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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Dick Carpenter, Kyle Sweetland, Emily Vargo and Ethan Bayne

The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for researchers to study this largely unexplored area.

Design/methodology/approach

Municipal occupational regulatory data were gathered in 2017 and 2018 from the 50 largest cities in the USA. Data available in the data set include city and state IDs, occupational IDs, requirements associated with the regulations (e.g. education, experience and fees), penalties for practicing without meeting the requirements, regulatory type and NAICS category. Descriptive statistics are used to present information about the number and types of occupations regulated and the number and types of regulations present in the cities.

Findings

The median number of occupations regulated by a city is 24.5, but the numbers per city vary substantially. The 1,832 occupations in the data set are distributed across every NAICS category. The most prevalent form of regulation is registration; certification is least used. Cities are quite diverse in the types of regulations applied to occupations, and the type of regulation varies substantially by industry type.

Originality/value

Research on licensing is dominated by state-level analyses. Largely absent are systematic analyses of licensing and other regulation at the municipal level, likely due to a lack of data. This means the current licensing literature underestimates – perhaps severely so – the prevalence, burdens and effects of licensing. The data introduced and discussed in this paper can help remedy this dearth of municipal licensing analyses.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Emily Mary Grott, Jesus Cambra-Fierro, Lourdes Perez and Mirella Yani-de-Soriano

The aim of this study is two-fold. Firstly, to examine the outcomes of co-creation from a customer perspective using well-recognised customer management variables…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is two-fold. Firstly, to examine the outcomes of co-creation from a customer perspective using well-recognised customer management variables (customer satisfaction, loyalty and word-of-mouth (WOM). Secondly, to assess potential cross-cultural differences that may exist within the context of co-creation.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was completed in the banking services industry, and the final valid sample comprised individuals from the UK and Spain. Multi-sample analysis was carried out using PLS software.

Findings

Co-creation has a direct influence on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and WOM; co-creation activities lead to cumulative customer satisfaction, which also affects customer loyalty and positive WOM. Furthermore, the results show that the direct relationships between co-creation and loyalty and WOM are more powerful for British consumers than Spanish consumers, who need to feel satisfied prior to demonstrating loyalty and engaging in positive WOM.

Practical implications

Firms can use co-creation as a strategic tool if they provide trustworthy collaboration spaces. Furthermore, firms need to adapt the way they interact, listen and respond to customers in different cultural contexts. Trustworthy collaboration spaces and adapting to cultural differences can result in customers who are more satisfied, loyal to the company and more likely to carry out positive WOM, which can ultimately lead to future business.

Originality/value

This study provides insights into co-creation from a customer perspective. Although much service research has examined the drivers of customer co-creation, literature that analyses the consequences of customer co-creation is still scarce. Moreover, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence of cross-cultural differences within the context of co-creation.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Abbie-Gayle Johnson and Barbara Neuhofer

Drawing upon the theoretical framework of the service-dominant (S-D) logic, value co-creation and social practices, this paper aims to investigate how value is co-created…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the theoretical framework of the service-dominant (S-D) logic, value co-creation and social practices, this paper aims to investigate how value is co-created among guests, hosts and the wider local community in the sharing economy context of Airbnb.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative enquiry through an online content analysis was applied to thematically analyse Airbnb online guest reviews to explore the value-co-creation practices in local tourist experiences in Jamaica.

Findings

Based on Airbnb guest and host engagements, a theoretical framework emerges, depicting integrated operant and operand resources, host–guest value co-creation practices embedded in the destination’s authentic culture and specific value outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Being grounded in the geographical and cultural context of Airbnbs in Jamaica, the findings are transferable to similar platforms of the sharing economy, tourism contexts and destinations.

Practical implications

Critical implications unfold for Airbnb accommodation providers, destination stakeholders and policymakers by revealing a specific set of nuanced social practices that need to occur for local authentic experiences and value to be co-created among guests, hosts and the wider local community.

Originality/value

The paper makes an original contribution to knowledge by being one of the first studies to apply a S-D logic lens to the Airbnb sharing economy. It breaks down resource integration, host – guest value co-creation practices and value outcomes that occur for experiences and value to emerge in an Airbnb hospitality context.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Jana Lay-Hwa Bowden, Jodie Conduit, Linda D. Hollebeek, Vilma Luoma-aho and Birgit Apenes Solem

Online brand communities (OBCs) are an effective avenue for brands to engage consumers. While engaging with the brand, consumers simultaneously interact with other OBC…

Abstract

Purpose

Online brand communities (OBCs) are an effective avenue for brands to engage consumers. While engaging with the brand, consumers simultaneously interact with other OBC members; thus engaging with multiple, interrelated engagement objects concurrently. The purpose of this paper is to explore both positively and negatively valenced consumer engagement with multiple engagement objects, the interplay between these, and the spillover effect from consumers’ engagement with the OBC to their engagement with the brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on 16 in-depth interviews with OBC members of a luxury accessory brand, a constant comparative method was adopted using axial and selective coding procedures. The objective was to understand the nature of participants’ engagement with the brand, the OBC, and the interplay between individuals’ engagement with these objects. The coding framework and resultant interpretive frameworks address engagement valence, outcomes, and direction.

