allows for greater focus on aspects that may be of greatest benefit to all students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article

B.N. Neneh

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and self-perceived employability (SPE) affect students' choice of an entrepreneurial career path.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and self-perceived employability (SPE) affect students' choice of an entrepreneurial career path.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach was used to gather data from 274 final year undergraduate students at a South African university. The study made use of partial least squares (PLS) structural equation model (SEM) analyses to test the hypothesized associations.

Findings

ESE was positively associated with the intention to engage in both a full-time and a hybrid entrepreneurial career path. Also, SPE was positively associated with the intention to engage in hybrid entrepreneurship but negatively associated with engaging in full-time entrepreneurship. Additionally, the effect of ESE on the intention to engage in hybrid entrepreneurship was significantly moderated by SPE, such that the effect was more pronounced for students with a high SPE.

Research limitations/implications

Data were gathered only from one South African university and as such there is a need for similar studies to improve the generalizability of the findings. Also, the measures for ESE and SPE used in the present study are not the only ones available. Thus, future studies are encouraged to use alternative measures to further assess the robustness of the proposed associations.

Originality/value

The arguments and the subsequent findings of this study indicate a new line of convergence for the popular but disjointed literature on ESE and SPE.

Content available
Article

Rachel Maxwell and Alejandro Armellini

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an evidence-based, transferable framework of graduate attributes and associated university toolkit to support the writing of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an evidence-based, transferable framework of graduate attributes and associated university toolkit to support the writing of level-appropriate learning outcomes that enable the university to achieve its mission to Transform Lives + Inspire Change.

Design/methodology/approach

An iterative process of co-design and co-development was employed to produce both the framework and the associated learning outcomes toolkit.

Findings

There is tangible benefit in adopting an integrated framework that enables students to develop personal literacy and graduate identity. The toolkit enables staff to write assessable learning outcomes that support student progression and enable achievement of the framework objective.

Research limitations/implications

While the framework has been in use for two years, institutional use of the toolkit is still in its early stages. Phase 2 of the project will explore how effectively the toolkit achieves the framework objective.

Practical implications

The introduction of a consistent, integrated framework enables students to develop and actively increase personal literacy through the deliberate construction of their unique graduate identity.

Social implications

Embedding the institutional Changemaker attributes alongside the agreed employability skills enables students to develop and articulate specifically what it means to be a “Northampton graduate”.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of this project is the student-centred framework and the combination of curricular, extra- and co-curricular initiatives that provide a consistent language around employability across disciplines. This is achieved through use of the learning outcomes toolkit to scaffold student progression.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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Book part

Anne M. J. Smith, Declan Jones, Bernadette Scott and Adriano Stadler

This chapter examines the development of an Entrepreneurship Education initiative (Triple E: Employability, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship) in the Higher Education…

Abstract

This chapter examines the development of an Entrepreneurship Education initiative (Triple E: Employability, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship) in the Higher Education context. The initiative is further contextualised by a dynamic policy framework concerning widening access as a major priority for the Scottish Government. In addition, the initiative is based on innovation in contemporary pedagogical design and further policy drivers supporting the development of graduates with an enterprising mind-set and graduate attributes (articulated by employers) and interpreted by academics and public sector stakeholders as relevant for graduate labour market competitiveness. The chapter examines Entrepreneurship Education literature and presents a case study which examines pedagogical design and normative assumptions, participant progression, (students and staff) and the engagement of external stakeholders. The case study describes and analyses the key design principles for inclusive and accessible Entrepreneurship Education within the context of widening participation policy. A discussion on the practice of achieving inclusive and accessible Entrepreneurship Education explores intra-institution policy, drivers enablers and cultural and resource constraints. The chapter concludes with a summary of the design principles on inclusivity and accessibility in Entrepreneurship Education and discusses attempts to mitigate the challenges presented by a widening participation policy.

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Article

Muhammad Nizam Zainuddin and Mohd Rozaini Mohd Rejab

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available to “ME generation” students. By analysing the antecedents and predicting self‐employment intention, the paper evaluates the impact of such programmes upon the employability value of undergraduates who are part of the ME generation in a developing country such as Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A census survey was conducted on final and penultimate year students from major public and private universities in Malaysia. From these data, analyses of variables that affect self‐employment intention were performed, and the prediction of self‐employment intention was obtained.

Findings

The results show that the students do not perceive self‐realisation as their most salient beliefs and perceived that their entrepreneurship lecturers' expectations towards them to become self‐employed are not highly influential and need to be complied with. However, they believed that specialised entrepreneurship education (SEE) contributes to increasing entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and subsequently towards their self‐employment intention, and thus increases their employability value.

Research limitations/implications

This research only studies students' self‐employment intention in their respective universities and not their actual behaviour. Results from the paper are limited in ability to demonstrate “actual” outcomes that result from the interaction of the antecedents in universities' confinement.

Practical implications

The paper provides an important analysis of the current status of entrepreneurship students in Malaysian universities. The findings provide insight on the development of effective entrepreneurship programme deliveries and methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a basis to improve the effectiveness of SEE in Malaysian universities and in turn produce highly employable graduates.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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