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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

S.W. Cai, Y. Zong, T.S. Hua and R.G. Song

This paper aims to verify the inhibition of the hydrogen permeation effect of the coating and to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the coating-induced stress.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to verify the inhibition of the hydrogen permeation effect of the coating and to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the coating-induced stress.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of slow strain rate tensile testing (SSRT) in humid air, thickness measurement, fracture morphology, cross-section morphology and surface morphology, hydrogen content measurements, flow stress difference method.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the mechanism of the inhibition of hydrogen embrittlement by the coating is mainly attributed to the repression of hydrogen permeation and the additional coating-induced compressive stress.

Originality/value

It is proven that the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coating does inhibit hydrogen entry into the alloy, and the stress induced by the MAO coating is compressive stress, which can restrain the hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy. Therefore, the mechanism of the inhibition of hydrogen embrittlement is dominated by the mechanisms of both hydrogen permeation inhibition and coating-induced stress.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Z.A. Foroulis

Aqueous solutions which contain H2SO4, H2S or mixtures of H2S and NH3 are corrosive to carbon steel and other commonly used alloys. Therefore, titanium has been evaluated…

Abstract

Aqueous solutions which contain H2SO4, H2S or mixtures of H2S and NH3 are corrosive to carbon steel and other commonly used alloys. Therefore, titanium has been evaluated as a possible construction material in these environments. This paper summarizes the results of a study of the corrosion, galvanic and hydrogen embrittlement behaviour of titanium in aqueous sulfidic and sulfate solutions. Variables discussed include the effect of solution pH, temperature and solution composition on the corrosion and electro chemical behaviour including galvanic effects of titanium. This paper also considers the effect of pH, temperature and mechanical loading rate (strain‐rate) on the ductility and embrittlement of titanium.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1976

Mary Rubinstein

This characteristic is important enough in aircraft maintenance to be covered separately. Considerably less embrittlement than that in bath plating is realized in…

Abstract

This characteristic is important enough in aircraft maintenance to be covered separately. Considerably less embrittlement than that in bath plating is realized in selective plating. With one proprietary solution, Cadmium LHE (Code SPS 5070), hydrogen embrittlement is almost negligible. Selectively plated nickel and nickel‐tungsten alloys also can be plated with so little hydrogen content that no baking for embrittle‐content that no baking for embrittlement relief is required.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

M. Grujicic, V. Chenna, R. Galgalikar, J.S. Snipes, S. Ramaswami and R. Yavari

A simple economic analysis has revealed that in order for wind energy to be a viable alternative, wind-turbines (convertors of wind energy into electrical energy) must be…

Abstract

Purpose

A simple economic analysis has revealed that in order for wind energy to be a viable alternative, wind-turbines (convertors of wind energy into electrical energy) must be able to operate for at least 20 years, with only regular maintenance. However, wind-turbines built nowadays do not generally possess this level of reliability and durability. Specifically, due to the malfunction and failure of drive-trains/gear-boxes, many wind-turbines require major repairs after only three to five years in service. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The subject of the present work is the so-called white etch cracking, one of the key processes responsible for the premature failure of gear-box roller-bearings. To address this problem, a multi-physics computational methodology is developed and used to analyze the problem of wind-turbine gear-box roller-bearing premature-failure. The main components of the proposed methodology include the analyses of: first, hydrogen dissolution and the accompanying grain-boundary embrittlement phenomena; second, hydrogen diffusion from the crack-wake into the adjacent unfractured material; third, the inter-granular fracture processes; and fourth, the kinematic and structural response of the bearing under service-loading conditions.

Findings

The results obtained clearly revealed the operation of the white-etch cracking phenomenon in wind-turbine gear-box roller-bearings and its dependence on the attendant loading and environmental conditions.

Originality/value

The present work attempts to make a contribution to the resolution of an important problem related to premature-failure and inferior reliability of wind-turbine gearboxes.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

D. Mukherjee, R. Rajmohan, B. Rathapan, V. Rajkumar and S. Raman

The paper discusses the aspect of probable stress induced embrittlement of 304 stainless steel stresses originating from thermal exposure, uniaxial tension, and reverse…

Abstract

The paper discusses the aspect of probable stress induced embrittlement of 304 stainless steel stresses originating from thermal exposure, uniaxial tension, and reverse bending, which have been simulated on the surface of SS plates of 1mm thickness, using conventional techniques. The physical and electrochemical properties of the treated SS materials have been followed up as a function of the corroding medium and also the type and extent of the stress interaction.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Qin Kang, Yicheng Fan, Kun Zhang, Xiaolang Chen, Hongyu San, Yiqing Chen and Heming Zhao

With excellent mechanic properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance, 12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is suitable to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors. However, longtime…

Abstract

Purpose

With excellent mechanic properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance, 12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is suitable to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors. However, longtime exposure to a harsh environment of high-pressure hydrogen at medium temperature in practical application would still induce severe hydrogen uptake and eventually damage the mechanical properties of the steel. The study aims to evaluate the HE resistance of the steel under different tensile strain rates after hydrogen charging and analyze the hydrogen effect from atomic level.

Design/methodology/approach

This research studied the HE properties of 12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel by slow strain rate tests. Meanwhile, the effect of hydrogen on the structures and the mechanical properties of the simplified models of the steel was also investigated by first-principle calculations.