Findings

This study illustrates consumer expressions of consumers’ positively and negatively valenced engagement with a focal brand, and with the OBC. Further, it demonstrates the interplay (spillover effect) that occurs between consumers’ engagement with the OBC, to their engagement with the brand. While the existence of positively valenced engagement with the OBC was found to further enhance consumer brand engagement (i.e. reflecting an engagement accumulation effect), negatively valenced engagement with the OBC was found to reduce consumer brand engagement (i.e. reflecting an engagement detraction effect).

Originality/value

While consumer engagement has been recognized to have both positive and negative manifestations, this study demonstrates that consumers’ engagement valence may differ across interrelated engagement objects (i.e. the brand and the OBC). Further, we demonstrate the existence of engagement spillover effects from the OBC to the brand for both positively and negatively valenced engagement.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Hanna Astner and Johan Gaddefors

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of identities in entrepreneurial processes during the development of a new market. Two research questions are used: How…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of identities in entrepreneurial processes during the development of a new market. Two research questions are used: How do the founder’s identity, corporate identity and market identity interact as a new market is developing, and what are the functions of identity in the entrepreneurial process?

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research is grounded in a study of multiple cases, from which five Swedish start-ups have been selected. Interviews were conducted with the founders at several points in time and accompanied by observations of websites, media performance, policy documents and commercial material. Analysis was conducted in an iterative process between empirics and theory.

Findings

The findings show how identities develop in entrepreneurs, firms and the market and how the interactions between these three levels of identity affect the development of each. The authors recognize and discuss three functions of identity: a constructing function, in which identity is used to create a new firm and market; a guiding function, which navigates between identities by imposing identity work on founders, firms and markets; and a configuring function, which takes part in shaping contexts.

Research limitations/implications

This paper opens a space for future research on identities to advance understandings of how new firms and markets are developed. Investigating identity shows the importance of context to entrepreneurial processes. This points towards a need for researching different contexts, but also to the potential limited value of this study.

Practical implications

The paper offers guidance to founders and managers in understanding and navigating different identities. Founders and managers are provided with a set of critical questions, which aim to assist when managing identity-related concerns.

Originality/value

There is a vast amount of literature on the development of companies and markets, yet start-ups in new markets operate in different contexts and face different challenges that we know less about. This paper targets the latter and proposes identity as a useful lens for understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurs, start-ups and the new market.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2019

Janet Davey and Christian Grönroos

Although health-care features prominently in transformative service research, there is little to guide service providers on how to improve well-being and social change…

Abstract

Purpose

Although health-care features prominently in transformative service research, there is little to guide service providers on how to improve well-being and social change transformations. This paper aims to explore actor-level interactions in transformative services, proposing that actors’ complementary health service literacy roles are fundamental to resource integration and joint value creation.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth interviews with 46 primary health-care patients and 11 health-care service providers (HSPs) were conducted focusing on their subjective experiences of health literacy. An iterative hermeneutic approach was used to analyse the textual data linking it with existing theory.

Findings

Data analysis identified patients’ and HSPs’ health service literacy roles and corresponding role readiness dimensions. Four propositions are developed describing how these roles influence resource integration processes. Complementary service literacy roles enhance resource integration with outcomes of respect, trust, empowerment and loyalty. Competing service literacy roles lead to outcomes of discredit, frustration, resistance and exit through unsuccessful resource integration.

Originality/value

Health service literacy roles – linked to actor agency, institutional norms and service processes – provide a nuanced approach to understanding the tensions between patient empowerment trends and service professionals’ desire for recognition of their expertise over patient care. Specifically, the authors extend Frow et al.’s (2016) list of co-creation practices with practices that complement actors’ service literacy and role readiness. Based on a service perspective, the authors encourage transformative service researchers, service professionals and health service system designers, to recognize complementary health service literacy roles as an opportunity to support patients’ resources and facilitate value co-creation.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Jakob Trischler, Simon J. Pervan and Donald Robert Scott

Many firms use customer co-creation practices with the aim of benefiting from their customers’ knowledge, skills and resources. This paper aims to explore co-creation…

Abstract

Purpose

Many firms use customer co-creation practices with the aim of benefiting from their customers’ knowledge, skills and resources. This paper aims to explore co-creation processes which involve users with different background characteristics and motivational drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study builds on an analysis of data from six teams in which users collaborated with in-house professionals for the development of new service concepts. Observations and open-ended questionnaires provided insights into the teams’ development processes. Independent experts rated the generated concepts. The data were analysed using cross-comparison matrices.

