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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

J. Andrew Morris and Daniel C. Feldman

Over the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to employees' displays of emotions to customers during service transactions and particularly to how…

Abstract

Over the last ten years, increasing attention has been given to employees' displays of emotions to customers during service transactions and particularly to how organisations try to control these emotional displays (Adelmann, 1989; Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Hochschild, 1983; Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987, 1989; Wharton & Erickson, 1993). The act of expressing organisationally‐desired emotions during service interactions has been labelled emotional labour (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Hochschild, 1983). The issue in emotional labour research which has received the most focus has been “emotional dissonance”, that is, the state of discomfort generated in employees when they have to express emotions which they do not genuinely feel (Middleton, 1989). In large part, this attention to emotional dissonance has been based on the potential negative consequences that emotional dissonance can have for workers psychological well being (Hochschild, 1983; Erickson, 1991; Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987; Wharton, 1993). This study seeks to extend previous empirical research on when emotional dissonance is most likely to result in these negative consequences and, especially, the importance of role internalisation as a mediating variable in the emotional dissonance‐psychological well‐being relationship.

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Management Research News, vol. 19 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Jürgen Wegge, Rolf Van Dick and Christiane von Bernstorff

The purpose of this paper is to investigate new hypotheses regarding potential correlates and underpinnings of emotional dissonance experienced in call centre work. It is…

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4839

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate new hypotheses regarding potential correlates and underpinnings of emotional dissonance experienced in call centre work. It is argued that prior attempts to measure emotional dissonance are incomplete because such measures often do not specify which emotions are actually not shown (e.g. faked, suppressed, veiled) during work.

Design/methodology/approach

A field study with 161 call centre agents was conducted. Positive affectivity (PA), negative affectivity (NA) of agents and customer verbal aggression were conceptualized as correlates of emotional dissonance, whereas job satisfaction, health disorders and burnout were assessed as indicators of agents' work motivation and well‐being. To investigate the emotional underpinnings of emotional dissonance the Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales (FEWS) was used and, in addition, agents were asked to report frequency, intensity and “not showing” of 15 separate emotions.

Findings

The results show that emotional dissonance was associated with lower work motivation and well‐being. Moreover, NA and customer aggression correlated positively whereas PA correlated negatively with emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance measured with the FEWS was significantly related to the frequency of longing, the intensity of anger and the not showing of boredom, affection and anger.

Originality/value

The findings support the construct validity of the FEWS. However, based on correlations with agents' self‐rated ability to perform on a high level and interactions between NA and customer aggression that emerged only when emotion‐specific dissonance measures were analyzed, this paper suggests combining emotion‐specific dissonance measures with the FEWS in future research.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Osman M. Karatepe, Ilkay Yorganci and Mine Haktanir

The central purpose of this study is to develop and test a model which examines the effects of customer verbal aggression on emotional dissonance, emotional exhaustion…

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5272

Abstract

Purpose

The central purpose of this study is to develop and test a model which examines the effects of customer verbal aggression on emotional dissonance, emotional exhaustion, and job outcomes such as service recovery performance, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. The model also investigates the impact of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion and the effects of emotional dissonance and exhaustion on the above‐mentioned job outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from a sample of frontline hotel employees in Northern Cyprus via self‐administered questionnaires. A total number of 204 questionnaires were obtained.

Findings

As hypothesized, emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion were found to be significant outcomes of customer verbal aggression. The results demonstrated that emotional dissonance amplified exhaustion. The results further revealed that customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance intensified turnover intentions. As expected, emotional exhaustion reduced service recovery performance and job satisfaction and aggravated turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The cross‐sectional design of the study constrains the ability to make causal inferences. Therefore, future studies using longitudinal designs would be beneficial in establishing causal relationships. Although the paper controlled for common method bias via Harman's single‐factor test, future studies using multiple sources for data collection would minimize such a problem.

