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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Elizabeth Kocevar-Weidinger, Emily Cox, Mark Lenker, Tatiana Pashkova-Balkenhol and Virginia Kinman

The purpose of this study is to investigate how first-year students conduct everyday life research and how, if possible, their everyday research skills can inform…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how first-year students conduct everyday life research and how, if possible, their everyday research skills can inform information literacy instruction in higher education. Very few studies in information literacy emphasize existing knowledge that students bring with them to college; instead, the emphasis tends to fall on deficits in students’ academic research skills. Strengths-based approaches or asset-based approaches as found in the literature of psychology and education provide a basis for exploring this direction in information literacy education.

Design/methodology/approach

The research used a phenomenographic methodology, interviewing 40 first-year students from two large universities, a medium-sized university and a community college.

Findings

The qualitative study suggests that first-year students are capable of using information purposefully to learn or research interests that have sparked their curiosities. They are also capable of reflecting on the ways that their investigations fulfilled their purposes, resulted in unexpected outcomes or made them consider their issue in a new light. These existing capacities provide promising starting points for strengths-based approaches to information literacy instruction.

Practical implications

Dialogue with students about prior research experiences enables teaching librarians to plan engaging, authentic information literacy curriculum that acknowledges existing strengths.

Originality/value

This study provides a valuable contribution to empirical evidence of student research skills prior to entering higher education and suggests connections between those skills and the ACRL Information Literacy Framework. In addition, the study provides a case for strengths-based education, activating students’ prior knowledge to learn and create new knowledge. Authors have presented at Library Instruction West, July 2018.

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Emily A. Wilson and Barbara Demmig‐Adams

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions and their underlying mechanisms for two common spices, garlic and onion, containing…

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12681

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of multiple functions and their underlying mechanisms for two common spices, garlic and onion, containing organosulphur compounds.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review of chemistry, physiology, molecular biology, clinical studies.

Findings

Both garlic and onions exert their effects on human health via multiple different functions, including antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. The organosulphur compounds in these spices scavenge oxidizing agents, inhibit the oxidation of fatty acids, thereby preventing the formation of pro‐inflammatory messengers, and inhibit bacterial growth, via interaction with sulphur‐containing enzymes.

Research limitations/implications

Currently available information on the optimal amount for consumption for each spice is insufficient.

Originality/value

This review is unique in its comprehensive nature, considering multiple different effects of the spices examined as well as multiple studies from molecular to clinical approaches.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 September 2015

Joseph C. Rumenapp, Colleen E. Whittingham and Emily Brown Hoffman

To explore the use of video-stimulated reflection during read aloud activities in early childhood to promote self-awareness, reading comprehension, and metacognitive…

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the use of video-stimulated reflection during read aloud activities in early childhood to promote self-awareness, reading comprehension, and metacognitive literacy practices.

Methodology/approach

The increasing visibility and accessibility of video recording devices across learning environments is the cause for investigating their potential utility as effective instructional tools. This chapter outlines a pedagogical approach to the implementation of video reflection in early childhood education. Grounded theory is used to build an understanding of how video can support effective emergent literacy and metacognitive strategy instruction.

Findings

Video recordings facilitated students’ reflection. Common reflective themes include revisiting the recorded event in reflective discussion, elaboration on story elements toward increasing comprehension, and explaining students’ own thinking. These findings indicate students’ ability to engage in emergent practices fundamental to a disciplinary literacy perspective.

Practical implications

The use of tablets as a video device in early childhood can be utilized to promote reading instruction and metacognition. Video reflection can leverage practices that are necessary for disciplinary literacies.

