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Book part
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Wim van Lent and Andrew D. Smith

It is commonly acknowledged that history matters in strategy. However, the strategy literature mainly discusses history in terms of path dependency, leaving little room…

Abstract

It is commonly acknowledged that history matters in strategy. However, the strategy literature mainly discusses history in terms of path dependency, leaving little room for managerial agency, despite growing anecdotal evidence that managers can actively draw on corporate history to improve decision-making. An emerging literature on how managers use the past to give sense to internal and external stakeholders has given rise to a more agent-based approach to history, but while sense-giving is commonly connected to sense-making as a driver of strategic change, the role of history in sense-making remains unexplored. Drawing on the concept of analogical reasoning, this chapter theorizes the connection between corporate archives and managerial sense-making, arguing that analogies drawn from past experience can reduce uncertainty and foster learning. This theory leads to the suggestion that consulting the corporate archive can promote strategic renewal and thus boost performance.

Details

Strategic Responsiveness and Adaptive Organizations: New Research Frontiers in International Strategic Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-011-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Yanbo Ru and Ellis Horowitz

The existence and continued growth of the invisible web creates a major challenge for search engines that are attempting to organize all of the material on the web into a…

Abstract

Purpose

The existence and continued growth of the invisible web creates a major challenge for search engines that are attempting to organize all of the material on the web into a form that is easily retrieved by all users. The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges and problems underlying existing work in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

A discussion based on a short survey of prior work, including automated discovery of invisible web site search interfaces, automated classification of invisible web sites, label assignment and form filling, information extraction from the resulting pages, learning the query language of the search interface, building content summary for an invisible web site, selecting proper databases, integrating invisible web‐search interfaces, and accessing the performance of an invisible web site.

Findings

Existing technologies and tools for indexing the invisible web follow one of two strategies: indexing the web site interface or examining a portion of the contents of an invisible web site and indexing the results.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to those involved with information management.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2007

Yanbo Ru and Ellis Horowitz

Most e‐commerce web sites use HTML forms for user authentication, new user registration, newsletter subscription, and searching for products and services. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Most e‐commerce web sites use HTML forms for user authentication, new user registration, newsletter subscription, and searching for products and services. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for automated classification of HTML forms, which is important for search engine applications, e.g. Yahoo Shopping and Google's Froogle, as they can be used to improve the quality of the index and accuracy of search results.

Design/methodology/approach

Describes a technique for classifying HTML forms based on their features. Develops algorithms for automatic feature generation of HTML forms and a neural network to classify them.

Findings

The authors tested their classifier on an e‐commerce data set and a randomly retrieved data set and achieved accuracy of 94.7 and 93.9 per cent respectively. Experimental results show that the classifier is effective and efficient on both test beds, suggesting that it is a promising general purpose method.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to those involved with information management and e‐commerce.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Kaj Grønbæk

Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal andvertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontalprototypes can be developed with…

Abstract

Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal and vertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontal prototypes can be developed with ′little effort′, but end users are reluctant to become involved in the development process. Contrastingly resolves that vertical prototypes appear to stimulate constructive response. Reasons that developers should be aware of the tacit knowledge which plays an important part in users′ work practices and should be involved early in the development process. Proposes three techniques to meet the requirements – participation, simulation and evaluation.

Details

Office Technology and People, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0167-5710

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Sun-Ki Chai, Dolgorsuren Dorj and Katerina Sherstyuk

Culture is a central concept broadly studied in social anthropology and sociology. It has been gaining increasing attention in economics, appearing in research on labor…

Abstract

Culture is a central concept broadly studied in social anthropology and sociology. It has been gaining increasing attention in economics, appearing in research on labor market discrimination, identity, gender, and social preferences. Most experimental economics research on culture studies cross-national or cross-ethnic differences in economic behavior. In contrast, we explain laboratory behavior using two cultural dimensions adopted from a prominent general cultural framework in contemporary social anthropology: group commitment and grid control. Groupness measures the extent to which individual identity is incorporated into group or collective identity; gridness measures the extent to which social and political prescriptions intrinsically influence individual behavior. Grid-group characteristics are measured for each individual using selected items from the World Values Survey. We hypothesize that these attributes allow us to systematically predict behavior in a way that discriminates among multiple forms of social preferences using a simple, parsimonious deductive model. The theoretical predictions are further tested in the economics laboratory by applying them to the dictator, ultimatum, and trust games. We find that these predictions are confirmed overall for most experimental games, although the strength of empirical support varies across games. We conclude that grid-group cultural theory is a viable predictor of people’s economic behavior, then discuss potential limitations of the current approach and ways to improve it.