Practical implications

Hotel managers need to arrange training programmes to enable their employees to cope with the actions of boisterous and boorish customers. Having empowerment in the workplace seems to be an important weapon in managing such customers. In addition, managers should recruit and select the most suitable individuals for frontline service positions so that such employees can cope with difficulties associated with customer verbal aggression, emotional dissonance, and emotional exhaustion.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence pertaining to the consequences of customer verbal aggression in the hospitality management and marketing literatures is meagre. Thus the study partially fills this gap in the research stream of customer verbal aggression.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Osman M. Karatepe

Using the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model as the theoretical framework, the purpose of this study is to develop and test a research model that investigates the…

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4160

Abstract

Purpose

Using the Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) model as the theoretical framework, the purpose of this study is to develop and test a research model that investigates the moderating role of perceived organizational support and job autonomy on the relationships between emotional dissonance and exhaustion and disengagement. The model also seeks to test the impact of emotional dissonance on exhaustion and disengagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this empirical investigation were gathered from a sample of full‐time frontline hotel employees in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. Respondents self‐administered the questionnaires. A total number of 620 questionnaires were obtained.

Findings

Results based on hierarchical regression analysis reveal that emotional dissonance intensifies exhaustion and disengagement. Results also demonstrate that perceived organizational support and job autonomy buffer the impact of emotional dissonance on disengagement.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should use longitudinal data to establish causal relationships among the study variables. Although common method bias was controlled via Harman's single‐factor test using confirmatory factor analysis, in future studies it would be beneficial to collect data from multiple sources to minimize this potential threat.

Practical implications

There is a need for effective and continuous training programs for frontline employees to learn how to cope with emotionally demanding interactions with customers in the service encounter. Hotel managers should employ mentors and/or benefit from the existing successful more experienced senior employees as mentors to provide professional assistance to less experienced junior employees for the alleviation of emotional dissonance and burnout. In addition, supervisors should be trained to learn how to provide assistance for front‐line employees to reduce emotional dissonance and disengagement. Having jobs with adequate autonomy in the workplace could help such front‐line employees to decrease emotional dissonance and experience less disengagement.

Originality/value

Empirical research pertaining to the moderators of emotional dissonance in the hospitality management and marketing literatures is sparse. Hence, based on the precepts of the JD‐R model, this study aims to fill this void.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Ruhama Goussinsky

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotional dissonance in the customer aggression‐job‐induced tension relationship and the role of job autonomy…

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1495

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating role of emotional dissonance in the customer aggression‐job‐induced tension relationship and the role of job autonomy in buffering against the negative consequences of emotional dissonance.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, three samples of service workers were recruited from Northern Israel between the years 2007 and 2008 and data were collected with self‐reported questionnaires. Research hypotheses were tested with hierarchical regression analyses.

Findings

The present results show that emotional dissonance is significantly associated with a decreased sense of well‐being, even after controlling for negative disposition. The results also confirm that customer aggression relates to job‐induced tension through its influence on emotional dissonance, and that emotional dissonance is less likely to increase job‐induced tension and emotional exhaustion when the level of job autonomy is high.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that when intense emotional labor is required, helping service providers feel that they have control in their jobs may contribute to a better coping with its aversive effects.

Originality/value

Although it has been established that emotional dissonance plays a crucial role in explaining tension and psychological health‐related problems among service workers, an understanding of the factors at work that may protect employees from its negative consequences, is limited. This paper sheds light on the role of autonomy as a resource for service workers and especially for those whose jobs habitually require interactions with verbally abusive customers.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Rebecca Abraham

In the workplace, emotional dissonance is the conflict between emotions experienced by the employee and those required by the organization. Earlier studies have…

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5399

Abstract

In the workplace, emotional dissonance is the conflict between emotions experienced by the employee and those required by the organization. Earlier studies have established that emotional dissonance reduces job satisfaction and exacerbates emotional exhaustion. Emotional dissonance typically occurs during interactions between employees and customers in service industries. As Western economies are dominated by service industries, emotional dissonance may result in rising numbers of dissatisfied and burned out employees. This study examined the process by which emotional dissonance operates, and the impact of self‐esteem on emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance was found to induce job tension leading, in turn, to emotional exhaustion. Employees with innately low self‐esteem were more likely to experience emotional dissonance and suffer from emotional exhaustion. Other employees found that emotional dissonance reduced their self‐esteem leaving them dissatisfied.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Rebecca Abraham

