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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-718-0

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2001

Edward D. Garten

Abstract

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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-718-0

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2001

Abstract

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-718-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

Ruth Shasteen

Four libraries in East‐Central Illinois established a model cooperative collection development project funded by a Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Grant for…

Abstract

Four libraries in East‐Central Illinois established a model cooperative collection development project funded by a Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Grant for the purpose of determining if the theory of cooperative collection development could actually be put into practice, specifically in the case of small rural libraries. The project proved to be very successful, demonstrating that theory can work in real situations. Cooperative collection development is a practical solution to problems created by underfunding, inadequate or underdeveloped collections, and long delivery times for interlibrary loans. This article will describe the demonstration project, the methods used to assess the collections, and the process of writing the cooperative plan.

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Collection Building, vol. 13 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Jennifer R. Overbeck

The expansion of negotiation processes to the group level not only increases the number of parties (with an accompanying increase in range of issues, interests, and…

Abstract

The expansion of negotiation processes to the group level not only increases the number of parties (with an accompanying increase in range of issues, interests, and positions), but may also change the nature of the negotiation process. More parties means more complexity. Instead of simply revealing, comparing, and trying to reconcile two parties' clear interests, a group may encounter challenges in identifying its interests at all. The existence of the group may exacerbate perceptions of conflict (Chambers & Melnyk, 2006), interfere with information sharing (Stasser & Titus, 1985), create conformity pressures (Asch, 1955), and bias the group toward more extreme positions (Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). Just as situating conduct in a group, rather than an individual, qualitatively changes decision making (Janis, 1972), interactions (Tajfel, 2010), and even basic cognition (Hargadon, 1999), so too is it likely to change negotiation.

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Negotiation and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-560-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Russell Jones and Elizabeth Strange

Over the past century, the rate of sea level rise (SLR) has increased more than twice the average historical rate and the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the past century, the rate of sea level rise (SLR) has increased more than twice the average historical rate and the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that by 2100 the sea level will increase nearly two feet in many coastal areas. Property owners and municipalities typically respond to SLR by constructing seawalls and similar structures to protect shoreline property (a practice known as “armoring”). The degree to which SLR and armoring threaten key coastal habitats has not been well studied, however. This study, aims to develop an inundation model on behalf of Stratus Consulting to examine anticipated habitat changes in coastal Ocean County, New Jersey.

Design/methodology/approach

The model used a geographical information system to map predicted changes in coastal habitats under two alternative SLR scenarios and six different shoreline armoring scenarios. The paper then used information from local experts and the scientific literature to predict changes in the relative abundances of fish and bird species under the different scenarios.

Findings

Under all scenarios, the model predicted substantial declines in the areal extent of Spartina marshes and in the annual production of finfish and shrimp. Declines in these marsh‐dependent species would have significant impacts on commercial and recreational fisheries. The study also predicted substantial declines in bird species such as songbirds and dabbling ducks.

Originality/value

The results of the study can help local stakeholders and decision‐makers plan responses to SLR. Conventional armoring responses could result in substantial and irreversible losses of coastal habitats and the species dependent on these habitats.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2007

M. Ena Inesi and Margaret A. Neale

In this chapter, we present a model for the process of value creation in power-differentiated groups and identify affect as a key moderator. We divide the value creation…

Abstract

In this chapter, we present a model for the process of value creation in power-differentiated groups and identify affect as a key moderator. We divide the value creation process into two key steps: information sharing and information processing. Further, we propose that high- and low-power group members each play a critical, albeit different, role in these processes. High-power group members are instrumental in establishing an environment that encourages all group members to share their unique information. Once that information is available, low-power group members use it to formulate solutions that create value. Further, we propose that the affective experience of each of these determines the extent to which they fulfill their role. If high-power group members are happy, they are more likely to create an open and sharing environment. If angry, they will likely squelch broad participation in information sharing. While low-power group members are naturally prone to effortful cognition, we propose that the more suspicious they are regarding the motives of those around them, the more carefully they will process available information.

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Affect and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1413-3

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Jennifer A. Chatman, Jack A. Goncalo, Jessica A. Kennedy and Michelle M. Duguid

Purpose – We investigate the antibias norm, “political correctness” (PC), and explore the consequences of the PC norm for group processes and group performance.

Abstract

Purpose – We investigate the antibias norm, “political correctness” (PC), and explore the consequences of the PC norm for group processes and group performance.

Methodology/approach – We define the term PC as it is used in public discourse and distinguish the PC norm from the related antibias norm of color blindness.

Findings – We suggest that the PC norm may play a unique role in reducing a critical type of uncertainty that would otherwise constrain performance, in particular, group creativity and decision making, in diverse work groups. We then explore the controversial argument that being politically incorrect can actually promote freedom of expression.

Originality/value of chapter – We conclude by reflecting on the costs of the PC norm and why the PC norm may remain prevalent in work groups for some time to come.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Keywords

Abstract

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Global and Culturally Diverse Leaders and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-495-0

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Don A. Moore and Elizabeth R. Tenney

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the question of whether there is an optimal level of time pressure in groups.Design/approach – We argue that…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to explore the question of whether there is an optimal level of time pressure in groups.

Design/approach – We argue that distinguishing performance from productivity is a necessary step toward the eventual goal of being able to determine optimal deadlines and ideal durations of meetings. We review evidence of time pressure's differential effects on performance and productivity.

Findings – Based on our survey of the literature, we find that time pressure generally impairs performance because it places constraints on the capacity for thought and action that limit exploration and increase reliance on well-learned or heuristic strategies. Thus, time pressure increases speed at the expense of quality. However, performance is different from productivity. Giving people more time is not always better for productivity because time spent on a task yields decreasing marginal returns to performance.

Originality/value of chapter – The evidence reviewed here suggests that setting deadlines wisely can help maximize productivity.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Keywords

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