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Article

Alison Preston, Elisa Birch and Andrew R. Timming

The purpose of this paper is to document the wage effects associated with sexual orientation and to examine whether the wage gap has improved following recent…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the wage effects associated with sexual orientation and to examine whether the wage gap has improved following recent institutional changes which favour sexual minorities.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least squares and quantile regressions are estimated using Australian data for 2010–2012 and 2015–2017, with the analysis disaggregated by sector of employment. Blinder–Oaxaca decompositions are used to quantify unexplained wage gaps.

Findings

Relative to heterosexual men, in 2015–2017 gay men in the public and private sectors had wages which were equivalent to heterosexual men at all points in the wage distribution. In the private sector: highly skilled lesbians experienced a wage penalty of 13 per cent; low-skilled bisexual women faced a penalty of 11 per cent, as did bisexual men at the median (8 per cent penalty). In the public sector low-skilled lesbians and low-skilled bisexual women significant experienced wage premiums. Between 2010–2012 and 2015–2017 the pay position of highly skilled gay men has significantly improved with the convergence driven by favourable wage (rather than composition) effects.

Practical implications

The results provide important benchmarks against which the treatment of sexual minorities may be monitored.

Originality/value

The analysis of the sexual minority wage gaps by sector and position on the wage distribution and insight into the effect of institutions on the wages of sexual minorities.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Elisa Rose Birch and Paul W. Miller

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of taking out government‐funded student loans for university study in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of taking out government‐funded student loans for university study in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses an ordered probit model to quantify the influence of the various factors which affect students' decisions on funding their tertiary study using student loans or through other means.

Findings

The study finds that the probability of taking out student loans for the full cost of university is largely influenced by students' socioeconomic status. Other major influences on this decision include students' demographic and university enrolment characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the work is that only a neighbourhood (rather than an individual‐level) measure of socioeconomic status was available, and future research should seek to address this.

Practical implications

The research shows that the parameters of loan schemes do not seem to be able to over‐ride the influence that family background has on loan taking behaviour. That is, poor students use loans regardless of the parameters of the loans scheme in order to overcome short‐term credit constraints. In other words, these student loan schemes channel funds to those without other means of funding their higher education.

Originality/value

By showing the impact that income contingent provisions have on loan taking behaviour, the paper informs policy makers of potential impacts from modifying loans schemes to reflect this characteristic.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part

Federico D’Onofrio and Gerardo Serra

This symposium analyses the mutually constitutive relationship between economic knowledge and political order. Through a wide range of case studies from Europe, Africa…

Abstract

This symposium analyses the mutually constitutive relationship between economic knowledge and political order. Through a wide range of case studies from Europe, Africa, and Latin America, the essays collected shed new light on the choices and constraints faced by economists under authoritarian rule in the twentieth century. The contribution of the symposium is twofold. Firstly, it expands the geographical and chronological scope of the conversation on the politics of economics. Secondly, it encourages a more nuanced understanding of economists’ agency in their different guises as educators, party propagandists, policy-makers, model-builders, and dissidents.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Economists and Authoritarian Regimes in the 20th Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-703-9

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Article

Patricia A. Greenfield, Ronald J. Karren and Lawrence S. Zacharias

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants orpotential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. Whilethe hiring process may vary, both from…

Abstract

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants or potential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. While the hiring process may vary, both from one employer to another and from one job to another, some form of screening occurs. In recent years, students of management have noted the proliferation of screening practices in the hiring process, especially in bringing new technologies such as medical and drug testing procedures. Testing and other screening practices, while wide‐ranging both with respect to their ends and means, have raised consistent patterns of concern among job‐seekers, public policy makers and managers themselves. In this monograph a variety of methods of screening and issues of public policy raised by screening procedures are discussed. An overview of United States law regulating the screening process is provided, together with future directions in the area of screening in the US.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Content available
Article

Jessica Ayensu, Reginald Adjetey Annan, Anthony Edusei and Herman Lutterodt

Edible insects have emerged as a promising inexpensive option to address malnutrition among vulnerable groups in the world. However, it is not clear whether including…

Abstract

Purpose

Edible insects have emerged as a promising inexpensive option to address malnutrition among vulnerable groups in the world. However, it is not clear whether including insects in diets can improve health outcomes. This paper aimed to investigate the impact of edible insect consumption on human health.

Design/methodology/approach

A search was conducted in PubMed Central, BioMed Central, Plosone, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Google Search and bibliographies for all human studies on the impact of edible insect consumption on human health published from January 1990 to April 2018.

Findings

Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Consumption of cereals fortified with edible insects improved iron status and growth in infants and led to the development of life threatening anaphylactic reactions in sensitive people.

Practical implications

Edible insects are nutritious. More rigorous studies are needed to confirm nutrient bioavailability, acceptability and nutritional benefits in humans.

Originality/value

This review shows that the utilization of edible insects as food promotes desirable health outcomes, but caution must be taken to prevent allergic reactions in some cases.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Yu-Ming Chung, Shao-Yu Lee, Yung-Kai Lin, Yung-Hao Lin, Mohamed El-Shazly, Yung-Hsiang Lin and Chi-Fu Chiang

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), a ubiquitous fruit in Southeastern Asia, was rich in vitamins and phytochemicals, which were beneficial for improving of skin conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), a ubiquitous fruit in Southeastern Asia, was rich in vitamins and phytochemicals, which were beneficial for improving of skin conditions. The fermentation process increased phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether phytochemicals can be increased through the fermentation process of rambutan extracts to improve skin aging.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors used the three stages of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum TCI028 and Acetobacter aceti under red light to develop a fermented rambutan extract.

