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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2012

Krystal Tribbett

Purpose – Emissions trading is often heralded as an efficient approach to environmental regulation. In the mid-90s Communities for a Better Environment (CBE), a Los…

Abstract

Purpose – Emissions trading is often heralded as an efficient approach to environmental regulation. In the mid-90s Communities for a Better Environment (CBE), a Los Angeles-based advocacy organization, raised concerns that emissions trading in the South Coast Air Basin, the most polluted region in Southern California, would result in environmental injustice. The organizations concerns received mixed responses from regulators. Historical analysis is used to assess the clash between emissions trading and environmental justice (EJ).

Methodology/approach – Emissions trading and EJ arose side by side between the 1960s and the 1990s, yet they disagree on how to clean the air. Historical analysis of legal documents, presidential addresses, letters, working papers, reports, and the like offers a better understanding of the development of emissions trading and EJ, and their intersection in environmental policy.

Findings – Emissions trading was grafted onto Clean Air Act policies not inherently designed for their incorporation. As a result, emissions trading came into direct philosophical opposition with EJ as political pressures calling for both economically efficient antiregulatory-ism and environmental equity forced their intersection. Formally, regional and national government accepted EJ as part of law. However, in principle, emissions trading undermined this acceptance. As a result, CBE could not easily win or explicitly lose its battle against emissions trading.

Originality/value of paper – Previous work on the relationship between emissions trading and EJ tend to focus on legal analysis and normative implications of emissions trading. Putting emissions trading and environment justice into historical perspective helps to illuminate larger questions about EJ activism and policy. Also, as California, the United States, and Europe turn to emissions trading to combat not only air pollution but also climate change, important lessons can be learned from the histories and collision of emissions trading and EJ.

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Qin Wang, Hui Gao, Fushuan Wen, Iain MacGill and Jiansheng Huang

The purpose of this paper is to overview the development of China's emission trading, which is transforming environmental policy measures from traditional command and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to overview the development of China's emission trading, which is transforming environmental policy measures from traditional command and control regulations to business‐led decision making within government initiated environmental markets, and investigates the main factors that affect China's policy making with regards to further climate changes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the authors' review of the literatures on emissions trading program in China and their critical analysis.

Findings

Initially China's environmental protection policies were focused principally upon the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions for improving air quality. Since the authorization of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, project‐based activities such as Clean Development Mechanism producing carbon credit developed rapidly. However, the implementation of carbon dioxide emission trading is still under discussion and research is much inferior to that of SO2 emission trading. The barriers of and suggestions for designing future emissions trading market are also discussed.

Originality/value

This review helps to raise awareness and understand possible scenarios for emission trading in China.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Jacob Hörisch

This paper aims to identify under which circumstances company internal emission trading schemes (IETS) are applied and to examine their actual effects on corporate

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify under which circumstances company internal emission trading schemes (IETS) are applied and to examine their actual effects on corporate greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using contingency theory, factors are identified that influence corporate decisions to introduce an IETS. To examine the effects of IETSs, emissions data for a sample of large German companies is used for linear regression modelling.

Findings

The paper finds that today, IETSs are mainly applied by companies with high levels of emissions that are subject to external trading schemes. The current use of IETSs seems to be primarily driven by the interest to reduce emissions cost-efficiently. Testing the effects of IETSs reveals that they are able to reduce corporate GHG emissions significantly.

Research limitations/implications

The effects of IETSs are only tested for companies subject to an external emission trading scheme. Furthermore, the analysis does not distinguish between different types of IETSs. Future research should address the issue of whether the reductions observed also hold true for companies not subject to external trading schemes and should formulate recommendations on how IETSs should be designed.

Practical implications

The paper informs practitioners about the potential benefits of IETSs.

Originality/value

For the first time, the effects of IETSs are tested for companies subject to an external emission trading scheme. The analysis suggests that a new academic debate on IETSs is needed as the introduction of external emission trading schemes has not rendered IETSs redundant.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Clifford Curtis Williams

This article purports to show that an adequate anti-money laundering (AML) regime must be integrated into the carbon emissions market industry in order for it to function…

Abstract

Purpose

This article purports to show that an adequate anti-money laundering (AML) regime must be integrated into the carbon emissions market industry in order for it to function effectively, meet its intended goals, and prevent criminals from developing innovative methods to take advantage of particular vulnerabilities this unique market type has created.

Design/methodology/approach

This article discusses the formation of the international carbon emissions marketplace. It posits that critical to the formation and effective operation of any carbon emissions trading market is the simultaneous coexistence of an AML regime preventing criminals from taking advantage of legislative deficiencies. Lastly, the article formulates and analyzes emerging criminal typology threats to which current, developing, and future carbon emissions markets are and will be subject.

