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The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that explores various possible determining factors in the rate of franchising among emerging nations. Emerging markets…
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a model that explores various possible determining factors in the rate of franchising among emerging nations. Emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world; moreover, the countries they represent are undergoing substantial economic transformations. Yet despite all this, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion into these markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain diffusion of franchising into emerging markets. They are: geographical distance; cultural distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism; political stability, and corruption. The author also controlled for gross domestic product, the efficiency of contract enforcement, and nascent entrepreneurship.
This study uses a quantitative approach applied to a sample of 63 Spanish franchisors with 2,836 franchisee outlets operating across the emerging countries.
Results conclude that geographical distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, political stability, corruption, gross domestic product, efficiency of contract enforcement, and nascent entrepreneurship are able to constrain the spread of franchising across emerging nations.
This study provides readers with a general overview of the current state of global franchising diffusion overseas. Results obtained in this study are useful for understanding and predicting the demand for franchising in emerging countries.
The present manuscript develops and tests a model that can be useful not only to academics interested in broadening their knowledge regarding global franchising, but also to firm managers wanting to establish new outlets in emerging nations. Thus, franchisors may use the results of this study as a starting point for identifying the emerging regions whose characteristics best meet their needs of expansion.
This paper explores how certain market conditions may drive international diffusion of franchising into emerging markets. The scant theoretical or empirical attention given to this topic has usually been examined from a US base and focused on developed markets. To fill this gap, the present study analyzes the international spread of the Spanish franchise system, which since 2008 has ranked fifth worldwide in terms of both the number of franchisors and the quantity of franchisee outlets across emerging markets.
The last few years have witnessed massive artificial intelligence (AI) and gaming adoption that has navigated the emerging markets. Moreover, according to the WOG summit…
The last few years have witnessed massive artificial intelligence (AI) and gaming adoption that has navigated the emerging markets. Moreover, according to the WOG summit (world government summit report, by Nielsen) 2020 reports, AI with gaming mechanisms are expected to enrich marketing services in the coming future in the emerging markets. Countries such as India, China and South Korea contribute significantly to this area, and recent forecasting allows the need to increase in emerging markets. Similarly, these countries have a maximum number of youth gamers and AI-driven technology adopters. The adoption of AI-driven technologies and amplification of gamification in marketing services are new phenomena. Moreover, gaming and AI dynamics are relatively new in emerging countries and need greater attention. Thus, this book chapter proposes a dyad model that would explain users' and companies' perspectives to understand the role of AI and gamification for the emerging markets. The chapter will explain how AI-driven gamification helps the users of emerging markets. The chapter will also illustrate how companies in emerging markets use AI for gamification. Therefore, the dyad model would also comprehend the gap, opportunities and challenges in this area and the subsequent strategies to help all the stakeholders.
Western business-to-business firms are under increasing competition from firms in emerging nations. As examples, Mindray in medical devices, LiuGong in earth moving…
Western business-to-business firms are under increasing competition from firms in emerging nations. As examples, Mindray in medical devices, LiuGong in earth moving equipment, Tata motors in Buses and Suzlon in Wind turbines are emerging as strong competitors in their industries. Yet despite increased competition from emerging nation firms, insufficient research has examined the growth of these firms, specifically in the areas of technology and innovation development processes. The purpose of this study is to examine how emerging nation business-to-business firms that have global ambitions achieve technology competence.
The authors examined several case studies on emerging market business-to-business firms that have moved to global markets and highlight the following five: LiuGong China (excavating products), Mindray China (medical equipment), Suzlon Energy India (wind generators), Tata Motors Buses India and BYD Auto China (batteries to electric cars). The firms are in business-to-business markets, except for BYD China that emerged as a business-to-business battery supplier but is currently in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets.
The authors find that firms in emerging markets that have global ambitions follow different approaches to innovation development processes from conventional theories and assumptions held by scholars and practitioners in Western developed countries. Our cases suggest that firms follow the proposed progression: domestic markets – internally developed technology; domestic markets –acquired technology; and finally to, global markets – acquired technology.
The authors contribute to research in three areas. First, they suggest that the innovation development process for emerging market firms is different from the Western world. Second, they provide a framework of innovation development process that can be tested in multiple environments. Third, this study suggests a deeper examination of the longitudinal development of business-to-business firms, an area that has received less attention.
The authors suggest that firms need to better track their competition from emerging nations because emerging nation firms can quickly acquire technology to become strong competitors.
Extant research has not examined these issues.
The purpose of this paper is to revisit the causal relationships of the liabilities of inter-regional foreignness to show that the process of regionalization itself has…
The purpose of this paper is to revisit the causal relationships of the liabilities of inter-regional foreignness to show that the process of regionalization itself has affected firms’ strategic capabilities and focus. The constraints of these regions, a consequence of regionalization that limits the strategic options of multinational enterprises, are known as the liabilities of regionalization (LOR).
This study reviews previous literature and uses a mixture of theory and inference to make propositions regarding the existence of liabilities attributable to the regionalization process. The propositions discuss macro-level, and industry and firm-level strategic impact on firms of Triad and non-Triad regions.
It is argued specific emerging market attributes, in relation to the developed Triad regions, will influence strategic focus of those emerging market firms. This in turn will also influence global strategic behavior and capabilities in the future, creating additional LOR in some cases and reducing them in others.
Previous scholars have focused on the liabilities of inter-regional and regional foreignness and its effect on international diversification strategy both upstream and downstream. This study attempts to explain the formation of regions that shape the FSAs that limit global strategic diversification, which are characterized as the LOR. More importantly, it discusses them from perspective of emerging market firms, which on the outside of the Triad regions, may form their own regions and FSAs.
