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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

With the emergence of the sharing economy paradigm, the process of innovation is no longer unidirectional, but cyclical. This paradigm shift requires a better understanding of…

1476

Abstract

Purpose

With the emergence of the sharing economy paradigm, the process of innovation is no longer unidirectional, but cyclical. This paradigm shift requires a better understanding of social actors to fully leverage the promise of co-innovation in the sharing economy. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to develop a classification model to profile social actors based on their motivation to participate in different co-innovation activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A preliminary case study was first conducted to identify actors’ motivations to continuously participate in co-innovation activities. Next, a survey was administrated to validate the measurement model and then a discriminant analysis was run on a sample of 244 actors to classify actors based on their willingness to participate in three forms of co-innovation activities. Lastly, the resultant classifiers were cross-validated.

Findings

The results indicate that financial gains, entrepreneurship and learning are significant predictors of ideation (sharing new ideas). Enjoyment and learning are strong indicators of collaboration (sharing knowledge or experience), whereas networking, enjoyment, and altruism are most strongly related to socialization (sharing network and connections). These findings highlight three classes of social actors – ideators, collaborators and networkers – based on motivational differences.

Originality/value

Co-innovation among individual inventors is an understudied aspect of the sharing economy. This study provides a theoretically parsimonious classification model to profile social actors, predict the sharing activities in co-innovation networks, and highlight the importance of platform design to appeal to different classes of potential contributors in collaborative innovation.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

Co-innovation networks face the important challenge of cultivating collective innovation outcomes while also preserving the interests of individual contributors. Addressing this…

Abstract

Purpose

Co-innovation networks face the important challenge of cultivating collective innovation outcomes while also preserving the interests of individual contributors. Addressing this challenge requires first understanding and then managing individuals’ perception of co-innovation risks. The purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful approach to addressing co-innovation risks using a valid and reliable model to assess actors’ perception of risk and examine its effect on actor co-innovation behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The construct of co-innovation risk from the actor’s perspective was conceptualized based on a case study of a co-innovation network. The measurement items underwent a pilot study and a field study to establish the necessary reliability and validity. This paper also empirically assesses a nomological network that illustrates the effect of risk on co-innovation behavior with a moderating effect of prior experience.

Findings

Co-innovation actors perceived four different individual risks: time, social, intellectual property right, and financial. The empirical results from the field study demonstrate a high degree of confidence in both translation validity and criterion-related validity. Negative effects of perceived co-innovation risk on actors’ continuous intention to ideate, collaborate, and communicate in co-innovation were evident, but prior experience moderated these relationships.

Originality/value

Drawing from co-innovation and individual risk literature, this study develops and validates a general instrument to measure co-innovation risk from the actors’ perspective. The result is a reliable and parsimonious instrument with 15 items, which contributes significantly to future empirical investigations of co-innovation behavior on virtual platforms.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

The importance of co-innovation platforms has been well established, but a valid and reliable instrument to measure the affordances of these platforms for co-innovation behavior…

1753

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of co-innovation platforms has been well established, but a valid and reliable instrument to measure the affordances of these platforms for co-innovation behavior has not yet been reported in the literature. A robust, validated instrument to measure co-innovation platform affordances (PAs) will facilitate the conduct of studies across different platforms and contribute to enhanced understanding of co-innovation behaviors, outcomes, and platform design. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize co-innovation PAs, develop a reliable measurement instrument capturing critical facets of co-innovation, namely ideation, collaboration, and communication, and validate the instrument.

Design/methodology/approach

The construct of PAs was conceptualized based on the findings from two case studies of co-innovation networks and the key characteristics of social mediating technology affordances. The measurement items newly developed via a case study underwent a two-round exploratory analysis to ensure face validity and content validity. The resulting instrument was subjected to a pilot study and a field study to establish the necessary reliability and validity.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that co-innovation PAs have three distinctive components, namely ideation, collaboration, and communication. Furthermore, the results of the study suggest that PAs are most appropriately operationalized as a second-order construct comprising all three components. The empirical results from the field study show a high degree of confidence in both translation validity and criterion-related validity.