Presents a model conceptualizing the role of emotional dissonance in organizational behavior. Emotional dissonance is a form of person‐role conflict originating from the…

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4911

Abstract

Presents a model conceptualizing the role of emotional dissonance in organizational behavior. Emotional dissonance is a form of person‐role conflict originating from the conflict between expressed and experienced emotions. Viewed within a contingency framework, the effect of emotional dissonance on its direct consequences of job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion may vary in their intensity depending on the existence (or lack thereof) of moderators and mediators. The study presents nine propositions hypothesizing the impact of these variables to guide future empirical research. As moderators, high levels of self‐monitoring, social support and trait self‐esteem may reduce the deleterious impact of emotional dissonance on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Alternatively, emotional dissonance may induce job tension and state negative affectivity, and reduce state self‐esteem, which in turn, lead to job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and a few practical implications are discussed.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Sushanta Kumar Mishra and Kunal Kamal Kumar

The present study is based on two samples from two occupational groups (one among medical representatives in pharmaceutical industry and other among frontline employees in…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study is based on two samples from two occupational groups (one among medical representatives in pharmaceutical industry and other among frontline employees in hospitality industry). The study found support for the moderation effect of perceived organizational support (POS) on the emotional dissonance-emotional exhaustion as well as the emotional exhaustion-turnover intention relationships. In addition, the purpose of this paper is to examine the mediation of emotional exhaustion on the emotional dissonance-turnover intention relationship. The study concludes with the contributions to the literature and to the practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the survey research method the study collected the data from two occupational groups.

Findings

The study found support for the moderation effect of POS on the emotional dissonance-emotional exhaustion as well as the emotional exhaustion-turnover intention relationships.

Originality/value

The study argued the negative effects of dissonance can be minimized if the organization can take actions to ensure employees perceive the organization as supportive.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Brendan Phillips, Thomas Tsu Wee Tan and Craig Julian

The research objective of this paper is to study the broad context of emotional labor and dissonance and its importance to service marketing. This knowledge would provide…

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3090

Abstract

Purpose

The research objective of this paper is to study the broad context of emotional labor and dissonance and its importance to service marketing. This knowledge would provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to job performance and job satisfaction amongst high contact service workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is used to define and set out the main conceptual framework and propositions for further research.

Findings

Three key hypotheses divided into six sub parts are set out to test the relationships between emotional dissonance and customer orientation, job satisfaction and performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study should be extended beyond the conceptual stage by the conduct of empirical research across high contact service workers in different businesses and industries and also to explore the role of geographical and cultural settings on emotional dissonance.

Practical implications

The managerial implications would extend to improving the recruitment of customer service employees and evaluating the effectiveness of staff training programs. It would also develop among human resources personnel a good understanding of the role of emotional dissonance and its contribution to employees' job satisfaction and performance.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in knowledge on the role of emotional dissonance among high contact service workers. It provides a sound multi disciplinary framework for the study of emotional dissonance in service marketing.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Ching-Wen Yeh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that link customer verbal aggression with service sabotage. Additionally, this study also tests whether emotional

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1428

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that link customer verbal aggression with service sabotage. Additionally, this study also tests whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationships between customer verbal aggression and the revenge motive, and between customer verbal aggression and service sabotage.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigated flight attendants from six airlines in Taiwan. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed, resulting in the return of 504 valid questionnaires, yielding a valid response rate of 50.4 percent.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that: emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between customer verbal aggression and revenge motive; emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between customer verbal aggression and service sabotage; customer verbal aggression is positively related to the revenge motive; revenge motive positively relates to service sabotage.

Originality/value

This study has investigated the following: how customer verbal aggression causes revenge motive via the mediation of emotional dissonance, how customer verbal aggression results in service sabotage via the mediation of emotional dissonance. The results provide a basis for making suggestions regarding service management as a reference for airlines.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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