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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Kenneth L. Andrichik and Elizabeth A. McCoy

This is an exploration of the effectiveness of the NASD Dispute Resolution's mediation program from the user's point of view. There is a user survey that has been…

Abstract

This is an exploration of the effectiveness of the NASD Dispute Resolution's mediation program from the user's point of view. There is a user survey that has been conducted to analyze the program. This article examines the results of the survey in a setting describing the program and how it is administered. There is an interesting examination of the effectiveness of mediation and which factors are most important.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2022

Elizabeth Spruin, Tara Dunleavy, Chloe Mitchell and Belinda Siesmaa

This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) to investigate the criminal cognitions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) to investigate the criminal cognitions of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) from the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The reliability and validity of the PICTS scales were investigated within an MDO sample from the UK (N = 45) and compared to PICTS data from the USA and general offenders in the UK.

Findings

The findings showed that the PICTS functioned in a similar way when used in MDO and non-MDO populations, indicating that from a psychometric perspective, the PICTS scales produce consistent results across both populations. Evidence is further provided to indicate that MDOs from the UK endorse criminal cognitions at a similar level to those in the USA and at a significantly higher level than general UK offenders.

Practical implications

The implications and insight that these findings provide into the criminal cognitions of MDOs are discussed, with specific focus on the significant difference between general offenders and offenders with serious mental illness.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to use the PICTS with MDOs in the UK, comparing the criminal thinking styles of MDOs and non-MDOs.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 June 2022

Ada Kwan, Rachel Sklar, Drew B. Cameron, Robert C. Schell, Stefano M. Bertozzi, Sandra I. McCoy, Brie Williams and David A. Sears

This study aims to characterize the June 2020 COVID-19 outbreak at San Quentin California State Prison and to describe what made San Quentin so vulnerable to uncontrolled…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to characterize the June 2020 COVID-19 outbreak at San Quentin California State Prison and to describe what made San Quentin so vulnerable to uncontrolled transmission.

Design/methodology/approach

Since its onset, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed and exacerbated the profound health harms of carceral settings, such that nearly half of state prisons reported COVID-19 infection rates that were four or more times (and up to 15 times) the rate found in the state’s general population. Thus, addressing the public health crises and inequities of carceral settings during a respiratory pandemic requires analyzing the myriad factors shaping them. In this study, we reported observations and findings from environmental risk assessments during visits to San Quentin California State Prison. We complemented our assessments with analyses of administrative data.

Findings

For future respiratory pathogens that cannot be prevented with effective vaccines, this study argues that outbreaks will no doubt occur again without robust implementation of additional levels of preparedness – improved ventilation, air filtration, decarceration with emergency evacuation planning – alongside addressing the vulnerabilities of carceral settings themselves.

Originality/value

This study addresses two critical aspects that are insufficiently covered in the literature: how to prepare processes to safely implement emergency epidemic measures when needed, such as potential evacuation, and how to address unique challenges throughout an evolving pandemic for each carceral setting.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Nancy Phaswana‐Mafuya, George Petros, Karl Peltzer, Shandir Ramlagan, Nkululeko Nkomo, Gorden Mohlala, Margaret Mbelle and John Seager

The paper's aim is to determine the role of non‐profit organizations (NPOs) in filling possible gaps in primary health care (PHC) service provision.

2136

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to determine the role of non‐profit organizations (NPOs) in filling possible gaps in primary health care (PHC) service provision.

Design/methodology/approach

District (n=10) and sub‐district needs (n=14) analyses were conducted in five South African provinces. In each case, the district/sub‐district manager was interviewed using a semi‐structured interview guide.

Findings

The service gaps identified were understaffing/lack of capacity, difficulty in retaining and recruiting staff, service disparities, inaccessibility of services/low‐service utilisation and limited funding. It was believed that NPOs could fill these gaps. About 83 per cent perceived the relationship between government and NPOs as good. Contract monitoring, quality of service, communication and quality control were said to be unsatisfactory. The majority of sub‐districts (11) indicated that they provided supplies to NPOs; 50 per cent perceived the relationship between the sub‐districts and NPOs as good or very good. NPOs have critical role to play in PHC service delivery.

Originality/value

The study provides critical information required to make informed effective strategic decisions that support district/sub‐district performance and sustainability in a decentralized health system.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Elizabeth Chiarello

The United States has an uncomfortable relationship with pleasure. Cultural ambivalence is evident in discourses surrounding pleasure and the labeling and treatment of…

