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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2022

Khaled M.M. Koriem, Nevein N. Fadl, Salwa R. El-Zayat, Eman N. Hosny and Fatma A. Morsy

The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was designed to investigate anise oil and geranium oil to amend body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D, and liver histology in depressed rats.

Design/methodology/approach

Eighty male albino rats were divided into normal and depressed rats. Normal rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: control, venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil groups. Depressed rats (40 rats) were divided into four equal groups: depressed rats, depressed rats + venlafaxine drug, depressed rats + anise oil and depressed rats + geranium oil groups. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were detected. Animal behavior, cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology were also investigated in this study.

Findings

Body weight (117 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (5.6 ± 1.4 g/day) and water intake (8.7 ± 1.2 ml/day) were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to body weight (153 ± 7.6 g), food consumption (12.7 ± 1.6 g/day) and water intake (15.3 ± 1.6 ml/day) in control. Animal behavioral tests, e.g. sucrose preference (48.8 ± 1.5) test, distance traveled (70.0 ± 16.3), center square entries (0.20 ± 0.10), center square duration (52.18 ± 11.9), tail suspension (54.70 ± 2.9 s) test and forced swimming (134.4 ± 5.5 s) test were significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in depression compared to sucrose preference (89.2 ± 1.7) test, distance traveled (226 ± 90.1), center square entries (1.4 ± 1.8), center square duration (3.6 ± 2.0), tail suspension (19.3 ± 2.1 s) test and forced swimming (83.7 ± 3.6 s) test in control. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (7.4 ± 1.7 and 1.2 ± 0.54 pg/g tissue), dopamine (6.3 ± 1.5 and 0.86 ± 0.07 pg/g tissue), norepinephrine (8.1 ± 1.7 and 1.4 ± 0.41 pg/g tissue) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) (1.3 ± 0.41 and 0.08 ± 0.04 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (46.8 ± 3.5 µmole/L) and vitamin D (1.3 ± 0.37 ng/ml) were significantly decreased (p?0.001) in depression compared to cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters such as serotonin (16.8 ± 2.1 and 4.0 ± 1.4 pg/g tissue), dopamine (15.7 ± 2.0 and 1.8 ± 0.49 pg/g tissue) norepinephrine (18.2 ± 2.3 and 3.8 ± 1.3 pg/g tissue) and GABA (2.7 ± 0.62 and 0.16 ± 0.06 µmole/g tissue), serum bile acid (90.5 ± 4.3 µmole/L) and vitamin D (2.7 ± 0.58 ng/ml) in control. Depression induced injury to hepatic tissues. Oral supplementation with anise oil and geranium oil ameliorated body weight, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depressed rats.

Originality/value

Depression treatment persists for a long time, so the search for a new herbal treatment is of concern due to available sources, cheap and no side effects of herbal plants. Anise oil and geranium oil improved body weight, food consumption, water intake, animal behavioral tests, cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas neurotransmitters, serum bile acid and vitamin D and liver histology in depression.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem, Nevein Naim Fadl, Salwa Refat El-Zayat, Eman Nasr Hosny, Karima Abbas El-Shamy, Mahmoud Soliman Arbid, Fatma Adly Morsy and Marwa Helmy El-Azma

The purpose of this paper is to check the geranium oil and anise oil effect to inhibit inflammation in brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas in depression.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to check the geranium oil and anise oil effect to inhibit inflammation in brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas in depression.

Design/methodology/approach

Depression defined as psychiatric disease and chronic mild stress (CMS) model a well-known animal model of depression that represented major symptoms occurred in human depression. Geranium oil and anise oil selected for such a study to check their anti-inflammatory effect in brain tissues in depressed animal model.

Findings

The brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and interleukin (IL)-10 significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus IL-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Ki-67 levels significantly increased (p < 0.001) in CMS rats compared to control. The oral intake of venlafaxine drug, anise oil and geranium oil significantly increased (p < 0.001) serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA and IL-10 while significantly decreased (p < 0.001) IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and Ki-67 levels to approach normal levels in brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas compared with CMS rats.

Originality/value

Antidepressants used in depression treatment but these drugs are either too expensive or had side effects. Folklore and complementary medicine used in different diseases treatment due to cheap and available source. Geranium oil and anise oil had anti-inflammatory effect in brain cerebral cortex and hippocampus areas in CMS rats.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Eman Shady Sayed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the position of religion for the three constitutions of Egypt.

2421

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the position of religion for the three constitutions of Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, by tracing religious identity-related studies and seeing whether their existence is attributed to the ruling elites’ attitudes, it examines how factors such as new elites and new in ideology affect change of articles of religion.

Findings

The results demonstrate that the most significant factor was the existence of a new elite having a different ideology, which was obvious in the three constitutions: 1971, 2012 and 2014.

Research implications

The manner in which studies of religion are written is the basis for legislation and the source of public policies that affect the discourse of political systems or results in economic and social rights that affect public policies. Therefore, if people are engaged in the process of drafting identity articles, they would participate in the reformation of their traditions and systems and there would be more integration in the society.

Originality/value

Few studies have attempted to work on the sociology of constitutions and religion in the Egyptian context.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

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