Details

Video Research in Disciplinary Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-678-2

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Emily Glorney, Sophie Raymont, Amy Lawson and Jessica Allen

Religion and spirituality are well-researched concepts within the field of psychology and mental health yet they have rarely been researched in high-secure services within…

Abstract

Purpose

Religion and spirituality are well-researched concepts within the field of psychology and mental health yet they have rarely been researched in high-secure services within the UK. Research in mental health and prison contexts suggests benefits of religion/spirituality to coping, social support, self-worth, symptoms of depression and anxiety and behavioural infractions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of religion/spirituality in high-secure service users’ personal recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 male patients in a high-secure hospital, with primary diagnoses of mental illness (n=11) or personality disorder (n=2). Participants were from a range of religious/spiritual backgrounds and were asked about how their beliefs impact their recovery and care pathways within the hospital. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Findings

Three superordinate themes were identified: “religion and spirituality as providing a framework for recovery”; “religion and spirituality as offering key ingredients in the recovery process”; and “barriers to recovery through religion/spirituality”. The first two themes highlight some of the positive aspects that aid participants’ recovery. The third theme reported hindrances in participants’ religious/spiritual practices and beliefs. Each theme is discussed with reference to sub-themes and illustrative excerpts.

Practical implications

Religion/spirituality might support therapeutic engagement for some service users and staff could be more active in their enquiry of the value that patients place on the personal meaning of this for their life.

Originality/value

For the participants in this study, religion/spirituality supported the principles of recovery, in having an identity separate from illness or offender, promoting hope, agency and personal meaning.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

Peter McGoldrick and Emily Chan

It is no news that severe losses have been incurred by independent chemists over the last five to ten years, both in terms of numbers and share of turnover, and that to a…

Abstract

It is no news that severe losses have been incurred by independent chemists over the last five to ten years, both in terms of numbers and share of turnover, and that to a great extent this has been due to increased competition from supermarkets and grocery multiples. In the past, research has been done into the distribution of retail pharmacies, but now a new study has been carried out by Peter McGoldrick and Emily Chan of UMIST. Their project has a rather different purpose. Instead of looking at shifts in share of trade, they choose to focus on the pharmacy customer, her shopping problems and attitudes, and this approach has pointed up ways in which the pharmacist as retailer can effectively develop his ‘over‐the‐counter’ trade — precisely that part of his business which up to now has been eroded by supermarkets and grocery multiples.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2014

Henrich R. Greve

This chapter tests whether adolescent counter-normative behaviors increase voluntary and involuntary job exits in young adults. This prediction extends the social sorting…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter tests whether adolescent counter-normative behaviors increase voluntary and involuntary job exits in young adults. This prediction extends the social sorting view of employment outcomes to cover concealable background characteristics, which has implications for involuntary mobility after entering the job.

Methodology

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1997 data are analyzed through survey-weighted Cox models of involuntary and voluntary job change. The key variables are adolescent use of alcohol and illegal drugs, and early sexual debut.

Findings

The findings show that sex and use of drugs in the early teens increase involuntary job exits, controlling for current behaviors, but do not have discernible effects on voluntary job exits. The effects of adolescent behavior appear stronger in multi-establishment firms and for Hispanic and black individuals.

Social implications

The findings indicate that employee sorting of individuals based on background does not end at the point of hiring, but continues through post-hiring rates of job exit. The findings indicate differential treatment of employees as a function of stigmatized behaviors in the past, and thus reveal a form of discrimination that has not been investigated earlier.

Value of the chapter

The findings in the chapter provide support for a theoretical view of social sorting by the employer as a driver of job exits. It extends the scope of characteristics that may result in social sorting to those who are concealable at the point of hiring, and with consequences after hiring. Because these include adolescent behaviors that are stigmatized, it shows a new mechanism linking adolescent experiences with adult work outcomes.

Details

Adolescent Experiences and Adult Work Outcomes: Connections and Causes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-572-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Emily Ryo and Ian Peacock

In the current era of intensified immigration enforcement and heightened risks of deportation even for long-term lawful permanent residents, citizenship has taken on a new…

Abstract

In the current era of intensified immigration enforcement and heightened risks of deportation even for long-term lawful permanent residents, citizenship has taken on a new meaning and greater importance. There is also growing evidence that citizenship denials in their various forms have become inextricably linked to immigration enforcement. Who is denied citizenship, why, and under what circumstances? This chapter begins to address these questions by developing a typology of citizenship denials and providing an empirical overview of each type of citizenship denial. Taken together, the typology of citizenship denials and the accompanying empirical overview illustrate the close connection between immigration enforcement and citizenship rights in the United States.