Abstract

The United States has an uncomfortable relationship with pleasure. Cultural ambivalence is evident in discourses surrounding pleasure and the labeling and treatment of those who act on their desires. Pleasure seeking, generally understood in moral terms, is often medicalized and criminalized (as in the case of pregnancy prevention and drug use), placing questions of how to manage pleasure under the purview of medical and legal actors. At the macrolevel, institutions police pleasure via rules, patterns of action, and logics, while at the microlevel, frontline workers police pleasure via daily decisions about resource distribution. This chapter develops a sociolegal framework for understanding the social control of pleasure by analyzing how two institutions – medicine and criminal justice – police pleasure institutionally and interactionally. Conceptualizing medicine and criminal justice as paternalistic institutions acting as arbiters of morality, I demonstrate how these institutions address two cases of pleasure seeking – drug use and sex – by drawing examples from contemporary drug and reproductive health policy. Section one highlights shared institutional mechanisms of policing pleasure across medicine and criminal justice such as categorization, allocation of professional power, and the structuring of legitimate consequences for pleasure seeking. Section two demonstrates how frontline workers in each field act as moral gatekeepers as they interpret and construct institutional imperatives while exercising discretion about resource allocation in daily practice. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how understanding institutional and interactional policing of pleasure informs sociolegal scholarship about the relationships between medicine and criminal justice and the mechanisms by which institutions and frontline workers act as agents of social control.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Cyril Ghosh

In this chapter, I suggest that Connecticut’s and other states’ recent discontinuation of civil unions in the name of marriage “equality” marginalizes and demeans marriage…

Abstract

In this chapter, I suggest that Connecticut’s and other states’ recent discontinuation of civil unions in the name of marriage “equality” marginalizes and demeans marriage – rejecting people who may nonetheless wish to codify their intimate partnerships – for purposes of legal “incidents,” including rights and privileges, like hospital visitation rights, testimonial privilege, inheritance rights, etc. In doing so, I also call for a rejuvenation of the practice of granting civil union licenses in these states.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-811-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Visionary Leadership in a Turbulent World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-242-8

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Rosie Elizabeth Allen, Jerome Carson, Bethany Merrifield and Stacey Bush

The purpose of this paper is to compare a group of service users with mental health problems with a community comparison group of gym attenders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare a group of service users with mental health problems with a community comparison group of gym attenders.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys were conducted at a large gym (n = 181) and two community mental health facilities (n = 127) in the Greater Manchester area using a convenience sample approach. All participants completed the PERMA Scale, a measure of flourishing.

Findings

Gym attenders scored significantly higher on the five elements of PERMA. Their physical health ratings were almost double. They also had significantly lower levels of negative emotions and loneliness and higher levels of overall happiness.

Research limitations/implications

This study only considered levels of flourishing. Previous studies of quality of life have shown similar disparities between people with mental health problems and others.

Practical implications

Professor Seligman has claimed that improving levels of flourishing is the main aim of positive psychology. The present study suggests this may be especially challenging for people with mental health problems.

Social implications

The concept of flourishing could provide a more positive non-medical focus for mental health services, in the development of what some have called positive psychiatry. This complements the current recovery model.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to compare flourishing levels between individuals with mental health problems and a community comparison group using the PERMA Scale.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Sofie Stulens, Kim De Boeck and Nico Vandaele

Despite HIV being reported as one of the major global health issues, availability and accessibility of HIV services and supplies remain limited, especially in low- and…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite HIV being reported as one of the major global health issues, availability and accessibility of HIV services and supplies remain limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The effective and efficient operation of HIV supply chains is critical to tackle this problem. The purpose of this paper is to give an introduction to HIV supply chains in low- and middle-income countries and identify research opportunities for the operations research/operations management (OR/OM) community.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the authors review a combination of the scientific and grey literature, including both qualitative and quantitative papers, to give an overview of HIV supply chain operations in low- and middle-income countries and the challenges that are faced by organizing such supply chains. The authors then classify and discuss the relevant OR/OM literature based on seven classification criteria: decision level, methodology, type of HIV service modeled, challenges, performance measures, real-life applicability and countries covered. Because research on HIV supply chains in low- and middle-income countries is limited in the OR/OM field, this part also includes papers focusing on HIV supply chain modeling in high-income countries.

Findings

The authors conclude this study by identifying several tendencies and gaps and by proposing future research directions for OR/OM research.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first literature review addressing this specific topic from an OR/OM perspective.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Adam D. Galinsky, Eileen Y. Chou, Nir Halevy and Gerben A. Van Kleef

Purpose – This chapter provides a framework that captures the fundamental impacts of power at the individual, dyadic, small group, and organizational levels. Within each…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter provides a framework that captures the fundamental impacts of power at the individual, dyadic, small group, and organizational levels. Within each level, we trace the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of having or lacking power.

Approach – We integrate theoretical approaches from psychology, sociology, behavioral economics, and organizational theory to underscore the far-reaching effects that power has.

Findings – We review theoretical and empirical evidence that demonstrate that (a) power leads people to take action, increases their general sense of control, and shape the way they construe the world; (b) power anesthetizes people to other people's emotions and immunizes them from the pressures of conformity; and (c) power differences within groups may facilitate group functioning by creating order, reducing conflict, and facilitating coordination. In addition to providing a framework for existing research on power, we also provide three research directions in hope of generating fruitful future research.

Originality/value – Through a careful review of the literature, we demonstrate that power helps people know who does what, when, and how.

Details

Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

Keywords

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