Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2016

Indre Genelyte

At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a…

Abstract

At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a cohesive policy response to emigration. This is especially important in the wake of the global financial crisis, which generated an increased outflow from the Baltic states.

The Baltic states are facing variety of challenges in part caused by this movement of mainly working-age men and women: demographic issues related to an ageing society, labour market challenges and social security system sustainability. Within this context, the discussion of human resource losses is growing in the public sphere in the Baltic states.

Based on interviews with experts in labour and migration in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and a review of key national policy documents, this article analyses the commonalities among and differences between these three countries’ national responses.

Despite some variations in the characteristics and extent of emigration from the three countries, the interviewed experts agree that the European Union’s policy of free mobility is socially and economically problematic. As the interviews indicate, there have been strong calls in Latvia and Lithuania for a more cohesive intra-European migration management policy to address current imbalances between EU member states and ensure that the loss of human resources in sending countries is accounted for in the recruitment policies of receiving countries. On another hand, Estonia experiences more circular movement patterns and demonstrates a rather liberal view towards migration issues, seeing a virtue in the (regional) open market.

Details

Labour Mobility in the Enlarged Single European Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-442-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė and Ineta Žičkutė

The purpose of this paper is to review the emigration situation after the socialist regime and to reveal the main reasons for emigration in present-day Lithuania answering…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the emigration situation after the socialist regime and to reveal the main reasons for emigration in present-day Lithuania answering the question why “the West is still the best” remains important to modern Lithuania.

Design/methodology/approach

Statistical analysis of emigration during 1980-2015 in Lithuania was presented. Reasons for emigration were identified through a review of the scientific literature on emigration theories and push-pull factors. A questionnaire was prepared according to the proposed model to reveal the main reasons for Lithuanian emigration. In total, 1,586 migrants from Lithuania participated in the survey during October-November 2015.

Findings

The results revealed the main reasons for emigration according to push and pull factors related to economic issues, such as too low wages, differences between wages and income inequality, price policies and unemployment rates. However, non-economic reasons, particularly having relatives living abroad, influence the decision to migrate as well. A comparative analysis was made according to respondents’ occupation in the home country, their age and gender. In addition, it was found that emigration has become a community value and norm in Lithuania.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted over the internet. Therefore, only people using the internet participated in this study. Moreover, it is noted that only 21 percent of the respondents were male.

Practical implications

Based on migration theories, a list of push and pull migration reasons were identified. The findings present the main reasons for migration, which are based not only on statistical data, but also on survey responses in the case of Lithuania. Differences among demographic groups of respondents according to their occupation, gender and age were highlighted and targeted solutions could be applied in practice. Potential measures for decreasing emigration could also be designed based on these findings.

Social implications

Migration was proposed as a community value and norm in Lithuania.

Originality/value

Based on the migration theories and a questionnaire survey, the paper discusses reasons for emigration after the end of the socialist regime in Lithuania concentrating on the main reasons for emigration in contemporary Lithuania. In addition, it offers insights into demographic differences in reasons for emigration in relation to occupation, age and gender.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Olga Verkhohlyad and Gary N. McLean

This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human capital theories to the study of emigration.

Findings

The article provides evidence for the fact that psychic return to human capital investment in the country has significant relationship with emigration level from this country. At the same time, of all variables that comprise this type of return to HC investment, only two variables were found to be statistically significant: national GDP and access to education in the country.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide some evidence for the fact that emigration from a country cannot be reduced unless people in the country have the ability to lead an economically comfortable life and have access to education. Those countries that experience significant emigration need to turn their attention to developing and implementing sound economic and educational reforms. Emigration will be reduced as a result. A significant limitation of this research is the fact that not all the world countries were included in the analysis. Although the authors did their best to get data for as many countries as possible, the absence of data for some countries allowed for the research using fewer countries than desired.

Originality/value

This article utilizes organizational commitment and human capital theories. The combination of these two theories of social research allows a unique look at emigration.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 36 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Asongu Simplice

Owing to lack of relevant data on health human resource (HHR) migration, the empirical dimension of the health-worker crisis debate has remained void despite abundant…

Abstract

Purpose

Owing to lack of relevant data on health human resource (HHR) migration, the empirical dimension of the health-worker crisis debate has remained void despite abundant theoretical literature. A health worker crisis is growing in the world. Shortages in health professionals are reaching staggering levels in many parts of the globe. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantile regression approach is used to examine the determinants of health-worker emigration throughout the conditional distributions of health-worker emigration. This provides an investigation of the determinants when existing emigrations levels matter. The author assesses the determinants of emigration in the health sector through-out the conditional distribution of HHR emigration.

