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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Raymond Webrah Kazapoe, Emmanuel Arhin and Ebenezer Ebo Yahans Amuah

This paper aims to review the known and anticipated medical geology problems in Ghana, to highlight the impact of some trace elements on human health and to reveal some essential…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the known and anticipated medical geology problems in Ghana, to highlight the impact of some trace elements on human health and to reveal some essential aspects of medical geology on health.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature and empirical studies relating to medical geological issues in Ghana were reviewed. Secondary data were used in the present study such as case studies, reports, geological bulletins and published research studies.

Findings

High levels of heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium and mercury in gold extraction processes through artisanal small-scale mining have contributed to high concentrations of toxic elements in the environment. The distribution and availability of these elements in the environment are facilitated by the geological, chemical and local environmental activities that are irregularly spread exposing people mining areas to pollutions. Exposures to these elements in above and below baseline levels contributed to health implications including fluorosis, intellectual or developmental disability and death in some regions of Ghana. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases linked to mining activities were also presented in this study. Similarly, non-communicable diseases can affect many people if correct measures are not considered. Following the geometric increase in mining activities, it is anticipated that deleterious environmental and health impacts associated with mining may persist in mining areas in Ghana. Reported implications and continuous contamination of water bodies in mining areas could result in high pollution levels beyond treatment for human use or destroy aquatic habitats and aquatic lives through acid drainage. Above-threshold concentrations of heavy metals in soils could bio-accumulate in crops, and this could pose deleterious public health implications on consumers. Continuous effects posed on the environment and public health may prompt communities, regulatory institutions and government to reduce or ban mineral development.

Originality/value

This review has significantly revealed potential public health issues from the impact on the natural environment and recommends that medical geologists work together with medical workers to devise preventive and therapeutic techniques to address many geology-related-health issues in Ghana.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Emmanuel Arhin, Raymond Webrah Kazapoe and Fulera Salami

The purpose of this study was to define and outline areas prone to disease causing elements by analyzing the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic and essential elements…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to define and outline areas prone to disease causing elements by analyzing the spatial distribution and concentration of toxic and essential elements in a section of the Voltaian sedimentary basin.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 2,668 soil samples were analysed by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique and were re-appraised by comparing with baseline values of elements accepted globally to be in soils. The concentrations of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) were evaluated. Factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis multivariate techniques were used to identify the source patterns of the elements in the soils. The Getis-Ord Gi method was used to generate the optimised maps for these selected elements. These maps spatially defined and outlined high value clusters which imply potential pollution or areas with high background values (hotspots), whereas the low value clusters imply areas with low background values (cold-spots).

Findings

The multivariate analysis supports a dominant geogenic source of these heavy elements with obvious influences from variably metamorphosed mafic–ultramafic rocks known to have contributed to the deposition of sediments in the basin. The hotspots for As were located around Nalerigu and to the east of Nawchugu. A Cr hotspot was located to the east of Nawchugu with Cr cold-spots located within Nalerigu and Yunyuo. Fe hotspots were observed to the south of Nalerigu and the east of Nawchugu with Fe cold-spots around Yunyuo, Bongo-Da and Nagbo. The spatial maps demonstrated the presence of toxic and deficient areas of all the selected elements used in the investigation. Therefore, it suggested the likely health implications depending on the exposed elements, their pathways and recommended the usefulness of using the results displayed in the spatial maps to guide in devising appropriate remediation techniques.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the distribution of elements and the possible effects it may have on the health and livelihoods of those residing in these areas.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Philip Apraku Tawiah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Emmanuel Sintim Effah, Kingsley Arhin-Wiredu and Kwabena Oppong

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among medical laboratory science students (MLSSs) in the University of Health…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among medical laboratory science students (MLSSs) in the University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS), Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study design was employed to recruit a total of 178 students into the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather relevant information on risk factors, and a hepatitis B diagnostic test kit was used to test for HBV infection. Descriptive, chi-square test, bivariate and multiple logistic regression statistical analysis were computed. Significance was observed at p < 0.05.

Findings

The prevalence of HBV infection among MLSSs was 6.7%. Torn gloves and splash of blood and body fluids contributed to 43.0% and 28.0% of all the risk factors of HBV infection, respectively. Also, 43.3% of students had received at least one dose of the hepatitis B vaccination. Sharp object-related injury and torn gloves increased the odds of HBV infection, while vaccination decreased the odds of HBV infection.

Originality/value

This study reveals the prevalence of HBV among MLSSs, who are recognized as being among the high-risk student populations aside from student nurses.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2023

Emmanuel Asafo-Adjei, Anokye M. Adam, Peterson Owusu Junior, Clement Lamboi Arthur and Baba Adibura Seidu

This study investigates information flow of market constituents and global indices at multi-frequencies.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates information flow of market constituents and global indices at multi-frequencies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s findings were obtained using the Improved Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (I-CEEMDAN)-based cluster analysis executed for Rényi effective transfer entropy (RETE).

Findings

The authors find that significant negative information flows among sustainability equities (SEs) and conventional equities (CEs) at most multi-frequencies, which exacerbates diversification benefits. The information flows are mostly bi-directional, highlighting the importance of stock markets' constituents and their global indices in portfolio construction.

Research limitations/implications

The authors advocate that both SE and CE markets are mostly heterogeneous, revealing some levels of markets inefficiencies.

Originality/value

The empirical literature on CEs is replete with several dynamics, revealing their returns behaviour for diversification purposes, leaving very little to know about the returns behaviour of SE. Wherein, an avalanche of several initiatives on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) enjoin firms to operate socially responsible, but investors need to have a clear reason to remain sustainable into the foreseeable future period. Accordingly, the humble desire of investors is the formation of a well-diversified portfolio and would highly demand stocks to the extent that they form a reliable portfolio, especially, amid SEs and/or CEs.

研究目的

本研究擬審查多頻率的及為市場成份的信息流和全球指數。

研究設計/方法/理念

研究人員使用基於改良完全集合經驗模態分解自適應噪聲(Improved Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise)的聚類分析法,取得Rényi有效轉移熵,藉此得到研究結果。

研究結果

我們發現、於大部份多頻率,在持續性股票和傳統股票間有顯著的負信息流動,這會增加多樣化的益處。這些信息流大部份是雙向的,這強調了股票市場成份及其全球指數在構建投資組合上的重要性。

研究的局限/啟示

我們認為持續性股票市場和傳統股票市場大多為異質市場,這顯示了市場的低效率,而且這低效率的程度頗大。

研究的原創性/價值

關於傳統股票的實證性文獻裡是充滿了變革動力的,這顯示了它們以多樣化為目的的回報行為。這使我們對關於持續性股票的回報行為、認識變得實在太少了。於此,大量的企業社會責任的新措施不斷提醒各公司、要本著企業社會責任的理念去營運;但投資者需清晰明白他們為何需在可見的將來保持可持續性。因此,他們卑微的願望是一個較好的多樣化投資組合得以形成,故此他們高度要求股票要有組成可靠投資組合的性質和能力,特別是在持續性股票和/或傳統股票當中。

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

Keywords

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