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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Jane Zhang

The aim of this paper is to construct a systematic way of thinking about correspondence as a documentary form and discuss the role its persistent representation features…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to construct a systematic way of thinking about correspondence as a documentary form and discuss the role its persistent representation features play in management, preservation and access of email correspondence.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the method of diplomatic analysis as a guiding theory, the paper conducts a historical review of correspondence recordkeeping and email systems in the American context, analyzes the evolution of its persistent representation features and discusses the implications on current email management and archival practices.

Findings

Correspondence as a document form and its persistent representation features have played an important role in traditional correspondence recordkeeping and electronic mail management. The design of systems to manage, preserve and access email records should reflect the characteristics and functionality of email records, capable of retaining email correspondence as a documentary form supported by its persistent representation features.

Research limitations/implications

The research in this paper mostly covers secondary sources with a regional focus. The analysis covers important historical developments in correspondence and email recordkeeping and archival practices. The study uses examples of email archives available online, and further research can be developed when more email archival collections are processed and constructed.

Originality/value

A systematic analysis of persistent representation of traditional correspondence and electronic mail provides a useful perspective to reflect on the characteristics of correspondence as a document form and offers some food for thought for records management and archival professionals and assists them in developing systems to better manage, preserve and provide access to email correspondence.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Basma Makhlouf Shabou, Julien Tièche, Julien Knafou and Arnaud Gaudinat

This paper aims to describe an interdisciplinary and innovative research conducted in Switzerland, at the Geneva School of Business Administration HES-SO and supported by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe an interdisciplinary and innovative research conducted in Switzerland, at the Geneva School of Business Administration HES-SO and supported by the State Archives of Neuchâtel (Office des archives de l'État de Neuchâtel, OAEN). The problem to be addressed is one of the most classical ones: how to extract and discriminate relevant data in a huge amount of diversified and complex data record formats and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a framework and a proof of concept for a software that helps taking defensible decisions on the retention and disposal of records and data proposed to the OAEN. For this purpose, the authors designed two axes: the archival axis, to propose archival metrics for the appraisal of structured and unstructured data, and the data mining axis to propose algorithmic methods as complementary or/and additional metrics for the appraisal process.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on two axes, this exploratory study designs and tests the feasibility of archival metrics that are paired to data mining metrics, to advance, as much as possible, the digital appraisal process in a systematic or even automatic way. Under Axis 1, the authors have initiated three steps: first, the design of a conceptual framework to records data appraisal with a detailed three-dimensional approach (trustworthiness, exploitability, representativeness). In addition, the authors defined the main principles and postulates to guide the operationalization of the conceptual dimensions. Second, the operationalization proposed metrics expressed in terms of variables supported by a quantitative method for their measurement and scoring. Third, the authors shared this conceptual framework proposing the dimensions and operationalized variables (metrics) with experienced professionals to validate them. The expert’s feedback finally gave the authors an idea on: the relevance and the feasibility of these metrics. Those two aspects may demonstrate the acceptability of such method in a real-life archival practice. In parallel, Axis 2 proposes functionalities to cover not only macro analysis for data but also the algorithmic methods to enable the computation of digital archival and data mining metrics. Based on that, three use cases were proposed to imagine plausible and illustrative scenarios for the application of such a solution.

Findings

The main results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the value of data and records with a reproducible method. More specifically, for Axis 1, the authors applied the metrics in a flexible and modular way. The authors defined also the main principles needed to enable computational scoring method. The results obtained through the expert’s consultation on the relevance of 42 metrics indicate an acceptance rate above 80%. In addition, the results show that 60% of all metrics can be automated. Regarding Axis 2, 33 functionalities were developed and proposed under six main types: macro analysis, microanalysis, statistics, retrieval, administration and, finally, the decision modeling and machine learning. The relevance of metrics and functionalities is based on the theoretical validity and computational character of their method. These results are largely satisfactory and promising.

Originality/value

This study offers a valuable aid to improve the validity and performance of archival appraisal processes and decision-making. Transferability and applicability of these archival and data mining metrics could be considered for other types of data. An adaptation of this method and its metrics could be tested on research data, medical data or banking data.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Anthony Cocciolo

The purpose of this study is to evaluate strategies to appraise email correspondence to select significant email for permanent preservation without capturing trivial or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate strategies to appraise email correspondence to select significant email for permanent preservation without capturing trivial or personal emails. The strategies were tested on the actual email accounts of selected individuals occupying important roles within an important cultural institution in the Northeastern USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Treating this art museum as a case study site, email messages are manually appraised for retention using a rubric. Following the appraisal, strategies for expediting this appraisal process, using what is learned from the manual appraisal process, are explored.