Findings

Under the EU ETS, effective AML safeguards were not initially included in the implementation and formation of the EU's carbon emissions trading market, subjecting it to numerous threats and abuses from criminals. The lack of an effective AML regime has resulted in novel and unique criminal typology threats that are currently emerging and need to be addressed to prevent abuses in new and existing carbon emissions trading markets.

Research limitations/implications

The EU has recently started addressing its lack of effective AML safeguards in its carbon emissions trading market. As such, the adequacy of legislative developments needs to be examined over time. Additionally, because many of the emerging criminal typologies identified are based on recent and limited data, further research on the extent of criminality that is actually occurring is recommended.

Originality/value

Because emerging criminal typology threats in carbon emissions trading markets has not been researched at the scholarly level, this article is unique and has substantial value to the AML community.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Ke Wang, Yujiao Xian, Jieming Zhang, Yi Li and Linan Che

This study aims to provide an estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission abatement costs in China’s industry sector during the period of 2006-2010, and additionally…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide an estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission abatement costs in China’s industry sector during the period of 2006-2010, and additionally provide an ex-post estimation of CO2 abatement cost savings that would be realized if carbon emission permits trading among different industry sectors of 30 provinces in China during the same period were allowed, to answer the question that whether the industrial carbon emission abatement cost can (partially) be recovered from carbon emission trading in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The joint production framework associated with the environmental technology is utilized for formulating the models for estimating abatement costs and simulating emission permits trading scheme. Several data envelopment analysis-based models that could deal with both the desirable and undesirable outputs within the above framework are utilized for abatement cost saving estimation. The weak disposability assumption and variable returns to scale assumption are applied in the modelling.

Findings

In China’s industry sector, during 2006-2010, the estimated CO2 emission abatement cost was 1,842 billion yuan, which accounts for 2.45 per cent of China’s total industrial output value; the emission abatement cost saving from emission permits trading would be 315 billion yuan, which accounts for 17.12 per cent of the emission opportunity abatement cost; and additional 1,065.95 million tonnes of CO2 emission reductions would be realized from emission permits trading, and this accounts for 4.75 per cent of the total industrial CO2 emissions.

Research limitations/implications

The estimation is implemented at the regional level, i.e. the emission permits trading subjects are the whole industry sectors in different Chinese provinces, because of the data limitation in this study. Further estimation could be implemented at the enterprise level to provide a deeper insight into the abatement cost recovery from emission permits trading.

Practical implications

The estimation models and calculation process introduced in this study could be applied for evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of pollutant emission permits trading schemes from the perspective that whether these market-based abatement policy instruments help to realize the potential abatement cost savings.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no study has provided the estimation of CO2 emission abatement cost and the estimation of CO2 abatement cost saving effect from emission permits trading for China’s industry sector. This study provides the first attempt to fill this research gap.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Zhen Lu

This paper seeks to investigate sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading practice in China and discusses what it might reveal about the suitability of using emissions

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1657

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to investigate sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading practice in China and discusses what it might reveal about the suitability of using emissions trading to achieve carbon reductions in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores the Taiyuan SO2 emissions trading program case through interviews with key participants in the scheme. The interview questions are developed from the literature on emissions trading practice and theory.

Findings

The Taiyuan SO2 emissions trading program does not seem to be functioning anything like a theoretically ideal model and this brings into question proposals to introduce emissions trading in China. Limitations would seem to be the semi‐free market, the weakness of the legal system and the nature of business‐bureaucracy interactions.

Research limitations/implications

This case study is geographically limited, as are most emissions trading schemes in China and the number of interviewees is relatively small. There was also little historical quantitative data because of the limited records kept in the enterprises and so there is a high reliance on interviewees' recollection.

Practical implications

The evidence suggests that a national carbon trading scheme may not be suitable in China in the short run because the implementation of the program and emissions trading market are very important.

Originality/value

This is the first paper investigating the actual performance of SO2 emissions trading practice in China and also the first one discussing the suitability of using emissions trading to achieve carbon reductions in China based on the existing practice.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Murad Harasheh and Andrea Amaduzzi

This paper aims to investigate the value relevance of the European Emission Allowance (EUA) return and volatility on the equity value of the top listed European Power…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the value relevance of the European Emission Allowance (EUA) return and volatility on the equity value of the top listed European Power Generation Firms for the three trading phases of the European Emission Trading Scheme.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the multifactor financial market model over the period 2005-2016 on daily basis for the return relevance relationship, whereas time series models such as autoregression moving average and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity are applied on a weighted average portfolio of the sample firms to test serial correlation and volatility of returns.