Findings

The findings have been presented in two main strands: when existing emigration levels are low and when existing emigration levels are high. In the former case (when existing emigration levels are low), wealth-effects have the following implications. First, while economic prosperity is a good tool against nurse brain drain in middle income countries (MICs), health expenditure is a good instrument against physician brain drain in low income countries (LICs). Second, whereas positive demographic change fuels the problem in LICs, it mitigates the issue in their MIC counterparts. Third, savings, government-effectiveness, foreign-aid and inflationary pressures only accentuate the problem for both income groups. Fourth, corruption-control becomes a vital tool for emigration-control in both income-brackets. Fifth, while trade openness mitigates physician emigration in LICs, financial openness has the opposite effect on nurse emigration. In the latter case (when existing immigration levels are high), the following conclusions have been drawn. First, While economic prosperity fights nurse emigration only in LICs, savings is a tool against physician emigration only in their MIC counterparts. Second, health expenditure and inflationary pressures are relevant tools in the battle against physician resource flight. Third, whereas, government effectiveness is an important policy measure for mitigating emigration in LICs, human development plays a similar role in MICs. Fourth, democracy, press-freedom, foreign-aid and financial openness fuel emigration in either income strata. Fifth, population growth and trade openness are important tools in the fight against brain-drain. Sixth, the HIV infection rate is a deterrent only to nurse emigration.

Originality/value

This paper complements existing literature by empirically investigating the World Health Organization hypothetical determinants of health-worker migration in the context of globalization when income-levels matter. In plainer terms, the work explores how the wealth of exporting countries play-out in the determinants of HHR emigration.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Michael A. Clemens

The purpose of this paper is to critique the last decade of research on the effects of high-skill emigration from developing countries, and proposes six new directions for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critique the last decade of research on the effects of high-skill emigration from developing countries, and proposes six new directions for fruitful research.

Design/methodology/approach

The study singles out a core assumption underlying much of the recent literature, calling it the “Lump of Learning model” of human capital and development, and describes five ways that research has come to challenge that assumption. It assesses the usefulness of that model in the face of accumulating evidence.

Findings

The axioms of the Lump of Learning model have shaped research priorities in this literature, but many of those axioms do not have a clear empirical basis. Future research proceeding from established facts would set different priorities, and would devote more attention to measuring the effects of migration on skilled migrant households, rigorously estimating human capital externalities, gathering microdata beyond censuses, and carefully considering optimal policy – among others.

Originality/value

The recent literature has pursued a series of extensions to the Lump of Learning model. This study urges instead discarding that model, pointing toward a new paradigm for research on skilled migration and development.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Asongu Simplice

How do economic prosperity, health expenditure, savings, price-stability, demographic change, democracy, corruption control, press freedom, government effectiveness, human…

Abstract

Purpose

How do economic prosperity, health expenditure, savings, price-stability, demographic change, democracy, corruption control, press freedom, government effectiveness, human development, foreign aid, physical security, trade openness and financial liberalization play-out in the fight against health-worker crisis when existing emigration levels matter? Despite the acute concern of health-worker crisis in Africa owing to emigration, lack of relevant data has made the subject matter empirically void over the last decades. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantile regression approach is used to assess the determinants of health-worker emigration throughout the conditional distributions of health-worker emigration. This provides an assessment of the determinants when existing emigrations levels matter.

Findings

Findings provide a broad range of tools for the fight against health-worker brain-drain. As a policy implication, blanket emigration-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across countries with different levels of emigration. Thus to be effective, immigration policies should be contingent on the prevailing levels of the crisis and tailored differently across countries with the best and worst records on fighting health-worker emigration.

Originality/value

This paper has examined the theoretical postulations of a World Health Organization report on determinants of health-worker migration.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Kenneth Backlund, Tomas Sjögren and Jesper Stage

This paper aims to present a theoretical underpinning for the fact that empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a theoretical underpinning for the fact that empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita income, based on credit restrictions. The implications for tax policy are also analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an intertemporal general equilibrium model, the authors characterize how the presence of an “inverted U-curve” relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad.

