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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2014

Martin G.A. Svensson and Alf Westelius

Emailing does not preclude emotional exchange and many times it causes us to engage in spiralling exchanges of increasingly angry emailing. The purpose of this chapter is…

Abstract

Emailing does not preclude emotional exchange and many times it causes us to engage in spiralling exchanges of increasingly angry emailing. The purpose of this chapter is threefold: to explore how factors of temporality are related to anger when emailing, to model circumstances that protect against, but also ignite, anger escalation, and to raise a discussion for practitioners of how to avoid damaging email communication. By intersecting literature on communication, information systems, psychology and organisational studies, factors leading to an ‘emotional verge’ are identified and summarised in a model showing factors likely to prime, but also protect against, anger escalation.

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Individual Sources, Dynamics, and Expressions of Emotion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-889-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

The study aims to investigate how modern methods of communication within the construction industry have brought forth a new cognitive process that participants in this…

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Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate how modern methods of communication within the construction industry have brought forth a new cognitive process that participants in this industry should undertake when communicating.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the objectives of the study, a literature review was compiled on the legal status of electronic communication and what the impact of the Electronic Communications and Transactions (ECT) Act, Act 25 of 2002, has had on electronic communication. A questionnaire was also distributed to quantity surveyors to ascertain the level of knowledge with regard to the application of the ECT Act.

Findings

The study found that participants are not familiar with the ECT Act and that it is highly advisable that parties to the agreement be made fully aware of how communications should be dealt with during the duration of the contract.

Research limitations/implications

The study is restricted to the South African construction industry and construction contracts and a small target population of professional quantity surveyors practicing in the Gauteng Province. The results of the research will be taken as representative of the entire country.

Practical implications

In the modern era, notifications are increasingly being communicated electronically, e.g. by electronic mail, linked computer networks, the Internet and cellular phones with appropriate media capabilities. Participants in the built environment must know how to correctly, effectively and legally, deal with this information revolution.

Originality/value

Modern means of communication, including in particular electronic emailing, demand that users properly appreciate whether the chosen method of communication has a contractually binding and legally enforceable effect. Thus, in an ever-changing built environment, participants should not only dedicate more time to ensure that information conveyed does not have legal implications, except if so intended, but that the information conveyed is unambiguous, grammatically correct and formulated professionally. This article has value as it investigates how industry stakeholders perceive the legal status of electronic communication and recommends how it should be dealt with during the execution of the contract.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Aleksandra B. Zimmerman

While academic research has been conducted on auditors’ ability to exercise professional skepticism in face-to-face client interviews, little is known about auditors…

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1036

Abstract

Purpose

While academic research has been conducted on auditors’ ability to exercise professional skepticism in face-to-face client interviews, little is known about auditors’ application of professional skepticism in email communication with the client. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that impact auditor professional skepticism during client inquiries conducted through email.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment was conducted with 69 undergraduate and graduate auditing students as surrogates for auditors. The experimental design crossed two levels of client expressed confidence (high and low) and two levels of client response timing to the auditor’s email inquiry (earlier than expected and later than expected).

Findings

Results indicate that management expressed confidence moderates the influence of management response timing on auditor professional skepticism and that auditor perceptions of client credibility mediate this interactive effect. When the client’s response is low in confidence, auditors perceive a later-than-expected response from the manager as less credible than an earlier-than-expected response, which leads to less reliance on management explanations, which signifies more skepticism. However, when confidence is high, response timing does not impact perceptions of the client’s credibility.

Practical implications

The results imply that junior auditors should be vigilant of how communication cues in client emails may impact their judgments. Even though management response timing and expressed confidence should not influence auditor skepticism per se, auditors seem to vary their level of skepticism with the timing of the client’s response when client confidence is low but not when client confidence is high, despite the information content of the client’s response being held constant.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on professional skepticism by addressing the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board’s concerns about the need for auditors to exercise more professional skepticism in practice, particularly in an environment in which computer-mediated communication is increasing at a fast pace; and assists practitioners in better understanding the factors that influence the degree of skepticism auditors exercise when collecting audit evidence through email. The study should be of interest to audit firms, as it provides evidence on whether auditors use nonverbal cues such as chronemics, or time-related messages, in email communication to judge management and evidence reliability and credibility.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 31 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2018

Ramakrishnan Raman, Sandeep Bhattacharya and Dhanya Pramod

Research questions that this paper attempts to answer are – do the features in general email communication have any significance to a teaching faculty member leaving the…

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1067

Abstract

Purpose

Research questions that this paper attempts to answer are – do the features in general email communication have any significance to a teaching faculty member leaving the business school? Do the sentiments expressed in email communication have any significance to a teaching faculty member leaving the business school? Do the stages mentioned in the transtheoretical model have any relevance to the email behaviour of an individual when he or she goes through the decision process leading to the decision to quit? The purpose of this paper is to study email patterns and use predictive analytics to correlate with the real-world situation of leaving the business school.

