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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Verónica Baena

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that explores various possible determining factors in the rate of franchising among emerging nations. Emerging markets…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that explores various possible determining factors in the rate of franchising among emerging nations. Emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world; moreover, the countries they represent are undergoing substantial economic transformations. Yet despite all this, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion into these markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain diffusion of franchising into emerging markets. They are: geographical distance; cultural distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism; political stability, and corruption. The author also controlled for gross domestic product, the efficiency of contract enforcement, and nascent entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a quantitative approach applied to a sample of 63 Spanish franchisors with 2,836 franchisee outlets operating across the emerging countries.

Findings

Results conclude that geographical distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, political stability, corruption, gross domestic product, efficiency of contract enforcement, and nascent entrepreneurship are able to constrain the spread of franchising across emerging nations.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides readers with a general overview of the current state of global franchising diffusion overseas. Results obtained in this study are useful for understanding and predicting the demand for franchising in emerging countries.

Practical implications

The present manuscript develops and tests a model that can be useful not only to academics interested in broadening their knowledge regarding global franchising, but also to firm managers wanting to establish new outlets in emerging nations. Thus, franchisors may use the results of this study as a starting point for identifying the emerging regions whose characteristics best meet their needs of expansion.

Originality/value

This paper explores how certain market conditions may drive international diffusion of franchising into emerging markets. The scant theoretical or empirical attention given to this topic has usually been examined from a US base and focused on developed markets. To fill this gap, the present study analyzes the international spread of the Spanish franchise system, which since 2008 has ranked fifth worldwide in terms of both the number of franchisors and the quantity of franchisee outlets across emerging markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Arun Sharma and Subhash Jha

Western business-to-business firms are under increasing competition from firms in emerging nations. As examples, Mindray in medical devices, LiuGong in earth moving…

Abstract

Purpose

Western business-to-business firms are under increasing competition from firms in emerging nations. As examples, Mindray in medical devices, LiuGong in earth moving equipment, Tata motors in Buses and Suzlon in Wind turbines are emerging as strong competitors in their industries. Yet despite increased competition from emerging nation firms, insufficient research has examined the growth of these firms, specifically in the areas of technology and innovation development processes. The purpose of this study is to examine how emerging nation business-to-business firms that have global ambitions achieve technology competence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examined several case studies on emerging market business-to-business firms that have moved to global markets and highlight the following five: LiuGong China (excavating products), Mindray China (medical equipment), Suzlon Energy India (wind generators), Tata Motors Buses India and BYD Auto China (batteries to electric cars). The firms are in business-to-business markets, except for BYD China that emerged as a business-to-business battery supplier but is currently in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets.

Findings

The authors find that firms in emerging markets that have global ambitions follow different approaches to innovation development processes from conventional theories and assumptions held by scholars and practitioners in Western developed countries. Our cases suggest that firms follow the proposed progression: domestic markets – internally developed technology; domestic markets –acquired technology; and finally to, global markets – acquired technology.

Researchlimitations/implications

The authors contribute to research in three areas. First, they suggest that the innovation development process for emerging market firms is different from the Western world. Second, they provide a framework of innovation development process that can be tested in multiple environments. Third, this study suggests a deeper examination of the longitudinal development of business-to-business firms, an area that has received less attention.

Practicalimplications

The authors suggest that firms need to better track their competition from emerging nations because emerging nation firms can quickly acquire technology to become strong competitors.

Originality/value

Extant research has not examined these issues.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Keith J. Kelley

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the causal relationships of the liabilities of inter-regional foreignness to show that the process of regionalization itself has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the causal relationships of the liabilities of inter-regional foreignness to show that the process of regionalization itself has affected firms’ strategic capabilities and focus. The constraints of these regions, a consequence of regionalization that limits the strategic options of multinational enterprises, are known as the liabilities of regionalization (LOR).

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews previous literature and uses a mixture of theory and inference to make propositions regarding the existence of liabilities attributable to the regionalization process. The propositions discuss macro-level, and industry and firm-level strategic impact on firms of Triad and non-Triad regions.

Findings

It is argued specific emerging market attributes, in relation to the developed Triad regions, will influence strategic focus of those emerging market firms. This in turn will also influence global strategic behavior and capabilities in the future, creating additional LOR in some cases and reducing them in others.

Originality/value

Previous scholars have focused on the liabilities of inter-regional and regional foreignness and its effect on international diversification strategy both upstream and downstream. This study attempts to explain the formation of regions that shape the FSAs that limit global strategic diversification, which are characterized as the LOR. More importantly, it discusses them from perspective of emerging market firms, which on the outside of the Triad regions, may form their own regions and FSAs.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Kofi Q. Dadzie, Wesley J. Johnston and Jaqueline Pels

This study aims to examine the nature of business‐to‐business marketing practices in two West African nations, Ghana and Ivory Coast, and compare them with marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the nature of business‐to‐business marketing practices in two West African nations, Ghana and Ivory Coast, and compare them with marketing practices in another emerging market economy (Argentina) and a developed economy (the USA).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected in both West African nations, Argentina and the USA, using a standard survey instrument used in previous contemporary marketing practice (CMP) studies. Descriptive statistics were used to determine cross‐national differences in intensity of use of various CMP activities in Ghana and the Ivory Coast in comparison with Argentina and the USA. Then, cross‐national differences in various combinations of marketing practices were identified using cluster analysis.

