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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2019

Jenifer Sunrise Winter and Elizabeth Davidson

This paper aims to assess the increasing challenges to governing the personal health information (PHI) essential for advancing artificial intelligence (AI) machine…

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2206

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the increasing challenges to governing the personal health information (PHI) essential for advancing artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning innovations in health care. Risks to privacy and justice/equity are discussed, along with potential solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper highlights the scale and scope of PHI data consumed by deep learning algorithms and their opacity as novel challenges to health data governance.

Findings

This paper argues that these characteristics of machine learning will overwhelm existing data governance approaches such as privacy regulation and informed consent. Enhanced governance techniques and tools will be required to help preserve the autonomy and rights of individuals to control their PHI. Debate among all stakeholders and informed critique of how, and for whom, PHI-fueled health AI are developed and deployed are needed to channel these innovations in societally beneficial directions.

Social implications

Health data may be used to address pressing societal concerns, such as operational and system-level improvement, and innovations such as personalized medicine. This paper informs work seeking to harness these resources for societal good amidst many competing value claims and substantial risks for privacy and security.

Originality/value

This is the first paper focusing on health data governance in relation to AI/machine learning.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

With the emergence of the sharing economy paradigm, the process of innovation is no longer unidirectional, but cyclical. This paradigm shift requires a better…

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1033

Abstract

Purpose

With the emergence of the sharing economy paradigm, the process of innovation is no longer unidirectional, but cyclical. This paradigm shift requires a better understanding of social actors to fully leverage the promise of co-innovation in the sharing economy. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to develop a classification model to profile social actors based on their motivation to participate in different co-innovation activities.

Design/methodology/approach

A preliminary case study was first conducted to identify actors’ motivations to continuously participate in co-innovation activities. Next, a survey was administrated to validate the measurement model and then a discriminant analysis was run on a sample of 244 actors to classify actors based on their willingness to participate in three forms of co-innovation activities. Lastly, the resultant classifiers were cross-validated.

Findings

The results indicate that financial gains, entrepreneurship and learning are significant predictors of ideation (sharing new ideas). Enjoyment and learning are strong indicators of collaboration (sharing knowledge or experience), whereas networking, enjoyment, and altruism are most strongly related to socialization (sharing network and connections). These findings highlight three classes of social actors – ideators, collaborators and networkers – based on motivational differences.

Originality/value

Co-innovation among individual inventors is an understudied aspect of the sharing economy. This study provides a theoretically parsimonious classification model to profile social actors, predict the sharing activities in co-innovation networks, and highlight the importance of platform design to appeal to different classes of potential contributors in collaborative innovation.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

Co-innovation networks face the important challenge of cultivating collective innovation outcomes while also preserving the interests of individual contributors…

Abstract

Purpose

Co-innovation networks face the important challenge of cultivating collective innovation outcomes while also preserving the interests of individual contributors. Addressing this challenge requires first understanding and then managing individuals’ perception of co-innovation risks. The purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful approach to addressing co-innovation risks using a valid and reliable model to assess actors’ perception of risk and examine its effect on actor co-innovation behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The construct of co-innovation risk from the actor’s perspective was conceptualized based on a case study of a co-innovation network. The measurement items underwent a pilot study and a field study to establish the necessary reliability and validity. This paper also empirically assesses a nomological network that illustrates the effect of risk on co-innovation behavior with a moderating effect of prior experience.

Findings

Co-innovation actors perceived four different individual risks: time, social, intellectual property right, and financial. The empirical results from the field study demonstrate a high degree of confidence in both translation validity and criterion-related validity. Negative effects of perceived co-innovation risk on actors’ continuous intention to ideate, collaborate, and communicate in co-innovation were evident, but prior experience moderated these relationships.

Originality/value

Drawing from co-innovation and individual risk literature, this study develops and validates a general instrument to measure co-innovation risk from the actors’ perspective. The result is a reliable and parsimonious instrument with 15 items, which contributes significantly to future empirical investigations of co-innovation behavior on virtual platforms.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Kaveh Abhari, Elizabeth J. Davidson and Bo Xiao

The importance of co-innovation platforms has been well established, but a valid and reliable instrument to measure the affordances of these platforms for co-innovation…

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1195

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of co-innovation platforms has been well established, but a valid and reliable instrument to measure the affordances of these platforms for co-innovation behavior has not yet been reported in the literature. A robust, validated instrument to measure co-innovation platform affordances (PAs) will facilitate the conduct of studies across different platforms and contribute to enhanced understanding of co-innovation behaviors, outcomes, and platform design. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize co-innovation PAs, develop a reliable measurement instrument capturing critical facets of co-innovation, namely ideation, collaboration, and communication, and validate the instrument.

