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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Bohee Jung, Hanku Kim and Seung Hwan (Shawn) Lee

Although graphic-based emoticons in mobile instant messenger (MIM) services became an important revenue source for their service provider, empirical research investigating…

Abstract

Purpose

Although graphic-based emoticons in mobile instant messenger (MIM) services became an important revenue source for their service provider, empirical research investigating factors influencing graphic-based emoticon purchase from the consumer's perspective is insufficient. The authors explore how user's achieved belongingness (acceptance or rejection) affects graphic based emoticon usage motivations and its purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural model is used to examine the relationship among individual's overall achieved belongingness, motivation factors of graphic-based emoticon usage in MIM such as perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, perceived enjoyment for others, social norm and emoticon purchase intentions. The authors collected and analyzed survey data of 279 Korean KakaoTalk users.

Findings

The analysis shows that perceived acceptance/inclusion positively impacts perceived usefulness, enjoyment and enjoyment of others in graphic-based emoticon usage. Meanwhile, perceived rejection/exclusion positively impacts perceived enjoyment and enjoyment of others but negatively influences perceived social norms. Moreover, social norms and perceived enjoyment directly affect graphic-based emoticon purchase intentions. The authors also find that perceived enjoyment of others and perceived social norms in a serial causal order mediate the relationship between perceived acceptance/inclusion (and rejection/exclusion) and emoticon purchase intentions.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research including users from other demographic groups, such as other age groups, is required to generalize our findings and to increase external validity.

Originality/value

Unique implications related to the role of user's achieved belongingness and perceived enjoyment of others in graphic-based emoticon usage in purchase intentions are found.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/ 10.1108/OIR-02-2020-0036

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Jung Ran Park and Houda El Mimouni

The purpose of this study is to examine how tweeters drawn from three different languages and cultural boundaries manage the lack of contextual cues through an analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how tweeters drawn from three different languages and cultural boundaries manage the lack of contextual cues through an analysis of Arabic, English and Korean tweets.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study is drawn from a corpus of tweets (n = 1,200) streamed using Python through Twitter API. Using the language information, the authors limited the number of tweets to 400 randomly selected tweets from each language, totaling 1,200 tweets. Final coding taxonomy was derived through interactive processes preceded by literature and a preliminary analysis based on a small subset (n = 150) by isolating nonverbal communication devices and emoticons.

Findings

The results of the study present that there is great commonality across these tweets in terms of strategies and creativity in compensating for the constraints imposed by the tweet platform. The language-specific characteristics are also shown in the form of different usage of devices.

Research limitations/implications

Emoticon usage indicates that the communication mode influences online social interaction; the restriction of 140 maximum characters seems to engender a frequent usage of emoticons across tweets regardless of language differences. The results of the study bring forth implications into the design of social media technologies that reflect affective aspects of communication and language-/culture-specific traits and characteristics.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no qualitative studies examining paralinguistic nonverbal communication cues in the Twitter platform across language boundaries.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 69 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Pedro Quelhas Brito, Sandra Torres and Jéssica Fernandes

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature and concept of emoticons/emojis. Instead of taking for granted that these user-generated formats are necessarily…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the nature and concept of emoticons/emojis. Instead of taking for granted that these user-generated formats are necessarily emotional, we empirically assessed in what extent are they and the specificity of each one. Drawing on congruent mood state, valence core and emotion appraisal theories we expected a compatible statistical association between positive/negative/neutral emotional valence expressions and emoticons of similar valence. The positive emoticons were consistently associated with positive valence posts. Added to that analysis, 21 emotional categories were identified in posts and correlated with eight emoticons.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were used to address this question. The first study defined emoticon concept and interpreted their meaning highlighting their communication goals and anticipated effects. The link between emojis and emoticons was also obtained. Some emoticons types present more ambiguity than others. In the second study, three years of real and private (Facebook) posts from 82 adolescents were content analyzed and coded.

