The purpose of this paper is to analyse the superintendent position, its relation to the local political system and the function as superior of principals in the school…
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the superintendent position, its relation to the local political system and the function as superior of principals in the school district in order to illuminate important district-level conditions for student learning. Influences from historical legacies and policy cultures are investigated by means of cross-country case analyses.
This paper is based on data from national surveys of superintendent leadership in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway.
A key point is the observation of a mix-mode system of hard and soft governance. Municipalities, schools, teachers and pupils are – in different degrees across the Nordic countries – subjected to external evaluation and assessment by central control agencies, where the streams of reports, assessments and performance data are assembled. However, shifts in the governance systems are only modestly reflected in the self-reports on the superintendents’ role. Overall, superintendents in the cases express a self-preferred leadership style as professional learning facilitators who focus on pupil orientation, which positions the superintendent in “crossfires” between conflicting stakeholder demands.
The paper reinforces the importance of superintendent leadership in local school governance. It underscores the importance that superintendents facilitate learning conditions for school leaders, teachers and students, which we see as a promising path for further research.
The paper provides empirical evidence regarding superintendent leadership situated in local social and political contexts within the Nordic countries. The cross-country analysis illuminates how path-pendent historical legacies mediate current reform trends.
The purpose of this paper is to uncover the meaning of entrepreneurship in schools and a school leadership which aims to nurture an entrepreneurial attitude. The authors…
The purpose of this paper is to uncover the meaning of entrepreneurship in schools and a school leadership which aims to nurture an entrepreneurial attitude. The authors will also discuss what challenges there could be for principals to lead activities to develop an entrepreneurial attitude to learning and teaching.
The paper integrates policy documents and scientific material concerning entrepreneurial attitude, leadership and school culture.
In Sweden as well as internationally there are clear policy intentions for renewal of schoolwork in a more entrepreneurial direction. The most striking challenges for principals are to be enough creative within the boarders set by school authorities when setting vision and goals for the development of their schools to enhance an entrepreneurial attitude, building trust and distributing power among staff, along with having courage to think outside “the box”.
The point of departure is entrepreneurial attitude in education as understood in a Swedish context. International policies as well as research are discussed.
The paper illuminates strategic ways of thinking and acting according to leadership in an entrepreneurial learning school context.
The role of principals as well as the significance of culture in a school context focused on developing an entrepreneurial attitude is quite often discussed in research. School differs from business in that there are more restrictions set by school authorities. The paper shows an undeveloped area which can be useful to identify and problematize challenges for leadership.