Originality/value

Drawing from co-innovation and affordances literature, this study develops and validates a general instrument to measure co-innovation PAs. The result is a reliable and parsimonious instrument with 12 items. The authors believe that the instrument can contribute significantly to future empirical investigations of co-innovation behavior on virtual platforms.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Elizabeth J. Davidson

Proposes using the analytic concept of genre of organizational communication to study the organizational consequences of implementing clinical information systems and shifting…

2283

Abstract

Proposes using the analytic concept of genre of organizational communication to study the organizational consequences of implementing clinical information systems and shifting from paper‐based to electronic patient records in clinical practices. By focusing research attention on interpersonal communication and social interaction issues not addressed in medical informatics research, this approach contributes to the understanding of organizational and institutional issues that implementing such systems may entail. The paper develops an example drawn from an in‐depth case study of a computerized order entry system to illustrate the insights this approach may provide.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Jenifer Sunrise Winter and Elizabeth Davidson

This paper aims to assess the increasing challenges to governing the personal health information (PHI) essential for advancing artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning…

3029

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the increasing challenges to governing the personal health information (PHI) essential for advancing artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning innovations in health care. Risks to privacy and justice/equity are discussed, along with potential solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper highlights the scale and scope of PHI data consumed by deep learning algorithms and their opacity as novel challenges to health data governance.

Findings

This paper argues that these characteristics of machine learning will overwhelm existing data governance approaches such as privacy regulation and informed consent. Enhanced governance techniques and tools will be required to help preserve the autonomy and rights of individuals to control their PHI. Debate among all stakeholders and informed critique of how, and for whom, PHI-fueled health AI are developed and deployed are needed to channel these innovations in societally beneficial directions.

Social implications

Health data may be used to address pressing societal concerns, such as operational and system-level improvement, and innovations such as personalized medicine. This paper informs work seeking to harness these resources for societal good amidst many competing value claims and substantial risks for privacy and security.

Originality/value

This is the first paper focusing on health data governance in relation to AI/machine learning.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2024

Susan Saldanha, Natalie Tavitian, Elizabeth Lehman, Lindsay Carey and Peter Higgs

Housing First (HF) is an evidence-based practice effective in reducing homelessness among those who experience chronic homelessness. However, a strong synthesis evaluating the…

Abstract

Purpose

Housing First (HF) is an evidence-based practice effective in reducing homelessness among those who experience chronic homelessness. However, a strong synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of this intervention is lacking for people who use drugs. The purpose of this study is to explore international literature databases to identify the effectiveness of the HF programme among people who use drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

A modified framework from Arksey and O’Malley (2005) was used, namely: identifying the research question; developing inclusion and exclusion criteria; identifying relevant studies for study selection; charting the data; and collating, summarising and reporting the results.

Findings

Three main themes were identified: substance use related outcomes, housing-related outcomes and social outcomes. There is strong evidence that HF increases housing retention and reduces homelessness among chronically homeless people who use drugs. However, literature relating to substance use and social outcomes for this population report mixed and inconclusive findings.

Research limitations/implications

This scoping review concludes that additional research is required to conclusively determine whether HF is an effective intervention for homeless substance users. Future researchers must use formal assessments of substance use and ensure clear reporting of the HF intervention is accomplished. It is recommended for researchers and policymakers to consider the specific needs of the people who use drugs before implementation of HF for this population.

Practical implications

Differential effectiveness of HF through diagnostic subgroups such as alcohol use and drug use is varied with alcohol use being found to decrease due to the HF programme, but findings relating to other drug use outcomes are varied. As most previous studies used the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) to measure substance use among participants, however, the ASI, a self-reporting measure has unstable criterion validity and can cause under or over reporting of substance use. Structured toxicology or diagnostic assessments of substance use must be used for research instead to assist researchers in making firm conclusions about the reported rates.

Social implications

The slightly poorer housing outcomes among people who use substances indicate that this group may need more intensive approaches to finding and maintaining housing. Additional services for the group that address comorbid problems and consequences relating to substance use are required. It is suggested that housing should be provided within an integrated model that offers additional support services such as case management as when well matched to clients, case management appears to be an effective intervention among homeless sub-populations, as it reduces substance use, improves quality of life and health outcomes, improves social connectedness and increases housing tenure and satisfaction.

Originality/value

This scoping review concludes that additional research is required to conclusively determine whether HF is an effective intervention for homeless substance users. Future researchers must use formal assessments of substance use and ensure clear reporting of the HF intervention is accomplished. It is recommended for researchers and policymakers to consider the specific needs of the people who use drugs before HF implementation for this population.