Findings

Only the neutral emoticons always matched neutral emotional categories found in the written interaction. Although the emoticon valence and emotional category congruence pattern was the rule, we also detected a combination of different valence emoticons types and emotion categories valence expressions. Apparently the connection between emoticon and emotion are not so obviously straightforward as the literature used to assume. The created objects designed to communicate emotions (emoticons) have their specific corresponding logic with the emotional tone of the message.

Originality/value

Theoretically, we discussed the emotional content of emoticons/emojis. Although this king of signals have an Asian origin and later borrowed from the western countries, their ambiguity and differing specificity have never been analyzed.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Yuki Yamamoto, Tadahiko Kumamoto and Akiyo Nadamoto

– The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of calculating the sentiment value of a tweet based on the emoticon role.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of calculating the sentiment value of a tweet based on the emoticon role.

Design/methodology/approach

Classification of emoticon roles as four types showing “emphasis”, “assuagement”, “conversion” and “addition”, with roles determined based on the respective relations to sentiment of sentences and emoticons.

Findings

Clustering of users of four types based on emoticon sentiment.

Originality/value

Formalization, using regression analysis, of the relation of sentiment between sentences and emoticons in all roles.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Crystal T. Lee and Sara H. Hsieh

With the rapid surge of mobile marketing, an increasing number of brands have launched branded emoticons in an attempt to build brand relationships with consumers. Despite…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid surge of mobile marketing, an increasing number of brands have launched branded emoticons in an attempt to build brand relationships with consumers. Despite the apparent promise of branded emoticon usage, there is only limited academic research on branded emoticons. This paper aims to build on impression management theory and the conceptualization of cuteness to investigate how the effect of cuteness in branded emoticon design influences perceived playfulness in mobile instant messaging (MIM) interaction and the creation of brand engagement in self-concept.

Design/methodology/approach

Consumers with usage experience of branded emoticons in MIM apps were recruited to complete an online survey. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Two facets of cuteness – kindchenschema cuteness and whimsical cuteness – can project a favourable social image to consumers that facilitates playfulness in social interaction and enhances brand engagement in self-concept, which leads to their willingness to purchase the brand and stickiness to the MIM apps.

Originality/value

The popularity of branded emoticons represents a new form of social interaction and an innovative way to build brand relationships. The present study is the first to examine the design aspects of branded emoticons and highlights that the cuteness of a branded emoticon may be a crucial factor in engaging consumers in MIM.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Michael Schandorf

Abstract

Details

Communication as Gesture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-515-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Rebecca Mallon and Charles Oppenheim

Begins by reviewing relevant literature to identify some of the features that are said to appear exclusively in e‐mails. Also highlights the main issues in the debate…

Abstract

Begins by reviewing relevant literature to identify some of the features that are said to appear exclusively in e‐mails. Also highlights the main issues in the debate between those who embrace the new style of writing generated by e‐mail, and those who feel it is detrimental to communication. A total of 300 examples of e‐mails were obtained from a wide range of donors. Features counted included emoticons, acronyms and creative spelling. The lengths of texts and of sentences within them were amongst other calculations made. The data was grouped according to purpose: social, business personal and business impersonal. Users of e‐mail appear to be generally unconcerned with formalities. Although the sample of e‐mail texts was lucid, writers often dispense with traditions when opening their e‐mail, and their closings are informal. Social e‐mails involved the most creative sort of communication. Argues that the increased informality and lack of consistency of e‐mail texts is because e‐mail is a new medium where no clear guidelines exist. A standard for e‐mail communication might usefully be established, but such a standard should remain flexible.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Jasmin C. R. Härtel and Charmine E. J. Härtel

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to introduce readers to the basic concepts and terminologies associated with the digital age, give examples of how customer…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to introduce readers to the basic concepts and terminologies associated with the digital age, give examples of how customer service and services generally are changing as a result of digitalization, describe how emotions are being captured and used in digital communications, illustrate how people are using digital means to manage their own and workers' emotions and well-being, consider how the digital age is changing the future of services, workers, and communication between customers and organizations, and discuss some of the implications for emotions scholars and practitioners.