Findings

Experimental results showed that after hydrogen pre-charging in this work, hydrogen had little effect on the microstructure of the steel. The elongations and reduction of cross-sectional area of the samples reduced a lot, by contrast, the yield and tensile strengths changed slightly. The 12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel was not very susceptible to HE with a maximum embrittlement index of about 20.00%. First principles calculation results showed that after H dissolution, lattice distortion occurred and interstitial H atoms would preferentially occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site in bcc-Fe crystal and increase the stability of the supercells. With the increase of H atoms added into the simplified model, the steel still possessed a good ductility and toughness at a low hydrogen concentration, while the material would become brittle as the concentration of hydrogen continued to increase.

Originality/value

These finds can provide valuable information for subsequent HE studies on this steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Kun Zhang, Yicheng Fan, Xiaowei Luo, Xiaolang Chen, Chaolei Ban, Heming Zhao and Yiqing Chen

12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is commonly used to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors given its excellent mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance. Longtime…

Abstract

Purpose

12Cr2Mo1R(H) steel is commonly used to make hot-wall hydrogenation reactors given its excellent mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) resistance. Longtime exposure to high-pressure hydrogen at medium temperature would still severely damage the mechanical properties of the Cr-Mo steel with surface HICs caused by hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen uptake. The mechanisms of HE remain controversial and have not been fully understood so far.

Design/methodology/approach

The HE of the steel was investigated by slow strain rate test at different strain rates with in situ hydrogen charging. The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the steel is measured by electrochemical technology of hydrogen permeation. HIC cracks of the fractured specimens were captured with field emission SEM equipped with an electron backscatter diffraction system.

Findings

Results showed that the hydrogen led to the plasticity of the samples reduced significantly, together with the distinct work hardening behavior induced by hydrogen charging during plastic flow stage. The fracture of in situ charged sample changes from quasi-cleavage to intergranular fracture with the decreasing of strain rates, which indicates that the steel become more susceptible to hydrogen. High densities of dislocations and deformation are found around the crack, where grains are highly sensitive to HIC. Grains with different Taylor factor are more susceptible to intergranular crack.

Originality/value

The results of the study would be helpful to a safer application of the steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1973

R.J. WANHILL and W.J. van de VET

Introduction This report deals with two important causes of service failures in high strength steels: stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. These failure modes are…

Abstract

Introduction This report deals with two important causes of service failures in high strength steels: stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. These failure modes are often difficult to distinguish from one another fractographically, and sometimes the macroscopic and metallagraphic interpretation is also open to doubt.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 20 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

D. Mukherjee

The surface science and engineering discipline has emerged recently and become more high‐profile. Functional performance of the surface is given top priority, although…

Abstract

The surface science and engineering discipline has emerged recently and become more high‐profile. Functional performance of the surface is given top priority, although some of the bulk parameters play a very important role in the performance of the surface. Residual ductility is one such parameter, which directly controls the probability of surface embrittlement during the service stage of any engineering product, thereby controlling the embrittlement‐induced galvanic corrosion. Residual ductility also indirectly controls the metal dissolution in a corrosive environment by improving the adhesion of the corrosion product films to the surface. Discusses the role of residual ductility, in the control of environmentally induced deterioration of the metallic surfaces, highlighting the parameters which may eventually interfere with its level on the surface. Improvement of ductility also improves the attachment of the nearest neighbour elements of the matrix, resulting in the improvement of the surface stability. On the contrary, a brittle surface undergoes higher reactive interaction with the environment. Also discusses the possibility of using the residual ductility parameter for obtaining the rate values of an imaginary defect for subsequent extrapolation of the approximate residual life values of some carbon‐steel materials.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Nikolai Petrovich Anosov, Vladimir Nikolaevich Skorobogatykh, Lyubov’ Yur’yevna Gordyuk, Vasilii Anatol’evich Mikheev, Egor Vasil’yevich Pogorelov and Valentin Kuz’mich Shamardin

The purpose of this paper is to consider a procedure of water-water energetic reactor (WWER) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime prediction at the stages of design and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider a procedure of water-water energetic reactor (WWER) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lifetime prediction at the stages of design and lifetime extension using the standard irradiation embrittlement parameters as defined in regulatory documents. A comparison is made of the brittle fracture resistance (BFR) values evaluated using two criteria: shift in the critical brittleness temperature ΔTc or shift in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature ΔTp and without shifts (Tc and Tp).

Design/methodology/approach

The radiation resistance was determined using the following three approaches: calculation based on standard values ΔTc and Tc0 or ΔTp and Tp0 (a level of excessive conservatism); calculation based on standard value ΔTc and actual value Tc0 or actual values ΔTp and Tp0 (the level of realistic conservatism); or calculation based on actual values of Tc and Tc0 or Tp and Tp0 (the level of actual conservatism). The BFR was evaluated based on the results of testing the specimens subjected to irradiation in research reactors as well as surveillance specimens subjected to irradiation immediately under operating conditions.

Findings

The excessive conservatism in determining the actual lifetime of nuclear reactor vessel materials can be eliminated by using the immediate values of critical brittleness temperature and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.

Originality/value

Obtained results can be applied to extend WWER vessel operating time at the stages of designing and operation due to substantiated decrease in conservatism. And it will allow carrying out a statistical substantiated assessment of the resistance to brittle fracture of the RPV steels.

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