Findings

Among the results it is shown that if age-dependent taxes are available, the presence of an inverted-U curve provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise.

Originality/value

This migration model fits the empirical facts of migration better than most of the migration models previously used in the optimal taxation literature.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Kristie Briggs

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships between home and destination country-pairs.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel of data that uniquely captures the country of origin of patent applicants is used to assess if and how high-skilled emigration contributes to the prevalence of multi-country joint patents in a country. The analysis is conducted both in aggregate and across sub-samples based on the per capita income level of the home country. Finally, the role of absorptive capacity as a control variable is robustly considered.

Findings

Results suggest that emigration of high-skilled labor positively impacts the prevalence of multi-country joint patent ownership when emigration originates from middle- and high-income countries. Support for such “brain gain” via knowledge sharing in innovation is absent when high-skilled labor emigrates from low-income countries.

Originality/value

The analysis highlights a specific avenue by which the home country benefits from high-skilled emigration. It also provides comparative analysis across home countries of different income levels, which can provide insight into the external validity of papers using high-income country samples of innovative performance when assessing knowledge spillovers.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Nina Neubecker

The purpose of this paper is to break down south-north migration along both the skill and the occupational dimension and thus to distinguish and compare several types of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to break down south-north migration along both the skill and the occupational dimension and thus to distinguish and compare several types of south-north migration and brain drain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents south-north migration rates by occupational category at two distinct levels of disaggregation according to International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 (ISCO-88). The data sets combine information about the labor market outcomes of immigrants in Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries around the year 2000 provided by the Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries by the OECD with employment data for the developing migrant-sending countries from the International Labour Organization.

Findings

The incidence of south-north migration was highest among Professionals, one of the two occupational categories generally requiring tertiary education, and among clerks and legislators, senior officials and managers. At the more disaggregated level, physical, mathematical and engineering science (associate) professionals, life science and health (associate) professionals, as well as other (associate) professionals exhibited significantly larger brain drain rates than teaching (associate) professionals. The data also suggest non-negligible occupation-education mismatches due to the imperfect transferability of skills acquired through formal education because south-north migrants with a university degree worked more often in occupational categories requiring less than tertiary education compared to OECD natives. The employment shares of most types of professionals and technicians and associate professionals, as well as of clerks and corporate managers were significantly smaller in the migrant-sending countries compared to the receiving countries.

Originality/value

The constructed data sets constitute the first comprehensive data sets on south-north migration by ISCO-88 major and sub-major occupational category for cross-sections of, respectively, 91 and 17 developing countries of emigration.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2017

Cristian Incaltarau and Loredana Maria Simionov

The theoretical contribution provided by the transitional theories has fundamentally helped develop a better understanding of the migration process, by showing how…

Abstract

The theoretical contribution provided by the transitional theories has fundamentally helped develop a better understanding of the migration process, by showing how migration is interacting with other processes of development. They show that along with development, emigration is following an upside down ‘U’ shaped pattern, being overreached by immigration, while the region changes its migration profile from emigration to immigration. This was the case for the southern European states, which followed a rapid migration transition during the second half of the twentieth century. After large emigration to Western and Northern Europe, these managed to attract large immigration flows from the less developed countries in Africa and Latin America, but also from Eastern Europe after the fall of communist regimes. This chapter aims to test whether Eastern Europe is heading to the same migration transition pattern as the South and change their current status of net migration provider. Thus, the impact of the migration transition drivers in explaining net migration balance is analysed using a panel data for the 2000–2013 period. As a country can encompass both emigration and immigration regions, the current analysis is carried out at European Union (EU) regional level data (NUTS II), while controlling for the regional specifics and unobserved time effects. Overall, most of the factors which led to the migration shift, from emigration to immigration, in Southern Europe were proven to be fundamental at EU regional level as well. Migration flows were shown to be more sensitive to unemployment, urbanisation, segmentation of the labour market and active population share in the eastern as compared to the southern European regions. Nevertheless, accessing the transition drivers evolution during 2011–2013 period, eastern regions are still highly unattractive and their chances for becoming destination regions are currently at low levels.

Details

Core-Periphery Patterns Across the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-495-8

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000