Findings

A major finding of this study is that sent mail is almost always significant, although preserving only sent mail, or preserving sent mail in combination with inbox items that have been acted upon (replied to or forwarded), are not sufficient to capture significant correspondence. Rather, a social network approach holds the most promise to accelerate the process of email appraisal.

Originality/value

This study provides empirically grounded strategies for appraising email for permanent retention.

Details

Records Management Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-5698

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Ofer Bergman

Personal information management (PIM) is an activity in which an individual stores personal information items in order to retrieve them later on. As PIM research moves…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal information management (PIM) is an activity in which an individual stores personal information items in order to retrieve them later on. As PIM research moves from an infant stage of exploratory studies to more rigorous quantitative ones, there is a need to identify and map variables that characterize and account for the variety of PIM behaviour. This is the aim of the current research.

Design/methodology/approach

In an exploratory study, 20 semi-structured 90-minute interviews were recorded and transcribed. Variables were found by comparing the behaviors of participants who represent the two extreme poles of each variable's axis (i.e. when two participants showed a high and low degree of document redundancy, the redundancy variable was identified). In a later analysis, the variables were grouped into categories.

Findings

The paper identifies 15 variables grouped in five categories: organization related variables (order, redundancy and name meaning), structure variables (collection size, folder depth, folder breadth and folder size), work process variables (attendance time and modality), memory related variables (memory reliance, dominant memory) and retrieval variables (retrieval type, retrieval success, retrieval time and ubiquity).

Research limitations/implications

Future research could make use of these variables in order to: measure their distribution, find relations between them, test how they are affected by variables external to PIM (e.g. systems design) and find how they affect other dependent variables (e.g. productivity).

Originality/value

This is the first research that systematically explores PIM variables.

Details

Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, vol. 65 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Thomas Jackson, Ray Dawson and Darren Wilson

The use of email by employees at the Danwood Group was studied and it was found that the interrupt effect from emails is more than generally believed. Employees allowed…

Abstract

The use of email by employees at the Danwood Group was studied and it was found that the interrupt effect from emails is more than generally believed. Employees allowed themselves to be interrupted almost as frequently as telephone calls and the common reaction to the arrival of an email is to react almost as quickly as they would respond to telephone calls. This means the interrupt effect is comparable with that of a telephone call. The recovery time from an email interruption was found to be significantly less than the published recovery time for telephone calls. It is to be concluded, therefore, that while Email is still less disruptive than the telephone, the way the majority of users handle their incoming email has been shown to give far more interruption than expected. By analysing the data captured the authors have been able to create recommendations for a set of guidelines for email usage within the workplace that will increase employee efficiency by reducing the prominence of interruptions, restricting the use of email‐to‐all messages, setting‐up the email application to display three lines of the email and to check for email less frequently. It is recommended that training should be given to staff on how to use email more effectively to increase employee productivity.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Jan-Willem Bullee, Lorena Montoya, Marianne Junger and Pieter Hartel

The purpose of this study is to explore how the opening phrase of a phishing email influences the action taken by the recipient.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how the opening phrase of a phishing email influences the action taken by the recipient.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of phishing emails were sent to 593 employees, who were asked to provide personally identifiable information (PII). A personalised spear phishing email opening was randomly used in half of the emails.

Findings

Nineteen per cent of the employees provided their PII in a general phishing email, compared to 29 per cent in the spear phishing condition. Employees having a high power distance cultural background were more likely to provide their PII, compared to those with a low one. There was no effect of age on providing the PII requested when the recipient’s years of service within the organisation is taken into account.

Practical implications

This research shows that success is higher when the opening sentence of a phishing email is personalised. The resulting model explains victimisation by phishing emails well, and it would allow practitioners to focus awareness campaigns to maximise their effect.

Originality/value

The innovative aspect relates to explaining spear phishing using four socio-demographic variables.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2019

Shrawan Kumar Trivedi and Shubhamoy Dey

Email is a rapid and cheapest medium of sharing information, whereas unsolicited email (spam) is constant trouble in the email communication. The rapid growth of the spam…

Abstract

Purpose

Email is a rapid and cheapest medium of sharing information, whereas unsolicited email (spam) is constant trouble in the email communication. The rapid growth of the spam creates a necessity to build a reliable and robust spam classifier. This paper aims to presents a study of evolutionary classifiers (genetic algorithm [GA] and genetic programming [GP]) without/with the help of an ensemble of classifiers method. In this research, the classifiers ensemble has been developed with adaptive boosting technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Text mining methods are applied for classifying spam emails and legitimate emails. Two data sets (Enron and SpamAssassin) are taken to test the concerned classifiers. Initially, pre-processing is performed to extract the features/words from email files. Informative feature subset is selected from greedy stepwise feature subset search method. With the help of informative features, a comparative study is performed initially within the evolutionary classifiers and then with other popular machine learning classifiers (Bayesian, naive Bayes and support vector machine).

