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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Emma H. Wood

In order to provide a deeper understanding of small business performance the study aims to analyse data from a national survey into small firms in the events sector.

Abstract

Purpose

In order to provide a deeper understanding of small business performance the study aims to analyse data from a national survey into small firms in the events sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis used logistic regression to determine a model which best predicts the performance of these firms. The data used were part of a larger scale and previously published survey into the business activities of small events firms in the UK. The resulting model identifies those organisational variables which greatly influence performance as well as identifying the business activities which have little or no effect on performance.

Findings

The greater influencing factors were found to be related to the age of the business, the variety of promotional methods used and the sources of finance employed. The more significant factors appeared to be those of a shorter term more operational nature whereas those factors having little effect were those that related more closely to areas of strategic planning.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that small firms in the event sector are likely to perform better if they use a variety of promotional methods, make use of quality tools, and use grants rather than family and friends for funding. The use of marketing planning and research and investment in training is unlikely to improve performance, although this may be only in the short term.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the areas of business operations which can significantly affect performance and is, therefore, of practical use for smaller firms operating in this industry. The analysis also uncovers aspects where further research is required if a more comprehensive understanding of small firm performance determinants is to be gained.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Emma H. Wood and Jonathan Moss

Using techniques developed mainly in subjective well-being and “happiness” studies, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of these and related methods…

Abstract

Purpose

Using techniques developed mainly in subjective well-being and “happiness” studies, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of these and related methods for understanding and evaluating the emotional responses experienced within the live music event environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of “experience” is debated and set within the context of music events designed to create a specific type of emotional experience for the attendees. The main tools for researching experiences over a time period are considered focusing on the “experience sampling method” (ESM) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997) and the “day reconstruction method” (Kahneman et al., 2004). These methods are critiqued in terms of their usefulness and practicality as research tools in the study of audience emotions.

Findings

A revised method was then developed and a small-scale trial undertaken at a live music event, the results of which are presented and discussed. A conceptual model illustrating the interconnectedness of experience is introduced as an example of the application of the data gathered through this method to theory development. The paper concludes by reflecting on both the methodological appropriateness and practicality of ESMs as a way of gathering valuable data on the emotions engendered by events.

Research limitations/implications

An obstacle yet to be overcome is using this data to predict attitudinal and behavioural change related to arts marketing goals. However, studies in other areas have clearly shown that emotional response is a significant indicator of future behaviour suggesting that the potential is there.

Practical implications

The trialled method provides a useful starting point for better understanding the complexity of emotional effects triggered at live music events.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that an adaptation of these methods has the potential to provide much needed rich and credible data on the feelings and emotional reactions triggered by different elements of a live event.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Emma H. Wood

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events…

Abstract

Purpose

Local authorities use events and festivals within their region to help achieve a diverse range of economic and social objectives. However, the success of these events, which can take up a substantial amount of the tourism, leisure or arts and cultural budget is rarely assessed in a systematic and objective manner. This article describes the importance of measuring the impacts of such events

Design/methodology/approach

The methods for assessing the success of local authority events are trialled through the use of a case study involving two events organised by Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council.

Findings

An evaluation of the methods, after conducting the case study, indicates that the techniques produced robust data that was valuable in planning future events and in securing funding. The relative simplicity of the methods used will help to ensure that similar evaluations can be carried out in‐house for little cost for future public events.

Originality/value

This article sets out practical guidelines for undertaking the measurement and evaluation of some of the major impacts of local authority events. Similar methods can be used by other public sector organisations involved in hosting public events.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Emma H. Wood and Stephen Henderson

Whilst other researchers have emphasized the use of online discussions in support of either class based or distance learning, the purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

Whilst other researchers have emphasized the use of online discussions in support of either class based or distance learning, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how this technique works as an alternative form of assessment for large student groups mainly learning in class.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature in related areas of assessment led the team to develop the use of asynchronous online discussions and the primary research involves a trial of this method. The trial included monitoring participation, engagement and results and a comparison of these with previous, more traditional, assessments. Staff and student opinions were also sought through interviews and focus groups.

Findings

The results reveal similar findings to other researchers in this area. Specifically, the findings show some behaviour similar to that found in other assessments (lack of engagement by some, enthusiasm of others, for example), difficulties for some students to engage in critical discussion, either because of a lack of skills in this area or a mind set firmly in traditional assessment such as written exams. The results also highlighted the need to provide a framework such as that described by Lewinson as an instructional model and to incorporate the evaluation rubric of Christopher et al.

Research limitations/implications

The first trial year evaluated here has gone some way to solving the issues inherent in large cohort assessment but it is recognized that the effectiveness from both the tutors' and the students' point of view will need to be continually evaluated and improvements made as a result of this.

Practical implications

Despite the difficulties, the trial of this method has highlighted several advantages from both student and instructor perspective. The conclusion of this pilot study is that asynchronous online discussions for learning and assessment appear to be suitable for campus‐based large cohorts as they provide a depth of interaction and discussion that would not be manageable in the classroom.

