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Article

Sachin Kumar, Tapan K. Panda, Abhishek Behl and Anil Kumar

The present situation is marked by the threat of COVID-19 pandemic on entire humankind and researchers across the globe are looking forward to vaccines or medicines to…

Abstract

Purpose

The present situation is marked by the threat of COVID-19 pandemic on entire humankind and researchers across the globe are looking forward to vaccines or medicines to tackle COVID-19. However, according to the scholars and health-care agencies, vaccines alone would not be of much help and in the longer run adhering to the physical distancing policy along with sanitation could be the only solution. Moreover, extant studies across different areas have noted a positive association between various human psychological factors and prosocial behaviours. Additionally, an empirical study undertaken in the western context has tried exploring the association between human psychological factors and physical distancing behaviour (a kind of prosocial behaviour) in the COVID-19 context. The results of the extant study seem intriguing and encouraging enough to undertake a more robust exploratory study in this developing area. Against this background, this study aims to explore the relationship between individuals’ mindfulness and physical distancing behaviour, along with the mediating role of empathy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the study objectives, this study has used an online survey method and has collected responses from the general adult population in India spread across all six regions. The survey was conducted during May 2020 when India was under a nationwide lockdown to mitigate the risk of COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents were identified based on convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Using social media platforms, the prospective respondents were contacted through WhatsApp, LinkedIn and Facebook or e-mails. Post data cleaning, a total of 315 responses were found to be suitable for analysis. For analysis, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to establish the validity and reliability of the conceptual model, whereas Pearson correlation was undertaken to study the relationship between variables and mediation was examined using the PROCESS macro of Hayes.

Findings

The findings were encouraging and could become the foundation stone for further research and a practical guide for policymakers, agencies working in the health-care areas and even corporate leaders. As expected, an individual’s mindfulness was noted to be positively-related and influencing physical distancing behaviour. The mediation analysis indicated the intervening role of empathy in the association between an individual’s mindfulness and physical distancing behaviour.

Practical implications

The findings of the present could be a game-changer in restricting the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. As espoused by various scholars, as well as health-care organizations about the use of physical distancing in mitigating the risk of COVID-19, policymakers, health-care authorities and even corporate leaders could look forward to strategizing and execute the dissemination of various mindfulness-based programs among the individuals. These mindfulness-based programs, which could be disseminated offline and online through smartphones, could, in turn, help in positively influence physical distancing behaviour among the individuals leading to the success of physical distancing policy.

Social implications

This study relates and extends the mechanism of mindfulness in influencing individuals’ physical distancing behaviour in the pandemic situation, notably the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, based on the “empathy-altruism hypothesis”, as well as Schwartz’s theory of fundamental values, the intervening role of empathy has been explored and the findings further helped in extended these two theories in the domain of pandemic.

Originality/value

This study could be the first to conceptualize and examine the human psychological factors, particularly the relationship and role of an individual’s mindfulness with physical distancing behaviour among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, this could also be the first study to conceptualize and explore the intervening role of empathy in the relationship between an individual’s mindfulness and physical distancing behaviour. Moreover, in conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between an individual’s mindfulness and physical distancing behaviour, this study explored and extended the “reperceiving” mechanism of mindfulness and the “empathy-altruism hypothesis” along with Schwartz’s theory of fundamental values in the domain of pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part

C. Daniel Batson and Nadia Y. Ahmad

Research supporting the empathy–altruism hypothesis suggests that the value assumption of the theory of rational choice is wrong. Apparently, humans can value more than…

Abstract

Research supporting the empathy–altruism hypothesis suggests that the value assumption of the theory of rational choice is wrong. Apparently, humans can value more than their own welfare. Empathic concern felt for someone in need can produce altruistic motivation with the ultimate goal of increasing that person's welfare. But this altruistic motivation is not always good. Research also reveals that empathy-induced altruism can pose a threat to the collective good in social dilemmas. Indeed, in certain non-trivial circumstances, it can pose a more powerful threat than does self-interested egoism.

Details

Altruism and Prosocial Behavior in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-573-0

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Article

Laura K. Taylor and Jeffrey R. Hanna

The purpose of this paper is to explore altruism born of suffering (ABS), a theory that explains how the experience of suffering within one’s own life may result in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore altruism born of suffering (ABS), a theory that explains how the experience of suffering within one’s own life may result in the motivation to help others, even outgroup members.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 186 emerging adults (63 per cent female, 37 per cent male; 69 per cent Protestant, 41 per cent Catholic; average age =21.3, SD=2.57 years old) in Northern Ireland, a setting of protracted intergroup conflict. Participants were randomly assigned to an in/outgroup condition, read four types of adversity that occurred to same-sex victim(s), and indicated their empathetic response and how much they would like to help the victims.

