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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Poppy Arsil, Elton Li, Johan Bruwer and Graham Lyons

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the motives of urban consumers when purchasing local food products using means-end chain (MEC) analysis and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the motives of urban consumers when purchasing local food products using means-end chain (MEC) analysis and second, to introduce an alternative approach to segment the market based on consumers’ motivation using decision segmentation analysis (DSA).

Design/methodology/approach

DSA was used as advanced segmentation procedure of hierarchy value maps (HVMs) produced by MEC analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that there are two main segments of local food consumers in urban Indonesia: value-for-money and health benefits. The value-for-money segment is dominant when making local food purchasing.

Research limitations/implications

This study sample is not representative of local food consumers in urban Indonesia as only three urban cities were interviewed.

Practical implications

An understanding of the motivation-based segmentation of local food in urban cities is a useful tool in order to reinforce and attract local food consumers to consume more locally grown food.

Originality/value

This study reveals the motivation-based segmentation of local food in urban cities in Indonesia.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Johan Bruwer and Elton Li

Since the publication of Van Raaij and Verhallen’s seminal work in European Journal of Marketing in 1994, identifying the domain-specific market segmentation approach as…

1174

Abstract

Purpose

Since the publication of Van Raaij and Verhallen’s seminal work in European Journal of Marketing in 1994, identifying the domain-specific market segmentation approach as one of the most feasible for segmenting markets, there has been surprisingly limited development in this field, with the food domain as the only exception. This study aims to develop a methodological approach using latent class mixture modelling as contribution in the domain-specific market segmentation field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study captures the AIO lifestyle perspective using a domain-specific 80-item algorithm which has the wine (product) domain as its focus. A sample size of 811 consumers is used from data collected by means of the CATI approach.

Findings

The authors use four criteria for model selection: comparison of the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) statistic, comparison of classification error, verification of the interpretation of the derived segments and, finally, use of the conditional bootstrap procedure to test whether the selected model provides a significant improvement over the previous model. The five-segment model option yields a minimum BIC, the classification error measure is minimal and is easier to interpret than the other models. Segment descriptions for the five identified lifestyle-based segments are developed.

Research limitations/implications

Segmentation by traditional k-means clustering has proven to be less useful than the more innovative alternative of mixture regression modelling; therefore, the authors identify segments in the market on the basis of individuals’ domain-specific lifestyle characteristics using a latent class mixture modelling approach.

Practical implications

Following the attainment of a clear and robust market segmentation structure, the simultaneous analysis of the lifestyles, demographics and behaviours of consumers as nexus of the domain-specific segmentation approach, provides rich and valid information accurately informing the market segment descriptions.

Originality/value

The authors make a substantive contribution by developing a methodological approach using latent class mixture modelling; the first of its kind in the area of domain-specific segmentation. Next, they use the discriminant and/or predictive validity of the 80-scale items to predict cluster membership using the WRL algorithm. Finally, the authors describe the identified market segments in detail and outline the practical implications.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 February 2016

Desmond Pace, Jana Hili and Simon Grima

In the build-up of an investment decision, the existence of both active and passive investment vehicles triggers a puzzle for investors. Indeed the confrontation between…

Abstract

Purpose

In the build-up of an investment decision, the existence of both active and passive investment vehicles triggers a puzzle for investors. Indeed the confrontation between active and index replication equity funds in terms of risk-adjusted performance and alpha generation has been a bone of contention since the inception of these investment structures. Accordingly, the objective of this chapter is to distinctly underscore whether an investor should be concerned in choosing between active and diverse passive investment structures.

Methodology/approach

The survivorship bias-free dataset consists of 776 equity funds which are domiciled either in America or Europe, and are likewise exposed to the equity markets of the same regions. In addition to geographical segmentation, equity funds are also categorised by structure and management type, specifically actively managed mutual funds, index mutual funds and passive exchange traded funds (‘ETFs’). This classification leads to the analysis of monthly net asset values (‘NAV’) of 12 distinct equally weighted portfolios, with a time horizon ranging from January 2004 to December 2014. Accordingly, the risk-adjusted performance of the equally weighted equity funds’ portfolios is examined by the application of mainstream single-factor and multi-factor asset pricing models namely Capital Asset Pricing Model (Fama, 1968; Fama & Macbeth, 1973; Lintner, 1965; Mossin, 1966; Sharpe, 1964; Treynor, 1961), Fama French Three-Factor (1993) and Carhart Four-Factor (1997).

Findings

Solely examination of monthly NAVs for a 10-year horizon suggests that active management is equivalent to index replication in terms of risk-adjusted returns. This prompts investors to be neutral gross of fees, yet when considering all transaction costs it is a distinct story. The relatively heftier fees charged by active management, predominantly initial fees, appear to revoke any outperformance in excess of the market portfolio, ensuing in a Fool’s Errand Hypothesis. Moreover, both active and index mutual funds’ performance may indeed be lower if financial advisors or distributors of equity funds charge additional fees over and above the fund houses’ expense ratios, putting the latter investment vehicles at a significant handicap vis-à-vis passive low-cost ETFs. This chapter urges investors to concentrate on expense ratios and other transaction costs rather than solely past returns, by accessing the cheapest available vehicle for each investment objective. Put simply, the general investor should retreat from portfolio management and instead access the market portfolio using low-cost index replication structures via an execution-only approach.