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Emily Marsh

This paper describes how the content management system (CMS) Omeka supports the representation and presentation of the National Agricultural Library’s (NAL’s) digital…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper describes how the content management system (CMS) Omeka supports the representation and presentation of the National Agricultural Library’s (NAL’s) digital exhibits, including some observations on its strengths and weaknesses. It also looks at Omeka’s major features through a theoretical lens of exhibit orientation that provides another way to assess it as a digital content tool.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method was selected to review four comparable exhibits from the same institution. The Omeka software was evaluated through a lens of exhibit design that includes two orientations (object vs information) and multiple goals (object identification and display, engagement, interpretation and education).

Findings

Omeka is a valuable tool for digital exhibits because of its strength in knowledge representation through a standard metadata scheme, the ability to group items that have some aspect in common such as author or topic, and its support of narrative exhibits incorporating text and images. Omeka needs some additional support, however, to fulfill more complex goals such as user engagement, object interpretation and user education.

Originality/value

The paper grounds the examination of Omeka within a theoretical framework of exhibit orientation that enriches its observations and conclusions.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Emily Vargas, Amy Seon Westmoreland, Kathrina Robotham and Fiona Lee

Research on organizational diversity initiatives generally focus on either numerical diversity or racial climate. Both facets of diversity are critical, however, research…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on organizational diversity initiatives generally focus on either numerical diversity or racial climate. Both facets of diversity are critical, however, research has rarely examined their impact simultaneously. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current study, the authors use the context of higher education, to examine how variations in the composite of numerical diversity and racial climate predict psychological disparities between faculty of color (FOC) and White faculty. The authors test how institutions that engage in authentic diversity (i.e. institutions that are both numerically diverse and have a positive racial climate) compare to other diversity composites.

Findings

Using a data set of n=37,406 faculty members in US colleges/universities, this study found that racial disparities between FOC and White faculty for various psychological outcomes are smaller in authentic diversity institutions compared to institutions with low numeric diversity/ poor racial climate. Further, the data demonstrate that authentic diversity institutions have reduced psychological disparities compared to institutions with high numeric diversity/poor racial climate, but have similar disparities to institutions with low numeric/positive racial climate.

Originality/value

These results suggest that diversity climate may be the primary driver of mitigating psychological disparities between FOC and White faculty. However, it is necessary for institutions to authentically engage in diversity – by promoting both entities – to become more effective in reducing disparities.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Sally Maynard and Emily Cheyne

This paper investigates the potential electronic textbooks (e‐textbooks) have to augment the learning and education of children.

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9439

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the potential electronic textbooks (e‐textbooks) have to augment the learning and education of children.

Design/methodology/approach

The study consisted of a total of 60 pupils, split into five groups of 12 participants (six boys and six girls). Each of the five groups were in turn split into two sub‐groups of six (three boys and three girls): one sub‐group used the printed textbook, while the other used a CD‐ROM on a laptop computer. The pupils completed a group test and an individual multiple choice test on information found in the textbooks.

Findings

The study showed that the e‐textbook was widely accepted by the participants, and motivated group participation. Those using the e‐textbook achieved significantly higher test results on average in the group test. Higher (but not significant) average results were achieved by e‐textbook users in the individual test.

Research limitations/implications

An acknowledged limitation of the study is that the textbooks used for the study were not identical in content. They were equivalent according to subject and recommended age range, but did not contain specifically the same information. Further studies would benefit from making use of an electronic version which is identical, or more similar, to a printed textbook. It would also be worthwhile to investigate the effects of long‐term use once the novelty value of the electronic book has subsided.

Originality/value

The paper aims to fill the gap in the original literature on the subject of how children relate to and learn from electronic textbooks. The research is of particular interest to teachers, librarians and parents.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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