Findings

This study reveals the fact that evolutionary algorithms are promising in classification and prediction applications where genetic programing with adaptive boosting is turned out not only an accurate classifier but also a sensitive classifier. Results show that initially GA performs better than GP but after an ensemble of classifiers (a large number of iterations), GP overshoots GA with significantly higher accuracy. Amongst all classifiers, boosted GP turns out to be not only good regarding classification accuracy but also low false positive (FP) rates, which is considered to be the important criteria in email spam classification. Also, greedy stepwise feature search is found to be an effective method for feature selection in this application domain.

Research limitations/implications

The research implication of this research consists of the reduction in cost incurred because of spam/unsolicited bulk email. Email is a fundamental necessity to share information within a number of units of the organizations to be competitive with the business rivals. In addition, it is continually a hurdle for internet service providers to provide the best emailing services to their customers. Although, the organizations and the internet service providers are continuously adopting novel spam filtering approaches to reduce the number of unwanted emails, the desired effect could not be significantly seen because of the cost of installation, customizable ability and the threat of misclassification of important emails. This research deals with all the issues and challenges faced by internet service providers and organizations.

Practical implications

In this research, the proposed models have not only provided excellent performance accuracy, sensitivity with low FP rate, customizable capability but also worked on reducing the cost of spam. The same models may be used for other applications of text mining also such as sentiment analysis, blog mining, news mining or other text mining research.

Originality/value

A comparison between GP and GAs has been shown with/without ensemble in spam classification application domain.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Charles Oppenheim

This paper considers whether copyright has a future in an electronic environment. A number of issues face copyright owners in the networked environment, most of them…

Abstract

This paper considers whether copyright has a future in an electronic environment. A number of issues face copyright owners in the networked environment, most of them caused by the ease with which materials can be copied. Some relevant examples of legal cases are considered. Some responses to the stresses, in terms of both attitudes and legislation, such as the EU Database Directive and the EU Draft Directive on Copyright, are considered. It is concluded that copyright is unlikely to survive in its present form, and that attempts to strengthen it by means of increasing owner rights could be counterproductive. Innovative thinking and ideas are necessary, together with increased owner‐user co‐operation, if copyright is to survive.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi and Sepideh Bataghva Sarabi

Research has shown that the discursive patterns students use in their email interactions with their teachers are not linguistically and socio-culturally appropriate…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has shown that the discursive patterns students use in their email interactions with their teachers are not linguistically and socio-culturally appropriate. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to try to explore how socio-cultural conventions influence the Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ choices of discourse strategies in their email communications within an academic context. The study, then, investigates the impact of social distance and gender on the stylistic features of students’ email texts.

Design/methodology/approach

The email texts written by 180 university students majoring in Applied Linguistics were systematically analyzed based on such patterns as opening and closing moves, reduced forms, text connectives, symbolization and emoticons. Alternatively, three semi-structured interviews were conducted to gauge the participants’ motives underlying the selection of particular discourse features.

Findings

The findings revealed that students, despite many statements to the contrary, were aware of the socio-cultural conventions governing email writing style and could write status-appropriate email messages, which rightly reflected the etiquette of email communication within an academic context.

Practical implications

The findings may offer certain benefits to EFL teachers and students.

Originality/value

The paper highlights understanding of a specific social group in relation to their interaction with different status social groups in the context of a specific communication technology and to some extent the perceived effectiveness of such approaches by those invoking them.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2020

Antonia Michael and Jan Eloff

Malicious activities conducted by disgruntled employees via an email platform can cause profound damage to an organization such as financial and reputational losses. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Malicious activities conducted by disgruntled employees via an email platform can cause profound damage to an organization such as financial and reputational losses. This threat is known as an “Insider IT Sabotage” threat. This involves employees misusing their access rights to harm the organization. Events leading up to the attack are not technical but rather behavioural. The problem is that owing to the high volume and complexity of emails, the risk of insider IT sabotage cannot be diminished with rule-based approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Malicious human behaviours that insiders within the insider IT sabotage category would possess are studied and mapped to phrases that would appear in email communications. A large email data set is classified according to behavioural characteristics of these employees. Machine learning algorithms are used to identify occurrences of this insider threat type. The accuracy of these approaches is measured.

Findings

It is shown in this paper that suspicious behaviour of disgruntled employees can be discovered, by means of machine intelligence techniques. The output of the machine learning classifier depends mainly on the depth and quality of the phrases and behaviour analysis, cleansing and number of email attributes examined. This process of labelling content in isolation could be improved if other attributes of the email data are included, such that a confidence score can be computed for each user.

Originality/value

This research presents a novel approach to show that the creation of a prototype that can automate the detection of insider IT sabotage within email systems to mitigate the risk within organizations.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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