Details

Housing, Care and Support, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-8790

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 June 2014

Elizabeth A. Degi Mount

This chapter critically analyzes the outcomes of a legal reform enacted in Bali to address unintended consequences of a World Bank policy that undermined women’s economic, legal…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter critically analyzes the outcomes of a legal reform enacted in Bali to address unintended consequences of a World Bank policy that undermined women’s economic, legal, and human rights.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative exploratory inquiry employs ethnographic data including participant observations and 18 interviews conducted in Denpasar, Bali.

Findings

The analysis suggests that policy measures intended to empower women which fail to address the influence of gender in the formation and functioning of social institutions reinforce conceptualizations of gender that constrain women’s autonomy and reify patriarchal sociocultural institutions.

Research implications

Conceptualizations of gender in post-conflict research have lagged behind the richness of theories pertaining to gender as a social structure. Incorporating analyses of gender ideologies into the research phase of policy development will bridge this gap between theory and application.

Practical and social implications

Calls for women’s empowerment in the wake of the collapse of central governance structures, such as in the Arab Spring, must be accompanied by attention of feminist researchers and activists ensuring that policy measures intended to address barriers to women’s equality move beyond conceptions of empowerment that privilege economic capital. Dominant frameworks employed by microcredit programs and legal reformers emphasizing economic independence without attending to structural causes of women’s marginalization run the ironic risk of more deeply entrenching harmful social institutions.

Originality

This project allows women’s voices to reciprocally transform social theories and practices, contributing to understandings of the influence of gender in legal reform efforts and gender as a social structure.

Details

Gendered Perspectives on Conflict and Violence: Part B
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-893-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Petrina M. Davidson, Elizabeth Bruce and Lisa Damaschke-Deitrick

Increasingly, groups external to educational systems are offering time, expertise and products, creating an intricate web of educational governance where entities outside of…

Abstract

Increasingly, groups external to educational systems are offering time, expertise and products, creating an intricate web of educational governance where entities outside of formal education contribute to state-funded education systems. While this involvement and its motivations have been considered in the literature, it has been less common to explore these interactions between school systems and outside organizations as they relate to the transition from the knowledge economy to the intelligent economy. Such research is important to understand the numerous inputs to education, which can then inform future decision-making. This study traces scripts around the commodification of knowledge, which connects education to individual employability or the economy and cyborg dialectic, or the mutual relationship between humans and technology. These scripts intersect to contribute to the perpetuation of data creation and usage as part of the educational intelligent economy. The scripts traced here originate from Battelle, a primarily a Ohio-based research and development organization, also focused on classroom teaching and learning, specifically in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education. Mapping scripts related to the commodification of knowledge and the cyborg dialectic indicates promotion of the intelligent economy broadly and individually for Battelle itself across Ohio and beyond, through investments in educators, students and policy-makers but also Battelle’s potential employees and collaborators. This data-focus creates an educational intelligence not only in students, teachers and policy-makers but also in Battelle itself, legitimating it as an actor in education.

Details

The Educational Intelligent Economy: Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and the Internet of Things in Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-853-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Jorge Alcaraz, Elizabeth Salamanca and Otto Regalado-Pezúa

The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of ethnic networks on firms’ location decisions using social network theory and the homophily principle.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of ethnic networks on firms’ location decisions using social network theory and the homophily principle.

Design/methodology/approach

A traditional gravity model is used on a sample composed of high-skilled and low-skilled ethnic networks and multinational enterprises (MNEs) from Latin America, North America and the European Union.

Findings

Contrary to findings of previous studies, ethnic networks do not appear to influence location decisions of Latin American firms expanding into countries from North America and the European Union. This might be because of weak ethnic connections among the players.

Practical implications

Managers must be aware that ethnic networks not always can be used for the strategy of the firm, at least regarding location.

Social implications

Governments and entrepreneurial and immigrant associations from home and host countries could develop initiatives addressed to strengthening the links between the members of the networks.

Originality/value

This study extends the social network theory in the sense that ethnic networks do not always positively affect firms’ location. Moreover, it is important to consider the specific context or features of the members of a network before analyzing its effects on firms’ location.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2022

Elizabeth Brooke

Abstract

Details

Creative Ageing and the Arts of Care: Reframing Active Ageing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-435-9

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