Findings

The findings are novel in which a positive and significant relevance of EUA return on equity return is shown; however, a vanishing effect is seen as one moves to further trading phases. Another remarkable finding is that the return relationship remains constant until a certain level in EUA price then inverts. Finally, the authors present that EUA is considered a systematic factor as firm and country-specific features are not statistically significant.

Practical implications

At policy level, these findings signal policymakers for an appropriate design of the future trading phases in which they achieve the balance between public interests, as climate risk mitigation by reducing emissions, and the private interests of the market players to support innovative changes.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this study would be the first to offer recent and comprehensive findings on the economic and financial implications of the European Emission Trading Scheme for the three trading phases. Additionally, the research offers time series robustness check besides the standard regression analysis and shows that there is an optimal EUA price that triggers polluters’ decision on emission and generation.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Ye Duan, Zenglin Han, Hao Zhang and Hongye Wang

Environmental problems such as CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emissions have seriously affected the development of the steel industry, which has urged the industry to adopt a more…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental problems such as CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) emissions have seriously affected the development of the steel industry, which has urged the industry to adopt a more effective emission reduction policy. This paper aims to analyze the impact of various CO2 emission reduction policies combinations on the economic benefits and environmental changes of the steel industry and to determine the scope of application.

Design/methodology/approach

To compare the impact and applicable implementation conditions, a production decision game model that incorporates these two policies has been constructed. Short-, medium- and long-term constraints are set on the emission reduction indicators and the indicators’ changes under various scenarios are compared.

Findings

In the case of a single emission reduction policy, the carbon trading (CT) mechanism is better than the carbon tax mechanism. The mixed carbon trading mechanism is superior to the mixed carbon tax mechanism in terms of total output and subsidies, but worse in terms of overall social welfare, producer surplus and macro losses.

Originality/value

This paper constructs multiple emission reduction and production backgrounds and discusses the impact of the comprehensive implementation of these policies, which is practically absent in previous studies. It is in line with the current industrial policy for stable production and environmental protection and also provides a reference for the formulation of detailed policies in the future.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Neng Shen, Yuqing Zhao and Rumeng Deng

This paper aims to review the literature on carbon trading from the perspective of evolution, finds out the evolution path of these literatures and gives out the future…

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1408

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the literature on carbon trading from the perspective of evolution, finds out the evolution path of these literatures and gives out the future research hotspots in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses visualization tools (CiteSpace and HistCite) to systematically categorize the literature on carbon-trading schemes in the Web of Science core collection from 1998 to 2018, comprehensively analyzes carbon-trading schemes from four dimensions, namely, discipline evolution, keyword evolution, citation cluster evolution and citation path evolution.

Findings

Research on carbon-trading schemes has a specific development and evolution path along four dimensions, namely, in the discipline dimension, the largest change lies in the mathematics pointed to by at least four different disciplines; the keyword evolution dimension shows a gradual deepening emphasis on coordinated development; citation clusters identify three major clusters – carbon prices, China’s carbon trading, carbon market and supply chain; and citation paths identify three major evolutionary paths, the most important of which shows that “What affects carbon price?” has changed to “What is the impact of carbon prices?”

Originality/value

Reveals the evolution path of carbon trading research studies and proposes four possible development directions for carbon-trading scheme research, which is helpful for future carbon trading-related research and serves as a reference for the promotion of and improvements in carbon-trading schemes.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Richard F. Kosobud, Houston H. Stokes and Carol D. Tallarico

A new financial asset (Allotment Trading Unit or ATU) that allows a firm to pollute was issued to a number of Chicago firms in 2000 as part of a cap‐and‐trade model to…

Abstract

A new financial asset (Allotment Trading Unit or ATU) that allows a firm to pollute was issued to a number of Chicago firms in 2000 as part of a cap‐and‐trade model to reduce emissions in the Chicago area. A model of this market was developed to enable us to: 1.) Estimate equilibrium tradable credit prices and quantities and calculate compliance costs for comparison with traditional environmental regulation; 2.) Estimate the consequences for prices and quantities of introducing changing emitter costs; and 3.) Estimate the impacts on prices and quantities of changing market features such as auctioning tradable credits instead of a free allocation, introducing spatial constraints, and changing the emissions cap. The model's results on the price determination of this new financial asset are of interest to accountants and financial analysts. A dated bankable ATU credit has a one‐year life expectancy, but future tradable credits can be bought or sold for use at the appropriate future date. It is an intangible asset that should be disclosed, measured and valued. The valuation to place on this asset is an important research topic in finance and accounting and various valuation approaches are discussed to handle the short‐term and long‐term price paths.

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