Design/methodology/approach

The construct of PAs was conceptualized based on the findings from two case studies of co-innovation networks and the key characteristics of social mediating technology affordances. The measurement items newly developed via a case study underwent a two-round exploratory analysis to ensure face validity and content validity. The resulting instrument was subjected to a pilot study and a field study to establish the necessary reliability and validity.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that co-innovation PAs have three distinctive components, namely ideation, collaboration, and communication. Furthermore, the results of the study suggest that PAs are most appropriately operationalized as a second-order construct comprising all three components. The empirical results from the field study show a high degree of confidence in both translation validity and criterion-related validity.

Originality/value

Drawing from co-innovation and affordances literature, this study develops and validates a general instrument to measure co-innovation PAs. The result is a reliable and parsimonious instrument with 12 items. The authors believe that the instrument can contribute significantly to future empirical investigations of co-innovation behavior on virtual platforms.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Petrina M. Davidson, Elizabeth Bruce and Lisa Damaschke-Deitrick

Increasingly, groups external to educational systems are offering time, expertise and products, creating an intricate web of educational governance where entities outside…

Abstract

Increasingly, groups external to educational systems are offering time, expertise and products, creating an intricate web of educational governance where entities outside of formal education contribute to state-funded education systems. While this involvement and its motivations have been considered in the literature, it has been less common to explore these interactions between school systems and outside organizations as they relate to the transition from the knowledge economy to the intelligent economy. Such research is important to understand the numerous inputs to education, which can then inform future decision-making. This study traces scripts around the commodification of knowledge, which connects education to individual employability or the economy and cyborg dialectic, or the mutual relationship between humans and technology. These scripts intersect to contribute to the perpetuation of data creation and usage as part of the educational intelligent economy. The scripts traced here originate from Battelle, a primarily a Ohio-based research and development organization, also focused on classroom teaching and learning, specifically in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education. Mapping scripts related to the commodification of knowledge and the cyborg dialectic indicates promotion of the intelligent economy broadly and individually for Battelle itself across Ohio and beyond, through investments in educators, students and policy-makers but also Battelle’s potential employees and collaborators. This data-focus creates an educational intelligence not only in students, teachers and policy-makers but also in Battelle itself, legitimating it as an actor in education.

Details

The Educational Intelligent Economy: Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and the Internet of Things in Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-853-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Catherine Marshall and Elizabeth Phelps Davidson

The purpose of this paper is to offer a viewpoint on the challenges that assistant principals (APs) face and to make the case for intentional mentoring, coaching, and…

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233

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a viewpoint on the challenges that assistant principals (APs) face and to make the case for intentional mentoring, coaching, and sponsorship of individuals in these roles.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors provide a professional viewpoint based on scholarly literature and their practitioner observation.

Findings

The authors propose that by focussing on APs, being systematic about supporting APs, and expanding and deepening understandings of the hurdles and dilemmas they face, the schools will have a more robust leadership pipeline and more satisfied and effective APs. They recommend that school districts, whether in the USA or internationally, consider adopting specific and intentional strategies to mentor, coach, and sponsor new APs, with what they call Mentor-Sponsor Models.

Originality/value

The author recommendation for school districts to create Mentor Banks of qualified, exemplary senior principals who can sponsor and mentor new APs as an “in house” model for developing district talent is an original idea that could be easily implemented in larger school districts.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Abstract

Details

Challenging the “Jacks of All Trades but Masters of None” Librarian Syndrome
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-903-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

David Brennan and M. Elizabeth Davidson

While the important role of information literacy instruction as a central service in academic libraries is well observed in scholarly literature, there has been little…

Abstract

While the important role of information literacy instruction as a central service in academic libraries is well observed in scholarly literature, there has been little examination of the impact of the rapid increase of instructional duties on practicing librarians, whose traditional instruction duties have expanded or whose positions have not traditionally required leading a classroom. The study in this chapter explores librarians’ perceptions of the impact that increased instruction tasks have had on their day-to-day and long-term goals, perceptions of the support they receive in performing their instructional duties, and what types of instruction training they have received throughout their career. The ways in which the addition of instruction duties for librarians have been perceived by the librarians themselves as they strive to increase support for instructional services without impacting the library’s ability to continue to perform traditional public and technical services functions is discussed as a marker of the future needs of the field and the necessity of recognizing professional strain.

Details

Challenging the “Jacks of All Trades but Masters of None” Librarian Syndrome
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-903-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Elizabeth J. Davidson

Proposes using the analytic concept of genre of organizational communication to study the organizational consequences of implementing clinical information systems and…

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2236

Abstract

Proposes using the analytic concept of genre of organizational communication to study the organizational consequences of implementing clinical information systems and shifting from paper‐based to electronic patient records in clinical practices. By focusing research attention on interpersonal communication and social interaction issues not addressed in medical informatics research, this approach contributes to the understanding of organizational and institutional issues that implementing such systems may entail. The paper develops an example drawn from an in‐depth case study of a computerized order entry system to illustrate the insights this approach may provide.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Abstract

Details

The Educational Intelligent Economy: Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and the Internet of Things in Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-853-4

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