Originality/value

This case study has shown that asynchronous discussions in an online environment can be used effectively in the teaching, learning and assessment of large cohorts of campus‐based students. However, in order to be effective, they need to be structured and monitored, include the creation of a “learning community” through group sign‐up, encourage user autonomy and improved writing skills as well as allow for some self‐regulation.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Ross Brennan

Abstract

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Gretchen Larsen and Noel Dennis

Abstract

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1908

AFTER the trenchant paper by Mr. A. O. Jennings, read at the Brighton meeting of the Library Association, and the very embarrassing resolution which was carried as a…

Abstract

AFTER the trenchant paper by Mr. A. O. Jennings, read at the Brighton meeting of the Library Association, and the very embarrassing resolution which was carried as a result, one can only approach the subject of the commonplace in fiction with fear and diffidence. It is generally considered a bold and dangerous thing to fly in the face of corporate opinion as expressed in solemn public resolutions, and when the weighty minds of librarianship have declared that novels must only be chosen on account of their literary, educational or moral qualities, one is almost reduced to a state of mental imbecility in trying to fathom the meaning and limits of such an astounding injunction. To begin with, every novel or tale, even if but a shilling Sunday‐school story of the Candle lighted by the Lord type is educational, inasmuch as something, however little, may be learnt from it. If, therefore, the word “educational” is taken to mean teaching, it will be found impossible to exclude any kind of fiction, because even the meanest novel can teach readers something they never knew before. The novels of Emma Jane Worboise and Mrs. Henry Wood would no doubt be banned as unliterary and uneducational by those apostles of the higher culture who would fain compel the British washerwoman to read Meredith instead of Rosa Carey, but to thousands of readers such books are both informing and recreative. A Scots or Irish reader unacquainted with life in English cathedral cities and the general religious life of England would find a mine of suggestive information in the novels of Worboise, Wood, Oliphant and many others. In similar fashion the stories of Annie Swan, the Findlaters, Miss Keddie, Miss Heddle, etc., are educational in every sense for the information they convey to English or American readers about Scots country, college, church and humble life. Yet these useful tales, because lacking in the elusive and mysterious quality of being highly “literary,” would not be allowed in a Public Library managed by a committee which had adopted the Brighton resolution, and felt able to “smell out” a high‐class literary, educational and moral novel on the spot. The “moral” novel is difficult to define, but one may assume it will be one which ends with a marriage or a death rather than with a birth ! There have been so many obstetrical novels published recently, in which doubtful parentage plays a chief part, that sexual morality has come to be recognized as the only kind of “moral” factor to be regarded by the modern fiction censor. Objection does not seem to be directed against novels which describe, and indirectly teach, financial immorality, or which libel public institutions—like municipal libraries, for example. There is nothing immoral, apparently, about spreading untruths about religious organizations or political and social ideals, but a novel which in any way suggests the employment of a midwife before certain ceremonial formalities have been executed at once becomes immoral in the eyes of every self‐elected censor. And it is extraordinary how opinion differs in regard to what constitutes an immoral or improper novel. From my own experience I quote two examples. One reader objected to Morrison's Tales of Mean Streets on the ground that the frequent use of the word “bloody” made it immoral and unfit for circulation. Another reader, of somewhat narrow views, who had not read a great deal, was absolutely horrified that such a painfully indecent book as Adam Bede should be provided out of the public rates for the destruction of the morals of youths and maidens!

Details

New Library World, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Raphaela Stadler, Allan Stewart Jepson and Emma Harriet Wood

Reflecting, reliving and reforming experiences enhance longer-term effects of travel and tourism, and have been highlighted as an important aspect in determining loyalty…

Abstract

Purpose

Reflecting, reliving and reforming experiences enhance longer-term effects of travel and tourism, and have been highlighted as an important aspect in determining loyalty, re-visitation and post-consumption satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to develop new methodological approaches to investigate emotion, memory creation and the resulting psychosocial effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes a unique combination of physiological measures and photoelicitation-based discussions within a longitudinal design. A physiological measuring instrument (electrodermal activity [EDA] tracking technology through Empatica E4 wristbands) is utilised to capture the “unadulterated” emotional response both during the experience and in reliving or remembering it. This is combined with post-experience narrative discussion groups using photos and other artefacts to give further understanding of the process of collective memory creation.

Findings

EDA tracking can enhance qualitative research methodologies in three ways: through use as an “artefact” to prompt reflection on feelings, through identifying peaks of emotional response and through highlighting changes in emotional response over time. Empirical evidence from studies into participatory arts events and the potential well-being effects upon women over the age of 70 is presented to illustrate the method.

Originality/value

The artificial environment created using experimental approaches to measure emotions and memory (common in many fields of psychology) has serious limitations. This paper proposes new and more “natural” methods for use in tourism, hospitality and events research, which have the potential to better capture participants’ feelings, behaviours and the meanings they place upon them.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Emma Harriet Wood and Maarit Kinnunen

This study aims to explore how emotionally rich collective experiences create lasting, shareable memories, which influence future behaviours. In particular, the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how emotionally rich collective experiences create lasting, shareable memories, which influence future behaviours. In particular, the role of others and of music in creating value through memories is considered using the concept of socially extended emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 250 narratives were gathered from festival attendees in the UK and Finland. Respondents completed a writing task detailing their most vivid memories, what made them memorable, their feelings at the time and as they remembered them, and how they shared them. The narratives were then analysed thematically.

Findings

Collective emotion continues to be co-created long after the experience through memory-sharing. The music listened to is woven through this extension of the experience but is, surprisingly, not a critical part of it. The sociality of the experience is remembered most and was key to the memories shared afterwards. The added value of gathering memorable moments, and being able to share them with others, is clearly evidenced.

Practical implications

The study highlights the importance of designing events to create collective emotional moments that form lasting memories. This emphasizes the role of post-experience marketing and customer relationship building to enhance the value that is created customer-to-customer via memory sharing.

Originality/value

The research addresses the lack of literature exploring post-event experience journeys and the collective nature of these. It also deepens a theoretical understanding of the role of time and sociality in the co-creation and extension of emotions and their value in hospitality consumption. A model is proposed to guide future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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