Findings

The findings suggest that the co-creation process and outcomes can be influenced by numerous intra-team factors, including relationship and task conflicts, participation style, team bonding, team identity and cohesiveness and intra-team collaboration. Their occurrence and influence seem to be linked with a specific team composition. A conceptual co-creation process model and six propositions are used to describe the complex relationships between team composition, intra-team factors and key innovation outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Research that investigates user involvement in teams needs to consider the complexity of intra-team factors affecting the development process and outcomes. The findings are limited to a specific setting, design task and user sample. Future research should replicate this study in different sectors.

Practical implications

Key to customer co-creation is the systematic recruitment of users based on their background characteristics and motivational drivers. For instance, the involvement of users with very specific innovation-related benefit expectations can cause conflict, leading to narrowly focused outcomes. This, however, can be mitigated by the form of facilitation and roles adopted by in-house professionals. Understanding intra-team dynamics can allow the firm to assemble and facilitate customer co-creation so that generated outcomes can align with set innovation targets.

Originality/value

This paper provides original insights into the “black box” of the customer co-creation process and the complex relationship between team composition, intra-team factors and key innovation outcomes.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Karl-Jacob Mickelsson

The paper aims to introduce the idea that consumers have relationships with their own recurring activities. Instead of the usual notion of investigating the relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to introduce the idea that consumers have relationships with their own recurring activities. Instead of the usual notion of investigating the relationships between actors, or between actors and their possessions, the paper focuses on the relationship between an actor and a particular activity in which the actor regularly participates.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual and exploratory in nature. It discusses different perspectives of consumer activity in marketing and then introduces a relationship view of activity. The paper proceeds to outline the conceptual foundations of this view by applying relationship characteristics found in the literature. Quotes from runners’ blogs are used to illustrate the different identified relationship themes.

Findings

The paper argues that consumers can be seen as having long-term relationships with their activities, and it introduces the concept of the “activity relationship”. The paper proceeds to demonstrate how this concept differs from the previous conceptualization of consumer activity and relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The activity-relationship perspective on consumer behavior opens up new venues for marketing research. It also facilitates new types of marketing practice, whereby producers can focus on supporting their customers’ relationships with valuable activities.

Originality/value

The paper presents a novel perspective on relationships. It contributes to consumer research and the customer-dominant view of marketing, whereby the customer’s perspective is put in focus and businesses serve as ingredients in the customer’s own context.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Mark Tadajewski

This paper examines a neglected stream of literature in marketing theory which engaged with the idea that there was more to consumer behavior than conscious and rational thought.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines a neglected stream of literature in marketing theory which engaged with the idea that there was more to consumer behavior than conscious and rational thought.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a close reading of the core themes that appear in William A. Shryer’s work. Linkages are made to other pertinent sources.

Findings

We extend McMahon’s (1972) study and offer a different reading of Shryer’s writing to that proffered in recent commentary by Tadajewski (2019), focusing on the managerial side of Shryer’s publications, connecting this to the theoretically innovative foundations based on normal and abnormal psychology. We respond to the suggestion proposed by McMahon (1972) that Shryer was an early pioneer of motivation research, largely in the affirmative.

Originality/value

We provide an alternative interpretation of Shryer’s writing, connecting this to an emergent “advertising science” and subsequently to contemporary strands of literature that have a “family resemblance” to his contributions. These include salient aspects of motivation research; crowd and habitual behavior; mindlessness and social cognition; and finally, empirical examinations of cumulative value theory.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

Kathleen W. Craver

In the 1970s, the United States Congress enacted two statutes that have had dramatic and far‐reaching effects on the education of handicapped children by public schools…

Abstract

In the 1970s, the United States Congress enacted two statutes that have had dramatic and far‐reaching effects on the education of handicapped children by public schools. These two laws, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Education For All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (known as Public Law 94–142), have required local public school agencies to provide new eductional programs for thousands of handicapped children not previously served by the public schools. Counselors, principals, and teachers were quickly informed of the law's requirements and willingly began the task of main‐streaming and assimilating these children into various curricula. Their physical needs were attended to rapidly; their societal and emotional needs, unfortunately, lagged behind. Within the past seven years, there has been an increase in books, articles, and films specifically addressed to counseling the handicapped. Unlike past literature which focused only on the vocational aspect of rehabilitation counseling, current writing emphasizes personal counseling meant to assist a disabled child to participate fully in the problems and joys of daily living.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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