Design/Methodology/Approach – A literature review of recent publications on the digital age and its implications for services, work, workers, and emotions research and management.

Findings – The review covers seven areas: (1) What the digital age/economy/world is, (2) how customer service (including self-service) and services generally have changed as a result of digitalization, (3) how emotions are captured and used in social robots and digital communications, e.g., emoticons, (4) how people are using digital means (e.g., “self-tracking” and “wearables”) to manage their own emotions/feelings/well-being, (5) what some of the implications of the digital era are for emotions scholars and practitioners including methodology, (6) how people are saying the digital age will change the future of work, workers, relationships between customers and organizations, and learning, and (7) the ethical and well-being imperatives that researchers, practitioners, governments, and businesses must proactively and responsibly meet.

Practical Implications – Practically, the chapter provides information useful to five types of readers: (1) those who have emerging digital literacy or who consider themselves to be low digital natives, (2) those who are interested in understanding how customer service and services are changing because of digitalization, (3) those interested in understanding ways in which Artificial intelligence and digital tools are being used to capture and manage emotions, (4) those interested in learning how work is changing because of Industry 4.0, and (5) emotions scholars and practitioners interested in the implications of the digital world for their research and practice.

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Hany Abdelghaffar and Lobna Samer

The use of information and communication technologies to provide citizens with the opportunity to give the government their feedback on the rules currently under…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of information and communication technologies to provide citizens with the opportunity to give the government their feedback on the rules currently under development is termed as e-rulemaking. Forums – as the main technological tool used for this – has shown many shortcomings and cannot satisfy all the demands of e-rulemaking. Because social networking sites have shown a political impact on ground, they also might have the ability to remedy these shortcomings. This study aims to investigate the possibility of the use of social networking sites in e-rulemaking.

Design/methodology/approach

This research reviews democratic deliberation theory and e-rulemaking in relation with social networks that are used to develop a proposed conceptual model. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used to test the proposed model. Semi-structured interviews for mangers and surveys for citizens were used for data collection and then analyzed to draw empirical conclusions.

Findings

Certain variable were found to have a statistically significant impact on the dependent variable of this study. The variables include information collection, user interface, privacy, security and use of emoticons in communications. Through this, the research provides an understanding of the variables that significantly and insignificantly affect the use of social networking sites in e-rulemaking.

Originality/value

This research contributes with a conceptual model that outlines the influence of different variables on e-rulemaking as well as an understanding of how social networking sites could be used to improve e-rulemaking practices and citizen inclusion.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Ohbyung Kwon, Choong‐Ryuhn Kim and Gimun Kim

The use of text‐based communications such as instant messaging or social media such as Twitter has been growing significantly as the use of mobile devices increases. Not…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of text‐based communications such as instant messaging or social media such as Twitter has been growing significantly as the use of mobile devices increases. Not only do people share information via mobile communication, there are significant implications for advertising and marketing. Due to display limitations, however, the message senders use various conventions in addition to the text‐based message to more clearly and richly express emotions. Since users use a range of expressions to convey these emotions, it would be very useful to verify the relationships between users' emotional expressions and receivers' perceptions of the expressions. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to examine the relationship between emotional expressions and the emotional intensity of the receivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors formulated a series of research hypotheses and tested them using empirical survey data. The research model used is based on regression analysis with dummy variables for statistical analyses.

Findings

First, emotional intensity had a closer relationship to user acceptance than was expected. Second, the use of exclamation marks and emotional messages are far less acceptable in negative messages. Third, the high formalisation group has a more positive emotional intensity in their basic expression.

Originality/value

The authors successfully determined that emotional expressions significantly affect the message receivers' emotional intensity and hence acceptance of the message.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

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