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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Roshan Bhakta Bhandari, Christine Owen and Benjamin Brooks

This study reports on a survey of experienced emergency management personnel in Australia and New Zealand to identify the influence of organisational features in perceived…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study reports on a survey of experienced emergency management personnel in Australia and New Zealand to identify the influence of organisational features in perceived emergency management performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of organisational features in emergency response performance and to discuss how this knowledge can be used to enhance the response capacity of emergency services organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the literature, a conceptual theoretical model for organisational performance is first developed based on four organisational features found to be previously important in emergency management organisation. These are, adaptability, leadership, stability (mission and direction) and stakeholder communication. An organisational survey was distributed to all 25 fire and emergency services agencies in Australia and New Zealand which included indicators of these elements. Responses were received from experienced emergency management personnel from fire and emergency services agencies. The sample was stratified into the three main organisational types, namely, established, expanding and extending organisations.

Findings

The findings reveal that the predictive significance of organisational features in emergency response performance vary among established, expanding and extending organisations. The predictive significance of stability, adaptability and leadership for perceived success is strong in all organisational types. It is interesting to note that the predictive significance of communication with external stakeholders is low in all organisation types. This indicates the preference of emergency services agencies to look internally within their own operations than externally to build relationships with different specialism.

Originality/value

The theoretical model in this study makes a first attempt to understand the role of organisational features in emergency response performance of organisations in Australia and New Zealand. This work contributes to theorizing emergency operations by highlighting how organisations need to manage two orientations simultaneously: their own internal as well as external orientations, together with their processes for managing both mission and direction and the need for change and flexibility.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Nur Budi Mulyono, Noorhan Firdaus Pambudi, Lukni Burhanuddin Ahmad and Akbar Adhiutama

The lack of studies about the response time of emergency medical service during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in a dense city of a developing country…

Abstract

Purpose

The lack of studies about the response time of emergency medical service during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in a dense city of a developing country has triggered this study to explore the factors contributing to a high response time of ambulance service to reach patients in need. An evaluation of contributing factors to the response time is necessary to guide decision-makers in keeping a high service level of emergency medical service.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed an agent-based modeling approach with input parameters from interviews with emergency medical service staff in Bandung city, Indonesia. The agent-based model is established to evaluate the relevant contribution of the factors to response time reduction using several scenarios.

Findings

According to agent-based simulation, four factors contribute to the response time: the process of preparing crew and ambulance during the pandemic, coverage area, traffic density and crew responsiveness. Among these factors, the preparation process during the pandemic and coverage area significantly contributed to the response time, while the traffic density and crew responsiveness were less significant. The preparation process is closely related to the safety procedure in handling patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and normal time. The recommended coverage area for maintaining a low response time is 5 km, equivalent to six local subdistricts.

Research limitations/implications

This study has explored the factors contributing to emergency medical response time. The insignificant contribution of the traffic density showed that citizens, in general, have high awareness and compliance to traffic priority regulation, so crew responsiveness in handling ambulances is an irrelevant factor. This study might have different contributing factors for less dense population areas and focuses on public emergency medical services provided by the local government.

Practical implications

The local government must provide additional funding to cover additional investment for ambulance, crew and administration for the new emergency service deployment point. Exercising an efficient process in ambulance and crew preparation is mandatory for each emergency deployment point.

Originality/value

This study evaluates the contributing factors of emergency medical response time in the pandemic and normal situation by qualitative analysis and agent-based simulation. The performance comparison in terms of medical response time before and after COVID-19 through agent-based simulation is valuable for decision-makers to reduce the impact of COVID-19.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

John Clark Griffith and Donna L. Roberts

Emergency service departments face changing mission requirements, budget constraints and a demanding work environment. This study examined the perceptions of fire chiefs…

Abstract

Purpose

Emergency service departments face changing mission requirements, budget constraints and a demanding work environment. This study examined the perceptions of fire chiefs, officers and firefighters who attended the National Professional Development Symposium on the use of a tiered approach when responding to calls, the continued increase in medical calls and mental health services available to fire service personnel.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the perceptions of fire chiefs, officers and firefighters who attended the National Professional Development Symposium on the use of a tiered approach when responding to calls, the continued increase in medical calls and mental health services available to fire service personnel.

Findings

Survey respondents indicated that they either are currently or would consider using a tiered approach to sending a fire engine and crew or a lighter vehicle to medical or other calls based requirements identified using a tiered approach.

