This chapter seeks to provide insights into a hitherto neglected topic – that of gender segregation among those who have taken part in vocational education and training (VET). In spite of a growing body of work on the link between educational and occupational segregation by gender, relatively little attention has been given to the specific role played by VET in facilitating gender-specific occupational segregation. Using the European Social Survey (ESS) for 20 European countries and comparable macro data from different European sources, the study examines the extent to which cross-national differences in the gender-typical or atypical occupational allocation of vocational graduates aged 20–34 can be attributed to VET-specific institutional differences.
The findings are consistent with earlier research showing the protective role played by VET in reducing non-employment levels. The findings in relation to the gender-typing of work are somewhat surprising, as they indicate that VET system characteristics make relatively little difference to occupational outcomes among women, whether or not they have a VET qualification. Slightly stronger, but still modest, relationships are found between VET system characteristics and occupational outcomes for men. Male VET graduates are more likely to be in a male-typed job in systems with a higher proportion enrolled on vocational courses. In tracked systems, however, they also tend to be more likely to enter female-typed jobs. In systems where VET prepares people for a wider range of occupations, a VET qualification can act as a protective factor against non-employment, at least for men.
This chapter describes the nature of higher education funding and student support in the Republic of Ireland. Ireland represents an interesting case-study because of the…
This chapter describes the nature of higher education funding and student support in the Republic of Ireland. Ireland represents an interesting case-study because of the abolition of student fees in the mid-1990s and the way in which the current crisis in higher education (HE) funding has prompted debate about the appropriate way to fund the sector. The chapter begins by providing a brief outline of the structure of Irish HE and the funding regime before examining HE admissions processes and the kinds of supports available to students. The chapter concludes by looking at trends in participation and the current debate about the future direction of funding.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal’s job has…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal’s job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly based on nationally representative data. In order to understand how principals perceive their job and how best to support them, new insights into factors contributing to job satisfaction and stress of school principals are warranted.
The paper draws on an analysis of Growing up in Ireland data, a national representative study of nine-year-old children in Ireland. In order to explore the simultaneous impact of individual and school factors on stress and job satisfaction of principals in Irish primary schools, multivariate analysis was used. Analyses in this paper are based on responses from principals in 898 schools.
The results of the study indicate that a significant number of primary school principals in Ireland are not very satisfied and feel stressed about their job. Regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction and occupational stress were related to a complex set of personal characteristics, working conditions, school context and teacher climate.
The data are limited to primary school principals. However, this is in itself an advantage since it allows for greater insights into variation across principals in job satisfaction and stress, holding the effect of school level constant.
This is the first study of its kind in the Irish context that explores the simultaneous effect of a number of factors on school principals’ stress and job satisfaction.
Education is increasingly using Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), both for modelling instructional and teaching strategies and for enhancing educational programs. The…
Education is increasingly using Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), both for modelling instructional and teaching strategies and for enhancing educational programs. The first part of the paper introduces the basic structure of an ITS as well as common problems being experienced within the ITS community. The second part describes WITNeSS ‐ an original hybrid intelligent system using Fuzzy‐Neural‐GA techniques for optimising the presentation of learning material to a student. The original work in this paper is related to the concept of a “virtual student”. This student model, modelled using fuzzy technologies, will be useful for any ITS, providing it with an optimal learning strategy for fitting the ITS itself to the unique needs of each individual student. In the third part, experiments focus on problems developing a “virtual student” model, which simulates, in a rudimentary way, human learning behaviour. Part four finishes with concluding remarks.
THE new chief in our parish, the London Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in succession to S C Holliday is to be Melvyn Barnes, Chief Librarian of Ipswich in East Anglia for the last couple of years. The Kensington post offers a spacious central library of recent vintage, with particularly good reference services, though an over‐preponderance of student pre‐emption of table space. There is a strong local history interest in the borough, keenly fostered by Chief Assistant Brian Curle. We use central ref a good deal and have always found them very helpful, though some of the branches are a shade parochial. We look to the youthful Mr Barnes to blow a little fresh air into the system, and hope his salary covers the difference between the cost of houses in London and Ipswich.