Originality/value

The battle among actively managed and index replication equity funds in terms of risk-adjusted performance and alpha generation has been a grey area since the inception of mutual funds. The interest in the subject constantly lightens up as fresh instruments infiltrate financial markets. Indeed the mutual fund puzzle (Gruber, 1996) together with the enhanced growth of ETFs has again rejuvenated the active versus passive debate, making it worth a detailed analysis especially for the benefit of investors who confront a dilemma in choosing between the two management styles.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Bank Financial Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-000-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09590559610147946. When citing…

1385

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/09590559610147946. When citing the article, please cite: S. Nicholas Samuel, Elton Li, Heath McDonald, (1996), “The purchasing behaviour of Shanghai buyers of processed food and beverage products: implications for research on retail management”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 24 Iss: 4, pp. 20 - 28.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 99 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Jia‐Gui Li, Jin‐Rong Jia, Dennis Taylor, Johan Bruwer and Elton Li

This study aims to explore the nature of Chinese young adults' (CYAs) wine drinking behaviour. It also aims to examine CYAs' wine knowledge and establish whether there are…

3875

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the nature of Chinese young adults' (CYAs) wine drinking behaviour. It also aims to examine CYAs' wine knowledge and establish whether there are positive relationships between wine knowledge and wine drinking behaviour variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Information was obtained from a convenience sample of 414 university students in China using the self‐administration data collection method. The nature of CYAs' basic wine knowledge and wine drinking behaviour including wine drinking frequency, venue, and purpose of wine drinking were examined in the survey.

Findings

The majority of CYAs lack even the most basic wine knowledge. Generally, they drink wine infrequently. A large proportion of CYAs prefer red wine (92 per cent) to white wine (7 per cent). Most (60 per cent) CYAs like to drink wine at home, followed by hotels (21 per cent) and restaurants (15 per cent). About 60 per cent of CYAs drink wine for social communication while 27 per cent drink for body health reasons. A high 96 per cent of CYAs consider themselves likely to drink wine in the future. Significant differences exist between the genders in wine knowledge and likelihood of future wine drinking. Strong correlations were found between consumer wine knowledge and frequency and likelihood of future wine drinking.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides an overview of CYAs' wine drinking behaviour by a convenience sample investigation, which could not elude generalization and simplification. Considerable regional diversity in China compels differentiated regional studies in terms of wine purchasing, wine culture and wine marketing.

Originality/value

The paper contributes a baseline study on CYAs' wine knowledge and wine drinking behaviour. It also gives some managerial implications for wineries and wine marketers that will be helpful to wine companies in understanding the emerging Chinese wine market and in enacting wine marketing strategies more effectively.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Simon Somogyi, Elton Li, Trent Johnson, Johan Bruwer and Susan Bastian

The purpose of this paper is to discover the underlying motivations of Chinese wine consumption.

5326

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover the underlying motivations of Chinese wine consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative focus group interviews were performed on 36 Chinese wine consumers and four focus groups were performed, with participants segmented into groups based on age and gender.

Findings

The main findings were that Chinese wine consumers are influenced by face and status. These issues may be affecting their wine consumption behaviours, particularly related to anomalous behaviours such as mixing red wine with lemonade and the rationale for the preference of cork‐closed wine bottles. Furthermore, the notion of wine consumption for health‐related purposes was uncovered and a linkage found with traditional Chinese medicine.

Originality/value

While research has been conducted on Chinese wine consumers, this paper attempts to uncover the underlying motivations for consumption and finds a linkage between wine consumption and traditional Chinese medicine. Furthermore, this paper links the traditions and beliefs of traditional Chinese medicine with a product category other than food or medicine.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Johan Bruwer, Courtney Buller, Anthony John Saliba and Elton Li

– The purpose of this study was to examine the loyalty of Japanese consumers to country-of-origin (COO) wine brands and how this affects purchasing behaviour.

2496

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the loyalty of Japanese consumers to country-of-origin (COO) wine brands and how this affects purchasing behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-dimensional COO brand loyalty scale was developed containing attitudinal (psychological) and behavioural loyalty dimensions. A total of 173 responses were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire in the Japanese language.

Findings

Japanese wine consumers have moderate levels of COO brand loyalty, with high levels of satisfaction, moderate-high levels of inertia and price sensitivity and moderate levels of word-of-mouth, emotional attachment, commitment and purchase intent. Furthermore, 46 per cent of respondents exhibited true COO brand loyalty. The conceptual definition of COO wine brand loyalty proved to be sound with a high level of measurement scale reliability (a = 0.884).