Findings

Moderated mediation analyses revealed that empathy for the victim partially mediated the impact of perceived harm on desire to help; moreover, recent negative life events strengthened the link between harm and empathy. The path between empathy and helping was stronger in the outgroup compared to the ingroup condition.

Practical implications

These findings support ABS, highlighting empathy as a key factor underlying more constructive intergroup relations in a divided society.

Originality/value

This paper extends previous research on ABS by focusing on a post-accord context. The value of the current analyses demonstrate the important role of fostering empathy to promote outgroup helping in settings of divisive group identities.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article

Tariq Abdullatif Halimi, Clare D’Souza and Gillian Sullivan-Mort

As the Arab/Muslim-Israeli animosity case is attracting international attention, citizens of non-Arab and non-Muslim countries around the world, referred to as…

Abstract

Purpose

As the Arab/Muslim-Israeli animosity case is attracting international attention, citizens of non-Arab and non-Muslim countries around the world, referred to as third-country nationals (TCNs), are increasingly joining the boycott against Israel. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of empathy for the citizens of the countries offended by Israel, namely Palestine and Lebanon, as a potential factor affecting TCNs decision to boycott Israeli products.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with non-Arab, non-Muslim, and non-Israeli informants from different national and religious backgrounds, supported by secondary data sources. The qualitative grounded theory approach was employed to analyse data in order to answer the research questions.

Findings

TCNs decision to boycott Israeli products is affected by their empathic concern for the citizens of Palestine and Lebanon rather than by animosity towards Israel. Such concern is evoked by their awareness of the animosity case and further strengthened by their self-transcendence/universalism values and interaction with the case which activate their altruism towards the citizens of the offended countries, and consequently motivates them to relieve or reduce the suffering of these citizens by avoiding Israeli products. Greater emphasis is given to the Arab/Muslim-Israeli animosity case as a result of the greater empathic emotional impact it generates compared to other cases.

Originality/value

This is an original attempt to distinguish empathy from animosity as a factor which can affect TCNs decision to buy from a country engaged in hostile actions against another country other than their own. As the boycott campaign against the country under examination is growing internationally, this study can help international marketers in setting strategies to either exploit or combat the boycott campaign.

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Article

Iman Naderi and Eric Van Steenburg

This research aims to shed greater light on millennials’ green behavior by examining four psychographic variables (selfless altruism, frugality, risk aversion, and time…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to shed greater light on millennials’ green behavior by examining four psychographic variables (selfless altruism, frugality, risk aversion, and time orientation) that may be relevant to millennials’ motives to engage in environmental activities.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a sample of younger millennials (n = 276; age = 18 to 30) using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique.

Findings

Overall, the results of the study reveal that rational and self-oriented rather than emotional and others-oriented motives lead millennials to act pro-environmentally.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have implications for environmental advocates, policymakers and green marketers. For instance, the findings suggest that environmental regulators and lawmakers should continue their efforts to provide economic incentives to encourage pro-environmental purchases among millennials. Additionally, marketers of green products may pursue self-directed targeting strategies in promoting green products among millennials.

Originality/value

Millennials grasp the environmental consequences of their actions and have the education, motivation and social awareness to participate in the green movement. However, they have not truly begun to fully integrate their beliefs and actions. The present study is an initial attempt to address this issue by investigating various psychological factors that are relevant to the millennials’ core behavioral motives.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Book part

Gerald F. Burch, Andrew A. Bennett, Ronald H. Humphrey, John H. Batchelor and Athena H. Cairo

Empathy, or the process of feeling or knowing how another feels, is a critical component of social interactions, and may be of particular importance to organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

Empathy, or the process of feeling or knowing how another feels, is a critical component of social interactions, and may be of particular importance to organizational functioning. This chapter addresses a literature gap on empathy in organizational contexts by providing a review of empathy research in a management setting.

Methodology/approach

We integrate the developing field of empathy research and provide a conceptual framework built on Ashkanasy’s (2003) five levels of analysis in emotions research, emphasizing within-person, between-person, interpersonal, group-level, and organization-level processes.

Findings

Our model addresses the complaint that empathy definitions are not consistent by illustrating how the level of analysis alters the view of empathy’s role in organizations.

Research implications

This multi-level model of empathy provides a framework to identify gaps in the empathy literature and make recommendations for future research.