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

J.G. Gallagher, J. Lauchlan and M Steven

Asil Nadir stands accused of fraud and theft. The sums involved are massive. He is openly accused of the misappropriation of about £371 million. In private, the figure is…

Abstract

Asil Nadir stands accused of fraud and theft. The sums involved are massive. He is openly accused of the misappropriation of about £371 million. In private, the figure is thought to be substantially greater. However, contradictory views are promoted to account for this situation and his ultimate downfall. For example, (i) the regulatory administrators allege that Nadir is a criminal who misappropriated company funds; (ii) Nadir's conspiracy theory counterclaims the accusations of fraud and theft with a claim of conspiracy based on the actions of the establishment (the Inland Revenue, the VAT Office, the Serious Fraud Squad, banks and pressure groups), which was bent on his downfall; and (iii) the alternative view is that Nadir was an accident waiting to happen. His cultural background, characteristics and traits are entrepreneurial in nature, but ultimately these proved dysfunctional given the structural development of his company.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 26 March 2020

Robert Shail

In 1958 the Daily Express began publication of a comic strip adaptation of Casino Royale authorised by Ian Fleming, predating the original film version by four years. For…

Abstract

In 1958 the Daily Express began publication of a comic strip adaptation of Casino Royale authorised by Ian Fleming, predating the original film version by four years. For the next 10 years adaptations of the novels and short stories appeared in the newspaper with Bond’s appearance fashioned firstly by John McLusky and then Yaroslav Horak. When the supply of Fleming’s stories was exhausted, new adventures were penned by Jim Lawrence with artwork by Horak, McLusky or Harry North. From 1977 publication switched to the Sunday Express and then the Daily Star. Eventually, the strips were reprinted for a whole new audience by Titan Books.

Subsequently, Bond appeared in a number of other comic book adaptations and reworkings, including key adaptations by the independent publishers Dark Horse and Dynamite, offering contemporary re-imaginings of this iconic, but always controversial, male icon. Taken together they provide a run of Bond adventures over more than 50 years. As such, they contain an alternative Bond universe, where his embodiment of male heroism mimics and varies Fleming’s original and the images constructed in the film franchise. This chapter will consider these mirror images and their responses to changing societal pressures as Bond adapts to new definitions of what constitutes the male hero.

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From Blofeld to Moneypenny: Gender in James Bond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-163-1

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Nicholas Kavish and Brian Boutwell

Criminology has produced more than a century of informative research on the social correlates of criminal behavior. Recently, a growing body of theoretical and empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

Criminology has produced more than a century of informative research on the social correlates of criminal behavior. Recently, a growing body of theoretical and empirical work has begun to apply evolutionary principles, particularly from life history theory (LHT), to the study of crime. As this body of research continues to grow, it is important that work in this area synthesizes evolutionary principles with the decades of sociological research on the correlates of crime. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The current paper reviews the brief history of research applying life history concepts to criminology, providing an overview of the underlying framework, exploring examples of empirically testable and tested hypotheses that have been derived from the theory, discussing cautions and criticisms of life history research, and discussing how this area of research can be further integrated with existing theory.

Findings

A growing body of research has, with relative consistency, associated indicators of a faster life history strategy with aggression and violence in humans and across the animal kingdom. Research into these associations is still vulnerable to genetic confounding and more research with genetically sensitive designs is needed. The use of hypotheses informed by evolutionary insight and tested with genetically sensitive designs provides the best option for understanding how environmental factors can have an impact on violent and criminal behavior.

Originality/value

The current paper provides an updated review of the growing application of LHT to the study of human behavior and acknowledges criticisms and areas of concern that need to be considered when forming hypotheses for research.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2017

Karin Klenke

Abstract

Details

Women in Leadership 2nd Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-064-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Hugh Middleton

Consideration is given to the extent to which the DSM and ICD approach to psychiatric case definition and treatment supports clinical activity. Their validity as a way of…

Abstract

Consideration is given to the extent to which the DSM and ICD approach to psychiatric case definition and treatment supports clinical activity. Their validity as a way of defining ‘mental illness’ is found wanting and they do not, in themselves, usefully guide treatment. These conclusions are set in a critical realist approach to ‘mental illness’, which draws attention to the legitimacy of several differing perspectives, each reflecting their own sets of interests and allegiances. DSM‐V and ICD‐11 are due to be published in 2012 and 2014 respectively, and their architects are called upon to be clear about which of these constituencies they are representing.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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