This study aims to examine the nature of business‐to‐business marketing practices in two West African nations, Ghana and Ivory Coast, and compare them with marketing…
This study aims to examine the nature of business‐to‐business marketing practices in two West African nations, Ghana and Ivory Coast, and compare them with marketing practices in another emerging market economy (Argentina) and a developed economy (the USA).
Survey data were collected in both West African nations, Argentina and the USA, using a standard survey instrument used in previous contemporary marketing practice (CMP) studies. Descriptive statistics were used to determine cross‐national differences in intensity of use of various CMP activities in Ghana and the Ivory Coast in comparison with Argentina and the USA. Then, cross‐national differences in various combinations of marketing practices were identified using cluster analysis.
Business‐to‐business marketing practices in West African nations conform with the CMP framework in that firms practise both transactional marketing and relationship marketing simultaneously. However, there are differences in the intensity and scope of business‐to‐business marketing practices in Ghana and the Ivory Coast in comparison with Argentina and the USA. While West African business‐to‐business firms emphasize traditional transactional marketing with some network marketing components, Argentine firms have a greater emphasis on pluralistic marketing and interaction marketing. By contrast, US firms practise pluralistic marketing (transactional, database, interaction, and networking) with some transactional marketing activities. In addition, West African business‐to‐business firms are similar to Argentine firms in that a proportion of firms practise marketing at a low level of intensity and rarely use database marketing. These differences are attributable to the nature of market conditions in West Africa.
The CMP results generalize to West African nations. However, a direct correspondence is unlikely because of the dominance of transactional marketing practice among West African firms. Further research needs to investigate a broader set of institutional environments in order to provide a clear link between CMP and environmental conditions in emerging African markets.
Managers can determine the appropriateness of international benchmarks for West African market conditions.
Linking CMP to market conditions in the paper provides an extension to the validity of the CMP framework.
This chapter develops a conceptual taxonomy of five emerging digital citizenship regimes: (1) the globalised and generalisable regime called pandemic citizenship that…
This chapter develops a conceptual taxonomy of five emerging digital citizenship regimes: (1) the globalised and generalisable regime called pandemic citizenship that clarifies how post-COVID-19 datafication processes have amplified the emergence of four intertwined, non-mutually exclusive and non-generalisable new technopoliticalised and city-regionalised digital citizenship regimes in certain European nation-states’ urban areas; (2) algorithmic citizenship, which is driven by blockchain and has allowed the implementation of an e-Residency programme in Tallinn; (3) liquid citizenship, driven by dataism – the deterministic ideology of big data – and contested through claims for digital rights in Barcelona and Amsterdam; (4) metropolitan citizenship, as revindicated in reaction to Brexit and reshuffled through data co-operatives in Cardiff; and (5) stateless citizenship, driven by devolution and reinvigorated through data sovereignty in Barcelona, Glasgow and Bilbao. This chapter challenges the existing interpretation of how these emerging digital citizenship regimes together are ubiquitously rescaling the associated spaces/practices of European nation-states.
- Pandemic citizenship
- algorithmic citizenship
- liquid citizenship
- metropolitan citizenship
- stateless citizenship
- Basque Country
- digital rights
- big data
- data co-operatives
- platform co-operatives
- foundational economy
- radical federalism
- data sovereignty
- algorithmic nations
- digital citizenship
Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…
Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.
An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.
Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.
While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.
Location choice made by emerging market multinationals (EMMs) constitutes an important yet somewhat neglected topic in business research. The purpose of this paper is to…
Location choice made by emerging market multinationals (EMMs) constitutes an important yet somewhat neglected topic in business research. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research framework that elucidates the role of EMM‐specific resources and internationalization motivations on the location choice of EMMs.
The literature pertaining to firm‐specific resources and internationalization motivations as determinants of location choice is reviewed. This leads to the development of a research framework that takes into account various combinations of resources and motivations in explaining the location choice of EMMs. The paper offers research propositions by linking resources, motivations, and the appropriate choice of locations.
The paper illustrates that location choices of EMMs are determined by the interplay of various resources (relationship‐based, home experiences‐based, and country created assets‐based) and internationalization motivations (market‐seeking, asset‐seeking, and resource‐seeking).
The paper investigates the simultaneous influence of two important determinants: firm‐specific resources and internationalization motivations on the location choices of EMMs. Prior literature has extolled the importance of these factors in international business but not in the context of the location choices of EMMs. Thus, this paper fills an important void in business scholarship.
The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed findings regarding the perceived role of corporate governance in Zambia. There have been no detailed studies of opinions…
The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed findings regarding the perceived role of corporate governance in Zambia. There have been no detailed studies of opinions in a setting such as Zambia, i.e. a nation which has experienced relative political calm and which has an abundance of natural resources – but where corporate governance failures have been blamed directly for economic difficulties.
The study reports the results of a series of 24 in-depth interviews with Zambians, including politicians, regulators, senior business executives, transnational organisation representatives, academics and governance consultants. The discussions were conducted face-to-face and recorded in all cases.
Understanding of corporate governance is at an embryonic stage in Zambia, but embedded corruption is likely to require addressing before any meaningful change is likely. A range of isomorphic forces appear to be prevalent and the study argues that root and branch change in structures and attitudes is a necessity if improvements are to be forthcoming. The paper concludes with a call for unity in purpose and recognition of current malignancies.
Despite Zambia’s idiosyncrasies, the evidence suggests that a pan-African picture is emerging, with growing awareness of the potential benefits of improved corporate behaviour – but deep cynicism exists about the likelihood of these arising given corruption in reward structures. Such is the extent of embeddedness in power amongst those who benefit from current arrangements that both mimetic and coercive forces are argued to be ranged against any shift in extant systems and processes.