Research limitations/implications

This idea has future implications regarding the vehicle mix of fire stations as administrators seek to meet the needs of the public most effectively. Survey responses also noted the need for mental health services arguing that care seeking firefighters should have the option of getting mental health services within the station or at an external location. Calls involving babies or young children were overwhelming cited as the most difficult. Additionally, 95% of respondents indicated a belief that most firefighters suffer from PTSD.

Practical implications

Recommendations include: A larger scale survey and analysis of first responder perceptions based on this study. Identifying “best practices” of the most effective “tiered response” approaches to deploying emergency services resources to calls. Studying Mental Health services combating PTSD to identify best practices. Lastly, emergency services administrators should consider changes to the “vehicle mix” when equipping or reequipping stations.

Social implications

Social implications include use of a “tiered response” approach to emergency calls and focusing how best to support the mental health needs of firefighters.

Originality/value

Fire Departments are only beginning to explore the idea of using a tiered response to respond to emergencies. This study identifies both short and long term implications of using a tired approach. A secondary emphasis of this study explores difficult calls and PTSD issues faced by firefighters.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

David Drabkin and Khi V. Thai

Emergency contracting has risen to the fore in both interest and importance in the US since September 11, 2001 (9/11). Most recently, the US government's response to…

Abstract

Emergency contracting has risen to the fore in both interest and importance in the US since September 11, 2001 (9/11). Most recently, the US government's response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita piqued the interest of both the Executive and Legislative branches of the US government and their respective oversight bodies. This paper briefly reviews the literature of emergency contracting with special focus on the statutory and regulatory framework for emergency contracting, identifies some contracting solutions established by the US government to deal more effectively with emergency contracting, and pinpoints some problems faced by emergency contracting agencies and anomalies of their emergency contracting practices.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2018

Mark M.J. Wilson, Peter Tatham, John Payne, Cécile L’Hermitte and Michael Shapland

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges inherent in planning and responding to disaster events in a multi-agency context where numerous governmental and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges inherent in planning and responding to disaster events in a multi-agency context where numerous governmental and non-governmental actors and agencies are involved in the planning and response phases. In particular, the authors examine a situation where a lead agency has recently been delegated the responsibility for emergency relief logistics and how it might determine and implement best practice.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting an iterative inductive approach, the authors gather data and insights from academic literature, emergency management policies, frameworks and documents and exploratory in-depth interviews with 12 key informants who have considerable experience with the challenges of logistic preparation and response to disasters in a developed country context. The data and context are limited to developed counties, especially the state of Queensland, Australia.

Findings

The authors discuss the challenge of achieving coordinated supply chain management where mandated/lead response agencies are required to meet stakeholder and local community expectations and outcomes. From these findings, the authors offer 11 practical recommendations to assist the delivery of best practice in emergency logistics.

Originality/value

Humanitarian logistics is usually examined from a low/middle-income country perspective, yet an efficient and effective disaster response is no less important for developed economies. In this respect, the authors offer a fresh examination of the challenges of delivering best practice for emergency logistics in order to achieve expected community outcomes.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Chandrakantan Subramaniam, Hassan Ali and Faridahwati Mohd Shamsudin

The purpose of this paper is to identify the initial emergency response time of fire fighting teams in Malaysia.

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970

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the initial emergency response time of fire fighting teams in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

In an emergency incident time is of the essence, and the basic philosophy of an emergency response agency is to respond as quickly as possible to minimize the loss of life and property damage. In the current study, emergency response performance refers to team members' speed in responding to emergency situations, which was measured as the time taken for the team members to get to the fire truck from the waiting room in selected fire stations in Malaysia. The data collection period lasted for five months.

Findings

This study found that the overall average initial emergency response time was 84 seconds, while the overall average weighted initial emergency response time was 3.71 seconds per meter. The current study has demonstrated that the average initial emergency response performed by fire fighting teams in Malaysia is apparently better than that reported by previous studies by other emergency responders.

Originality/value

This paper presents empirical evidence of the initial emergency response time of fire fighters in Malaysia, by taking into account the distance traveled by the responders. As such, the performance measure obtained gives a meaningful indicator. The finding of the current study is then compared to emergency response performance by other emergency response agencies in other countries.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Khaled Amailef and Jie Lu

The purpose of this paper is to present an intelligent mobile based emergency response system (MERS) framework, a text information extraction and aggregation algorithm to…

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1904

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an intelligent mobile based emergency response system (MERS) framework, a text information extraction and aggregation algorithm to integrate information from multiple sources in the MERS system, and an ontology‐supported case‐based reasoning system for the MERS system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explains the components of information extraction and aggregation process, and a CBR‐Ontology approach for the MERS system.