Findings

Business‐to‐business marketing practices in West African nations conform with the CMP framework in that firms practise both transactional marketing and relationship marketing simultaneously. However, there are differences in the intensity and scope of business‐to‐business marketing practices in Ghana and the Ivory Coast in comparison with Argentina and the USA. While West African business‐to‐business firms emphasize traditional transactional marketing with some network marketing components, Argentine firms have a greater emphasis on pluralistic marketing and interaction marketing. By contrast, US firms practise pluralistic marketing (transactional, database, interaction, and networking) with some transactional marketing activities. In addition, West African business‐to‐business firms are similar to Argentine firms in that a proportion of firms practise marketing at a low level of intensity and rarely use database marketing. These differences are attributable to the nature of market conditions in West Africa.

Research limitations/implications

The CMP results generalize to West African nations. However, a direct correspondence is unlikely because of the dominance of transactional marketing practice among West African firms. Further research needs to investigate a broader set of institutional environments in order to provide a clear link between CMP and environmental conditions in emerging African markets.

Practical implications

Managers can determine the appropriateness of international benchmarks for West African market conditions.

Originality/value

Linking CMP to market conditions in the paper provides an extension to the validity of the CMP framework.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.

Findings

Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.

Originality/value

While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Naveen K. Jain, Somnath Lahiri and Douglas R. Hausknecht

Location choice made by emerging market multinationals (EMMs) constitutes an important yet somewhat neglected topic in business research. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Location choice made by emerging market multinationals (EMMs) constitutes an important yet somewhat neglected topic in business research. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research framework that elucidates the role of EMM‐specific resources and internationalization motivations on the location choice of EMMs.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature pertaining to firm‐specific resources and internationalization motivations as determinants of location choice is reviewed. This leads to the development of a research framework that takes into account various combinations of resources and motivations in explaining the location choice of EMMs. The paper offers research propositions by linking resources, motivations, and the appropriate choice of locations.

Findings

The paper illustrates that location choices of EMMs are determined by the interplay of various resources (relationship‐based, home experiences‐based, and country created assets‐based) and internationalization motivations (market‐seeking, asset‐seeking, and resource‐seeking).

Originality/value

The paper investigates the simultaneous influence of two important determinants: firm‐specific resources and internationalization motivations on the location choices of EMMs. Prior literature has extolled the importance of these factors in international business but not in the context of the location choices of EMMs. Thus, this paper fills an important void in business scholarship.

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Shikaputo Chanda, Bruce Burton and Theresa Dunne

The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed findings regarding the perceived role of corporate governance in Zambia. There have been no detailed studies of opinions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed findings regarding the perceived role of corporate governance in Zambia. There have been no detailed studies of opinions in a setting such as Zambia, i.e. a nation which has experienced relative political calm and which has an abundance of natural resources – but where corporate governance failures have been blamed directly for economic difficulties.

Design/methodology/approach

The study reports the results of a series of 24 in-depth interviews with Zambians, including politicians, regulators, senior business executives, transnational organisation representatives, academics and governance consultants. The discussions were conducted face-to-face and recorded in all cases.

Findings

Understanding of corporate governance is at an embryonic stage in Zambia, but embedded corruption is likely to require addressing before any meaningful change is likely. A range of isomorphic forces appear to be prevalent and the study argues that root and branch change in structures and attitudes is a necessity if improvements are to be forthcoming. The paper concludes with a call for unity in purpose and recognition of current malignancies.

Originality/value

Despite Zambia’s idiosyncrasies, the evidence suggests that a pan-African picture is emerging, with growing awareness of the potential benefits of improved corporate behaviour – but deep cynicism exists about the likelihood of these arising given corruption in reward structures. Such is the extent of embeddedness in power amongst those who benefit from current arrangements that both mimetic and coercive forces are argued to be ranged against any shift in extant systems and processes.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Current Global Recession
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-157-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Jason Ryan and Sari Silvanto

This paper aims to explain the emergence of the World Heritage Site (WHS) designation as a de facto brand. Branding provides a framework for managing the image of a place…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the emergence of the World Heritage Site (WHS) designation as a de facto brand. Branding provides a framework for managing the image of a place and is an important component of destination marketing. The WHS “brand” is of importance to developing nations because it is available without cost. The study examines the evolution of the WHS program with a focus on emerging markets. It seeks to identify economic, political and other factor which dispose emerging countries to seek WHS designations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a multivariate analysis of data on 48 emerging countries in which their predisposition to seek WHS designations is predicted by indicators measuring: on‐going involvement with tourism, number of existing WHS sites, level of democratization, and the Human Development Index. The dataset is used to test four hypotheses.

Findings

The analysis identified two significant statistical relationships: first, the number of existing WHS is, as hypothesized, positively related to applications for additional sites and second, the countries standing on the Democracy Index is significantly related to applications, but negatively, not positively, as had been hypothesized.

Originality/value

The study applies multivariate analysis to a field dominated by case study methodologies and suggests the potential complementarities between the two approaches. It documents as well the development of the WHS program as a major factor and contributor to heritage tourism and highlights the growing prominence and value of the WHS brand.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2008

William W. Cooper and Piyu Yue

Abstract

Details

Challenges of the Muslim World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53243-5

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