Practical implications

The findings provide insights into the Japanese wine market and the nature of Japanese wine consumer behaviour. Wine exporters should focus greater marketing efforts on Japanese women, including more wine-specific education.

Originality/value

It is the first study to develop a multi-dimensional COO wine brand loyalty scale that includes psychological (cognitive, conative and affective attitudinal components) and behavioural loyalty dimensions for the Japanese wine market.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Biagio Famularo, Johan Bruwer and Elton Li

The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine key areas of the wine consumer's interaction with region of origin, specifically through access to wine information…

5303

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine key areas of the wine consumer's interaction with region of origin, specifically through access to wine information, wine knowledge, the auxiliary relationship with wine tourism involvement and the impact this has on the wine buying decision‐making process.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual research “model” was developed to set the direction for the development of the research hypotheses and questions. A highly structured questionnaire was administered at a high‐end independent wine retail shop in Sydney, Australia using a convenience sample of 100 randomly selected respondents, all of whom were in the basic wine drinker category or higher. A series of quantitative and qualitative datasets were collected during timeslots spanning 8‐15 minutes per questionnaire.

Findings

The results confirm that as wine knowledge increases together with wine involvement, it develops into a greater understanding of a wine's region of origin, impacting positively on the consumer's wine decision‐making process. A consumer's willingness to interact with wine‐related motivations through wine tourism visitation has a profound effect on the importance of a wine's region of origin, therefore attributing to greater recall of wine region in the wine buying decision‐making process.

Research limitations/implications

Wine education and access to wine information have a strong relationship with increasing a consumer's awareness of wines' region of origin and offer scope to further investigate the importance of in‐store assistance and cellar door staff interaction with consumers. Although both these aspects are considered positively by a statistically significant percentage of the sample study, a relationship does not coexist with the importance of wine region as an aid or attribute for consumers when purchasing wine.

Originality/value

Wine marketing strategies in Australia are beginning to incorporate a complementary product brand relationship with region of origin and the use of regional branding, not only as a point of difference, but as an extension of a wine product's attributes. This study aids in further identifying information regarding regional branding and its relative importance, which could lead to subsequent comprehensive research studies. The research findings may be utilized to provide small‐ to medium‐sized wineries an overview of how they may consider closer interaction between their individual brand and regional branding.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2009

Emily McCutcheon, Johan Bruwer and Elton Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of wine's region of origin in the consumer wine‐buying decision‐making process in the Australian domestic market.

4237

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of wine's region of origin in the consumer wine‐buying decision‐making process in the Australian domestic market.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection takes place by means of a self‐administered and online approach in tandem utilising a highly structured questionnaire completed by wine consumers. The sample is limited to three groups of wine consumers – patrons of a wine bar in Sydney and two online wine communities unlocking access to a cross‐section of on‐premise trade and online consumers. The active memberships of the online communities amount to 3,600. In total, 352 usable surveys are obtained.

Findings

Region of origin is an important choice factor in the wine‐buying decision making process of consumers, but particularly so in terms of its multi‐dimensional nature (region name, wine type and grape variety). The most important choice factors in consumers' wine‐buying decisions are quality, price, grape variety, wine style and region of origin. Region of origin varies in degree of influence within different segments. Higher ratings for region of origin are given by female wine consumers, high involvement wine consumers and consumers who have participated in wine tourism to a greater degree.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this research suggest that wine's region of origin is a significant choice factor in the Australian consumer's wine‐buying decision making process. More than half of the respondents are residents of Sydney and the findings are therefore tentative due to the geographical limitation.

Originality/value

This study is of value to academic researchers, wine industry practitioners, and on‐ and off‐premise operators alike as it furthers the understanding of the importance of various choice factors in the consumer's wine‐buying decision‐making process and in particular the relative importance of region of origin within the main choice factors. It also highlights the specific market segments (geodemographic, behavioural and involvement level) and conditions under which the relative importance of region of origin varies.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Poppy Arsil, Elton Li, Johan Bruwer and Graham Lyons

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate how consumers from a developing country background such as Indonesia make local fresh food decisions for daily eating.

3064

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how consumers from a developing country background such as Indonesia make local fresh food decisions for daily eating.

Design/methodology/approach

The use of the means-end chain approach is utilized as a measure of attributes, consequences and values of locally produced products.

Findings

For Javanese ethnic group in Indonesia, “save money” and “health benefits” are identified views that motivate consumers purchasing their local foods.

Research limitations/implications

Although investigating the largest ethnic groups in Indonesia, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all Indonesian consumers and a larger sample needs to be studied to generalize the results to the wider population of Indonesia.

Practical implications

It is better for the Government to promote local food policies that is based on identified motivations of consumers. “Save money” and “health benefits” themes can be used as the central messages for the development of advertising strategies.

Originality/value

This study identifies the Javanese motivations for buying local foods and examines the motivation differences between rural and urban locations. This is providing views for the Government and individual businesses use to.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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