Design/methodology/approach

The email repository (2010–2017) of 126 teaching faculty members who were associated with a business school as full-time faculty members is the data set that was used for the research. Of the 126 teaching faculty members, 42 had left the business school during this time frame. Correlation analysis, word count analysis and sentiment analysis were executed using “R” programming, and sentiment “R” package was used to understand the sentiment and its association in leaving the business school. From the email repository, a rich feature set of data was extracted for correlation analysis to discover the features which had strong correlation with the faculty member leaving the business school. The research also used data-logging tools to extract aggregated statistics for word frequency counts and sentiment features.

Findings

Those faculty members who decide to leave are involved more in external communication and less in internal communications. Also, those who decide to leave initiate fewer email conversations and opt to forward emails to colleagues. Correlation analysis shows that negative sentiment goes down, as faculty members leave the organisation and this is in contrary to the existing review of literature. The research also shows that the triggering point or the intention to leave is positively correlated to the downward swing of the emotional valence (positive sentiment). A number of email features have shown change in patterns which are correlated to a faculty member quitting the business school.

Research limitations/implications

Faculty members of only one business school have been considered and this is primary due to cost, privacy and complexities involved in procuring and handling the data. Also, the reasons for exhibiting the sentiments and their root cause have not been studied. Also the designation, roles and responsibilities of faculty members have not been taken into consideration.

Practical implications

Business schools all over India always have a challenge to recruit good faculty members who can take up research activities, teach and also shoulder administrative responsibilities. Retaining faculty members and keeping attrition levels low will help business schools to maintain the standards of excellence that they aspire. This research is immensely useful for business school, which can use email analytics in predicting the intention of the faculty members leaving their business school.

Originality/value

Although past studies have studied attrition, this study uses predictive analytics and maps it to the intention to quit. This study helps business schools to predict the chance of faculty members leaving the business school which is of immense value, as appropriate measures can be taken to retain and restrict attrition.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Adriana Valente and Daniela Luzi

This paper explores how and to what extent the appearance and wide use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) may enhance scientific communication and…

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737

Abstract

This paper explores how and to what extent the appearance and wide use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) may enhance scientific communication and knowledge. The first part analyses the general boundaries of scientific communication, focusing on the use of email. It summarises and develops the results of relevant international studies and surveys on computer‐mediated communication; it identifies, on the one hand, the principal social settings and contexts in which email is used and, on the other, the characteristic features which determine specific communication models. The analysis provides evidence of the various factors which determine the dynamics of electronic communication and which, more specifically, define the difference between business and scientific communication. The second part of the paper explores the close relationship between communication and knowledge in the scientific sector and the role played by ICTs. The assumption that ICTs ought to enhance the acquisition, sharing and transmission of scientific knowledge is questioned by the distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge: ICTs ultimately appear to provide a strong drive only to processes of explicit/coded knowledge handling. Nevertheless, exploring the main components of tacit knowledge in depth, and considering recent ICT‐based applications, it is possible to foresee new opportunities for the creation and dissemination of knowledge through networks.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Carolyn M. Axtell, Karin S. Moser and Janet McGoldrick

Status is a central aspect of teamwork relationships and successful collaboration in teams, both online and offline. Status group membership and status perception shape…

Abstract

Purpose

Status is a central aspect of teamwork relationships and successful collaboration in teams, both online and offline. Status group membership and status perception shape behavioural expectations and norm perceptions of what is appropriate, but despite their importance have been neglected in previous research. Status effects are of special interest in online collaboration, e.g. via email, where no immediate feedback or non-verbal/paraverbal communication and direct observation is possible. The purpose of this study is to address this gap in research.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental scenario study with two different professional status groups (lecturers and students) tested status effects on causal attributions, intergroup bias and emotional and collaborative responses to perceived norm violations in emails.

Findings

Results overall showed three key findings: a “black-sheep-effect” with harsher negative attributions for same status members, more aggression and less cooperation towards lower status senders and stronger (negative) emotional reactions towards high status senders.

