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The branding concept has been applied to cities, destinations, regions and even nations to attract tourism, investments and residents. The Republic of Turkey with its rich historical heritage has been home to many applications of such diverse branding campaigns. While some of these campaigns have been criticised for their lack of efficacy, especially at the national level, several city-based or regional campaigns have proven more successful.
In this chapter, we review and examine place branding campaigns in Turkey. We provide examples of the increasing role of social media, cultural and historical heritage, role of movies and TV series, health- and faith-based tourism, mega-sports events, sustainable communications, the Slow City concept and public–private partnerships in contemporary place branding campaigns.
Consumer resistance has been a popular research area in the previous decades, and concepts such as boycotting, brand avoidance, voluntary simplicity and anti-consumption…
Consumer resistance has been a popular research area in the previous decades, and concepts such as boycotting, brand avoidance, voluntary simplicity and anti-consumption appeared to be hot topics in exploring the ways the consumers resist market dominance in the postmodern culture. However, research on this topic in the Turkish (and partly Eastern) context is very limited, inhibiting our understanding of the topic in different economic and cultural settings. Through a comprehensive discussion that provides institutional-, structural- and community-level perspectives relating to consumer resistance phenomena in Turkey, a developing country with historical and cultural roots in both the East and the West, the chapter intends to equip scholars and practitioners with a better insight to conceptualise this phenomenon as well as to formulate further studies and marketing strategies.
The sharing economy is a collection of economic and social activities where participants of the community share properties, resources, time and skills across online…
The sharing economy is a collection of economic and social activities where participants of the community share properties, resources, time and skills across online platforms. In this chapter, we start by identifying all the stakeholders and their characteristics within such an ecosystem. We then categorise factors leading to success in the sharing economies where the existence of these platforms has disrupted traditional businesses. To do so, demographic information about the community participants, specifications of the business models, enablers of the ecosystem, growth drivers and hindrance factors are explored in detail. From there on, we examine whether such success factors are applicable in the Turkish business environment where Internet retailing is in its infant stages, trust among people is quite low and economic welfare is lower than that of more developed economies. Finally, an assessment of the sharing economy landscape in Turkey is provided at the end of the chapter.
To outline the future of the sharing economy in Turkey, success indicators in the Turkish market are compared and contrasted with those of the United States, the United Kingdom and Brazil. A quick analysis reveals that despite its huge potential, Turkey still has not reached its full capacity in Internet usage, online or mobile retailing. That said, notwithstanding the low levels of trust among people, Turkey has a great potential of sharer base, given the demographic structure of its citizens. Recommendations for policy makers, incumbent firms, the sharing economy startups and marketers are provided in the chapter.
Marketing has changed rapidly over the last four decades. Not a core discipline itself, its applications have become more complicated, more dynamic and more customised…
Marketing has changed rapidly over the last four decades. Not a core discipline itself, its applications have become more complicated, more dynamic and more customised than ever before. Achieving differentiation in product is as difficult as reaching an aurora. Instead, marketers use communication tools to draw attention and increase awareness. But in the era of artificial intelligence, number of communication channels, competitors and lack of patience to read or listen to branded messages are not helping to reach targets. To keep the brands’ images clear and memorable, marketers need to create powerful content to deliver through any touchpoints. And that means INTEGRATION: ‘coordinating the company’s many communication channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling message about the organisation and its products’.
The dynamics of marketing communication mix can vary in different geographies. Being a developing country makes Turkey a fast mover but unstable. Although coping with these dynamics is not easy, it could be learnt. This chapter aims to help the reader find some useful information about Integrated Marketing Communication applications in the Turkish market.
The spending capacity of the middle-income class increases with growing economies. With this increase, luxury goods are not only consumed by rich people alone. For this reason, luxury brands are expanding their target population and enriching their products and services accordingly. Thus, the luxury market which addresses the middle- and upper-middle-income groups is changing and its importance is increasing. In this chapter, the definition of luxury, the classification of luxury goods, the requirements of the luxury marketing mix (product, price, distribution and promotion) and applied strategies are examined. This chapter also covers how luxury products have authentic features, premium and masstige brands, fake luxury products that are the exact copies of original luxury brands, and how and why this fake luxury market grows. At the end of the chapter, the luxury market in Turkey, which has been growing rapidly, especially in recent years, is examined in detail and all the features of the market are presented. It is expected that this market will continue to grow in the future, as a large number of tourists from nearby regions, Central Asia and Arab countries come to Turkey to buy luxury branded products and services.
The introduction of consumer products can be traced back to the invention of the wheel, and after the first invention, humankind discovered that what can be consumable is…
The introduction of consumer products can be traced back to the invention of the wheel, and after the first invention, humankind discovered that what can be consumable is marketable. Therefore, it is safe to suggest that the development of marketing, in thought and practice, has always been hand-in-hand with the evolution of humankind. Modern Turkey or Anatolia, one of the cradles of civilisation located in the Fertile Crescent or, in other words, Old Mesopotamia, has always been the centre of trade and marketing. As an emerging economy, Turkey has a lot to combine the ways of western practices with market dynamics unique to her, whereas authors find the development of marketing practices in Turkey exceptionally interesting. Therefore, this chapter aims to provide an insight and a brief history regarding the development of the Turkish marketing context throughout the years. We believe that this contribution will be helpful to those who are interested in the development of marketing in an emerging economy in an academic fashion, as well as for those who are attracted to follow the footprints of the modern era’s business environment.
As a result of accelerating globalisation, competitive dynamics of the world are rapidly changing. Nowadays, both small and large enterprises exist in the same arena, which was not possible before. Similarly, emerging countries have become both markets and competitors for developed countries.
In this chapter, competitive dynamics of Turkey, as an emerging market, will be analysed by evaluating export, import and production volume of the main sectors in Turkey. The concept of competitive positioning and also competitive positioning in emerging markets will be explained. Cases from different industries will be included in order to comprehend the big picture, to understand the competitive dynamics in Turkey and to show the roadmap in management and marketing of these companies. This chapter is planned to be a helpful tool to guide entrepreneurs and managers working in and with Turkish companies to survive and market their products in the Turkish market.