Findings

The level of polyphenols of red-light-based fermented rambutan extract (RLFRE) were significantly increased 108.9% (p < 0.01) and 97% (p <0.01) compared with fermented rambutan extract (FRE) and pure rambutan extract (RE), respectively. The human skin fibroblasts treated with 0.03 or 0.06% of RLFRE can significantly decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by 0.74- (p <0.001) and 0.84-fold (p <0.001) compared with H2O2 group, respectively. And 0.03% of RLFRE can significantly increase in elastin content by 1.13-fold (p <0.05). Also, ten compounds were identified including one new phenolic compound and nine known compounds from RLFRE. Moreover, red light could enhance the levels of compounds 4, 9 and 3 by 5, 2.5 and 2.5-fold, respectively, relative to the results of FRE. The last, RLFRE isolated compounds significantly facilitated the elastin content on fibroblast (compound 1, 7, 9, 10 compared with control: p <0.001, compound 2 compared with control: p <0.001).

Originality/value

In short, this was the first study to unveil that the red-light-based fermentation can enrich the antioxidant content in a rambutan extract and its product had the potential to be developed a functional product for health-promoting effects such as skin aging.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Shirani Ranasinghe, Thilak Jayalath, Sampath Thennakoon, Ranjith Jayasekara, Ran Shiva and Tharanga Bandara

Purpose of this study is to measure the Vitamin D status of healthy adults and to correlate with their lifestyle and feeding habits. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D…

Abstract

Purpose

Purpose of this study is to measure the Vitamin D status of healthy adults and to correlate with their lifestyle and feeding habits. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the most common marker of vitamin D status of an individual. Deficiency of vitamin D is defined as the serum level less than 20 ng/mL and insufficiency as 30 ng/mL which can be prevented.

Design/methodology/approach

Vitamin D status of healthy adults (n = 82), both male and females between the age of 18 – 50 years who were attending to the National Transport Authority, Kandy, Sri Lanka from February to March 2016, was measured and correlated with their lifestyle, feeding habits, etc.

Findings

The mean total serum D (25(OH)D in this study was 40.15 ± 3.74 nmol/l with the mean value of 42.8 ± 28.8 and 37.5 ± 16.6 for women and men, respectively. The serum calcium levels of both female and male were around 8 mg/dl and the serum total protein was 6.5 and 7 g/dl in women and men, respectively. The serum Vitamin D, calcium and total protein were not statistically significantly different between the sexes. In this study, 84 per cent of the total subjects were normocalcemic, and there was no significant relationship between vitamin D levels and their calcium levels.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates that there was no statistically significant correlation between the serum vitamin D with age, serum calcium or total proteins. The majority of participants who had exposure to the sunlight more than 30 mins/day had sufficient level of vitamin D and less than 30 min/day exposure had deficiency of vitamin D. Daily intake of multivitamin influenced vitamin D status of the study group.

Practical implications

These findings will implicate the importance of cultural, feed and social habits for the nutritional status of an individual.and there are no reported studies on vitamin D status with reference to the variation of life style.

Social implications

It is very important to investigate the factors affecting to the vitamin D status of a population as such, vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency can be prevented. In Sri Lanka, the population is consisting with many ethnic groups, different ethnic groups may find some nutritional problems according to their main cultural habits.

Originality/value

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the Vitamin D status in a group of healthy adults between 20 and 50 years in both men and women and to find out the correlation of their vitamin D status with their lifestyle and feeding habits, etc.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Mohammadreza Akbari and Robert McClelland

The purpose of this research is to provide a systematic insight into corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate citizenship (CC) in supply chain development, by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to provide a systematic insight into corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate citizenship (CC) in supply chain development, by analyzing the current literature, contemporary concepts, data and gaps for future discipline research.

Design/methodology/approach

This research identifies information from existing academic journals and investigates research designs and methods, data analysis techniques, industry involvement and geographic locations. Information regarding university affiliation, publishers, authors, year of publication is also documented. A collection of online databases from 2001 to 2018 were explored, using the keywords “corporate social responsibility”, “corporate citizenship” and “supply chain” in their title and abstract, to deliver an inclusive listing of journal articles in this discipline area. Based on this approach, a total of 164 articles were found, and information on a chain of variables was collected.

Findings

There has been visible growth in published articles over the last 18 years regarding supply chain sustainability, CSR and CC. Analysis of the data collected shows that only five literature reviews have been published in this area. Further, key findings include 41% of publications were narrowly focused on four sectors of industry, leaving gaps in the research. 85% centered on the survey and conceptual model, leaving an additional gap for future research. Finally, developing and developed nation status should be delineated, researched and analyzed based on further segmentation of the industry by region.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to reviewing only academic and professional articles available from Emerald, Elsevier, Wiley, Sage, Taylor and Francis, Springer, Scopus, JSTOR and EBSCO containing the words “corporate social responsibility”, “corporate citizenship” and “supply chain” in the title and abstract.

Originality/value

This assessment provides an enhanced appreciation of the current practices of current research and offers further directions within the CSR and CC in supply chain sustainable development.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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