Practical implications

This new model of empathy will help practitioners use and understand empathy by providing a structure of how empathy is manifested in organizational settings.

Originality/value

The field of empathy research has been limited by inconsistent definitions and a lack of a model that outlines how empathy is used in organizations. This multi-level model of empathy provides the necessary framework for researchers and practitioners to advance the research and practice of empathy in organizations.

Details

Emotions and Organizational Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-998-5

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Article

Anna S. Mattila and Lydia Hanks

In today's competitive marketplace, companies are devoting an increasing amount of time and money to establishing themselves as socially responsible, in an effort to…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's competitive marketplace, companies are devoting an increasing amount of time and money to establishing themselves as socially responsible, in an effort to appeal to the value system of their target customers (Sen and Bhattacharya). In the current study, the paper focuses on corporate social responsibility (CSR) appeals in which the company promises to donate a portion of the purchase price to a charitable cause and requests a matching donation from the customer. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the joint effects of status, proximity to CSR, and empathy towards the cause on consumers' willingness to donate money to a charity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used written scenarios and a 2×2×2 between subjects quasi experimental design to test the hypotheses. The authors predicted that status would interact with empathy and proximity of the cause to influence customers' donation behavior.

Findings

The results supported these predictions. Status seeking individuals exhibited higher levels of prosocial behaviors when the cause was a national one, particularly when the individual felt empathy towards the distant cause. Conversely, empathy feelings had a positive impact donation intent when the cause was a local one and status seeking was not activated.

Originality/value

The results of this study have significant implications for marketers and managers who are considering launching a CSR program. By aligning the cause with the type of consumer, corporations may be able to obtain a higher response rate from customers, thereby increasing the level of consumer involvement and engagement.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

Aluisius Hery Pratono

This study aims to understand the complex relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by examining the role of materialism attitude and empathy.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the complex relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by examining the role of materialism attitude and empathy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed a structural equation model with some measures taken from the previous literature. This study conducted a survey of young people in Indonesia context and used partial least square to test the proposed hypothesis.

Findings

The empirical results indicate the mechanism from religiosity to citizenship behaviour involves empathy. However, under high materialism attitude, an increasing level of religiosity will have a lower impact on citizenship than the individual under low materialism attitude.

Originality/value

This study extends to the discussion on the complicated relationship between religiosity and citizenship behaviour by introducing the moderating effect of materialism attitude and the mediating effect of empathy.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article

Michael Lwin, Ian Phau and Aaron Lim

– This paper aims to explore the demographic and psychographic characteristics of Bruneians in relation to charitable donation behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the demographic and psychographic characteristics of Bruneians in relation to charitable donation behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via an intercept approach at five major intersections of the central business district in the city of Brunei. Data were analysed using SPSS, with factor analysis being conducted before applying a series of t-tests and ANOVAs.

Findings

Overall there is no relationship between age, income and gender, and donating behaviour. Results show that perceived generosity does not play an important role in Brunei compared to previous studies. The cause of this phenomenon could be due to the influence of the Bruneian culture. That is, the government takes a large responsibility for charitable events in Brunei and for this reason charitable donations from citizens are limited. Analysis also showed the importance of religion in predicting donation behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Further research in this paper should attempt to make more cross-cultural comparisons of donor characteristics. This would provide a more holistic perspective on donor behaviour and thus assist managerial decisions in the marketing of charities. The effects of religiosity on donation behaviour should be further analysed to ascertain the variances of donation behaviour across cultures with high dominance of religion.

Originality/value

The principal contribution of this paper is that it provides insights into the nuances and characteristics of Bruneians in relation to attitudes and behaviour towards charitable donations.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Book part

Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron

In this chapter, we assume the following: (1) the root cause of most organizational problems is culture and leadership, (2) executives seldom want to deal with these root…

Abstract

In this chapter, we assume the following: (1) the root cause of most organizational problems is culture and leadership, (2) executives seldom want to deal with these root causes, (3) because life is uncertain, organizational change is an emergent process, (4) most change processes unfold by reconstructing social reality, (5) the change process is inherently relational, (6) effective change efforts are enhanced by increasing the virtue of the actors, (7) change is embedded in the learning that flows from high-quality relationships, and (8) change agents may have to transcend conventional, economic exchange norms in order to demonstrate integrity and to build trust and openness. Drawing on the field of positive organizational scholarship, we focus on the change agent. We review the literature on self-change and offer several paths for becoming a positive leader.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-554-3

Keywords

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