Originality/value

The findings are important for managing professional online communication because negative personal attributions, strong emotions and aggressive behaviours can increase team conflict, lead to mistakes and generally undermine performance.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2018

Melanie E. Hassett, Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen, Niina Nummela and Johanna Raitis

In this chapter, we focus on virtual teams and emotions during postmerger and acquisition (M&A) integration. Our main research question is “How to manage emotions and…

Abstract

In this chapter, we focus on virtual teams and emotions during postmerger and acquisition (M&A) integration. Our main research question is “How to manage emotions and virtual teams following cross-border M&A?”. We answer this question through the following research subquestions: (1) What virtual interaction can be identified post-M&A?; (2) What emotions arises from virtual communication; and (3) What emotions and challenges do virtual teams encounter following cross-border M&As? This research is based on a single case study. The main findings imply that emotions, trust, and cultural differences play an important role in virtual interaction following a cross-border M&A.

Details

Individual, Relational, and Contextual Dynamics of Emotions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-844-2

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Antonia Michael and Jan Eloff

Malicious activities conducted by disgruntled employees via an email platform can cause profound damage to an organization such as financial and reputational losses. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Malicious activities conducted by disgruntled employees via an email platform can cause profound damage to an organization such as financial and reputational losses. This threat is known as an “Insider IT Sabotage” threat. This involves employees misusing their access rights to harm the organization. Events leading up to the attack are not technical but rather behavioural. The problem is that owing to the high volume and complexity of emails, the risk of insider IT sabotage cannot be diminished with rule-based approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Malicious human behaviours that insiders within the insider IT sabotage category would possess are studied and mapped to phrases that would appear in email communications. A large email data set is classified according to behavioural characteristics of these employees. Machine learning algorithms are used to identify occurrences of this insider threat type. The accuracy of these approaches is measured.

Findings

It is shown in this paper that suspicious behaviour of disgruntled employees can be discovered, by means of machine intelligence techniques. The output of the machine learning classifier depends mainly on the depth and quality of the phrases and behaviour analysis, cleansing and number of email attributes examined. This process of labelling content in isolation could be improved if other attributes of the email data are included, such that a confidence score can be computed for each user.

Originality/value

This research presents a novel approach to show that the creation of a prototype that can automate the detection of insider IT sabotage within email systems to mitigate the risk within organizations.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2016

Xiaolin Zhuo

This study aims to understand the role of technology in relationship maintenance among romantic partners.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the role of technology in relationship maintenance among romantic partners.

Methodology/approach

It takes a qualitative, inductive approach and collected data from in-depth interviews with 20 individuals who are married or in cohabiting relationships.

Findings

This study supports the extension of relationship maintenance typology derived from face-to-face relationship studies to technology-mediated communication, but highlights how technology use transforms the implementation of maintenance behaviors. Technology helps couples coordinate tasks and keep in touch with friends and families. Although technology-mediated communication cannot replace face-to-face interactions in relationship talk and sharing in-depth feelings, it plays an important role in redefining the ways in which couples interact positively, maintain mutual understanding, and secure the future of the relationship. Moreover, this study identifies a new maintenance behavior, communication coordination. These maintenance behaviors reflect a tension between maintaining connectivity and managing the boundary between work and home and between the public and private spheres.

Originality/value

This study builds on previous work on technology use and relationship maintenance, but takes a different qualitative, inductive approach to address the limitations in the survey research dominant in the literature. It helps us understand the advantages and challenges in maintaining relationships in the digital age and also explores the factors that influence the patterns of technology use in relationship maintenance.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-785-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Daniel Leung and Megan Tsou

This paper aims to examine how incentive framing format and language congruency interactively influence readers’ post-reading responses to hotel-related email advertisements.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how incentive framing format and language congruency interactively influence readers’ post-reading responses to hotel-related email advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (incentive framing format: amount-off versus percentage-off) × 2 (language congruency: use of readers’ native language versus use of readers’ foreign language) between-subject experiment was conducted with 233 bilingual speakers from China.

Findings

The findings unveil that readers are more likely to be enticed to search for more information about the promoted hotel restaurant, click the call-to-action button and share the promotional message with friends and families if an email advertisement presents the incentive of a price promotion in the form of amount-off (versus percentage-off). The indirect impact of language congruency is also verified. Specifically, the impact of incentive framing format on readers’ post-reading response is more salient when information is communicated using readers’ native (versus non-native) language.

Practical implications

The findings provide actionable clues for hoteliers to optimize their email marketing campaigns. If hotels want to publicize a price promotion for their high-priced service (e.g. hotel restaurant dining) via email advertisements, marketers should present the incentive in the form of amount-off. Hotels should also personalize the language used in the email advertisements according to readers’ native language.

Originality/value

This study enriches the literature on email marketing by explicating how hoteliers can improve the efficacy of email marketing via personalizing the incentive framing format and language used in the email advertisement according to the readers’ preferences.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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