Findings

The result of this study will offer a new opportunity to the interaction between government, citizens, responders, and other non‐government agencies in emergency situations, and therefore improve the services of the government in an emergency situation.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the need for usage of mobile technologies to assist the government to get information and make decisions in responding to disasters anytime and anywhere.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Monique L. French, Ying Fan and Gary L. Stading

This paper aims to develop a conceptual model for future theory building and provides guidance to emergency managers by identifying important organizational factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a conceptual model for future theory building and provides guidance to emergency managers by identifying important organizational factors influencing emergency response performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is developed linking organizational characteristics and incident types to emergency response performance, focusing on the “prepare” and “respond” stages in emergency management. Archival data are used to test the framework, using ANOVA to analyze 12,057 incidents over a nine-year period.

Findings

The results indicate that organizational characteristics impact emergency response performance through Knowledge of Location. Several organizational factors impact Knowledge of Location, which then serves, with incident type, as a significant indicator for emergency response performance.

Research limitations/implications

Researchers are constrained by the data collected in the database used for the study; however, the use of this commonly collected data to operationalize our variables for model testing facilitates analysis of other emergency management organizations for validation. Future model extension is possible by identifying other important variables.

Practical implications

The analysis emphasizes the importance of area familiarization training in improving emergency response as well as the impact of organizational structure changes on response. Emergency managers should ensure clear lines of authority and communication during times of change.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to use empirical data from a large-scale, real-world database to study emergency response performance. In contrast to previous modeling-based research, this study emphasizes organizational characteristics with an empirical perspective.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Marit Skar, Maria Sydnes and Are Kristoffer Sydnes

When emergencies occur, ordinary members of the public are often the first to respond. However, their use and integration in emergency response remain a challenge. The…

Abstract

Purpose

When emergencies occur, ordinary members of the public are often the first to respond. However, their use and integration in emergency response remain a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to explore mechanisms and strategies for integrating unorganized volunteers in emergency response.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative case study. A series of anonymized, semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the key emergency response organizations – the police, ambulance service, fire and rescue service, and the Red Cross, located in the city of Tromsø. In addition, regulatory documents used by these organizations were examined, including laws, contingency plans, procedural handbooks and checklists.

Findings

Professional responders acknowledge the resource unorganized volunteers may represent when additional capacity is needed. However, being uncertain about their availability and competence, professional responders find it hard to integrate unorganized volunteers through formal mechanisms as contingency planning and exercises, but rather rely on informal and individual case-by-case considerations. The local Red Cross, who are part of the established response system, are developing procedures to integrate unorganized volunteers through training, exercises and response operations. This provides an innovative hybrid approach to volunteer management.

Originality/value

Available research provides limited information and advice on how to integrate unorganized volunteers effectively in emergencies. This study provides insights in formal and informal mechanisms of integrating unorganized volunteers in emergency response. It also provides lessons from a case of volunteer management through the Red Cross.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Sofie Pilemalm, Ida Lindgren and Elina Ramsell

This study aims to explore recent public sector trends, inter-organizational and cross-sector collaborations, and analyzes these in terms of implications for participative…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore recent public sector trends, inter-organizational and cross-sector collaborations, and analyzes these in terms of implications for participative development of information systems (IS). These trends are understood as being part of emerging forms of e-government. Initial suggestions for how to develop IS in the new contexts are provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Three cases involving the trends described above, taking place in the Swedish emergency response system, are studied and used as basis for identified participative IS development challenges and suggested adaptation needs. Data collection involves semi-structured interviews, focus groups and future workshops.

Findings

The identified challenges concern balancing ideological versus practical needs, lack of resources, lack of know-how and design techniques and tool challenges. Some practical implications for participative IS development include more extensive focus on stakeholder and legal analysis, need for interdisciplinary design teams, merging of task and needs analysis for yet-undefined user tasks and using on-line alternatives for interacting with users.

Research implications/limitations

The study is exploratory where the three cases are in different, but at the same time interrelated, collaboration contexts. The identified implications and challenges provide proposals that in future research can be applied, formalized and integrated when developing practically feasible participative IS development approaches.

Originality/value

It is argued that the results point toward a current emerging form of e-government initiatives directed toward certain demarcated groups of citizens actually carrying out certain tasks for their co-citizens and society rather than the broad masses, having far-reaching practical implications and complicating the issue of IS development.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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