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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Karl Blyth, John Lewis and Ammar Kaka

This paper reports on the development of a framework for a standardized programme of works for construction projects. A sample of 50 buildings, encompassing a total of 11…

Abstract

This paper reports on the development of a framework for a standardized programme of works for construction projects. A sample of 50 buildings, encompassing a total of 11 different project functions, were surveyed and analysed. The sample was then investigated further to assess the existence of similarities and repeated operations in each individual construction project. A minimum of 20 standardized elemental options were identified. From analysis of the data and the application of practitioners’ expertise, a logical sequence of activities, including their respective dependencies, was produced. A set of six new test projects was used to see if the initial methodology was sound. It could be concluded that despite each project being unique, most buildings retain cognate, elemental options that provide the basis for any structure, and these can be standardized and used as a basis for a universal programme of construction works. The standardization of activities would enable the automation of project planning processes and hence would result in reduced administration and management costs. This will encourage contractors and other project team members to undertake planning at earlier stages of the project, hence providing the basis for more accurate cash flow, duration and cost forecasts.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Prakash J. Singh and Alan Smith

To develop a quality management (QM) measurement instrument that has sound psychometric properties and recognizes a key feature of the field, i.e. QM is currently…

Abstract

Purpose

To develop a quality management (QM) measurement instrument that has sound psychometric properties and recognizes a key feature of the field, i.e. QM is currently characterized by three competing approaches: standards‐based; prize‐criteria; and, elemental implementation approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

The three disparate approaches were analyzed to identify sets of key constructs and associated items. The assembled instrument was empirically validated through a survey of 418 Australian manufacturing organizations. A full set of reliability and validity tests were performed. Wherever applicable, confirmatory approach using structural equation modeling was used.

Findings

The results of psychometric tests suggest that the constructs of the three approaches have good empirical support. In the manner in which the instrument is presented, it is possible to separately measure constructs related to each of the three approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The measurement instrument has been validated with manufacturing organizations from Australia. It is applicability to other industry sectors or country contexts needs to be verified.

Practical implications

Practitioners and consultants can use the measurement instrument for conducting QM benchmarking exercises within and across organizations. Researchers can use the instrument in future studies for, inter alia, theory development in the area.

Originality/value

The measurement instrument overcomes the shortcomings of the existing instruments by explicitly including all three practical approaches to quality management. Also, a rigorous psychometric validation process is adopted that provides credible outcomes.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2019

Elmira Ayşe Gür and Yurdanur Dülgeroğlu Yüksel

Turkey has been rapidly urbanizing since the 1950s. In quantitative and qualitative meanings, the problem of housing is one of the most important subjects on Turkey’s…

Abstract

Purpose

Turkey has been rapidly urbanizing since the 1950s. In quantitative and qualitative meanings, the problem of housing is one of the most important subjects on Turkey’s agenda. Increasing population, rapid cultural and economic transition and the dynamics of in-migration, changes in social life, consumption patterns and value systems have made a significant impact on housing demand and supply. If we try to realize a general analytical outlook to define the basic formal and informal categories that reflect specific values pertaining to housing typology of the twentieth century, it would be possible to make a classification under the following sub-titles: formal housing-row houses, separate houses, apartment blocks, social housing, mass-housing, luxury housing including gated communities; informal housing – squatter settlements/gecekondus, slums; inbetween –apartkondus, unpermitted constructions/building extensions. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Istanbul has been experiencing these various dynamics of planned and unplanned housing settlements in a very radical way, since the 1950s. Changing typology is examined systematically under certain periods up to now. In confronting housing needs under rapid urbanization, “types of housing supply channels” appeared and as a result, urban texture has been changing by periods. In this paper, in order to understand each of these categories and the conditions under which they have been generated, an analysis will be realized to understand the urban housing concept of Istanbul within the twentieth century urban environment.

Findings

The factors playing a role in the evolution of twentieth century dwelling forms on Istanbul will be defined, and the physical/architectural, locational, neighborhood characteristics, as well as their user profile will be examined.

Originality/value

This study is expected to contribute to the further understanding of the urban housing stock and the future trends in housing typology.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Johnson Adafin, James O.B. Rotimi and Suzanne Wilkinson

The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum (contract sum) in building procurement. A…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum (contract sum) in building procurement. A number of risk factors responsible for such variation were identified through case study projects from which data were extracted.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review determined the risk factors inherent in the preparation of design stage elemental cost plan. Interviews and thematic analysis identified the risk factors responsible for the disparity between design stage elemental cost plans and final tender sums. Analysis of documents obtained from the archives of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors) complemented responses from the interviews.

Findings

The review revealed a number of inherent risks in the design stage elemental cost plan development. The interviews further indicated that risks have an impact on and are responsible for the deviations experienced. The assessment of these risk elements could assist in determining the final tender sum from cost plans.

Research limitations/implications

Findings revealed disparity between elemental cost plans and final tender sums in the region of −14 and +16 per cent. The risk factors identified were responsible for the deviations observed. With this information, Quantity Surveyors are more able to accurately forecast final tender sums of building projects from cost plans through proper risk identification and analysis, thus increasing the accuracy of design stage elemental costing.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the researchers, there is no recent documentary evidence of an investigation into the reasons for disparity between design stage elemental cost plan and final tender sum in traditional building procurement in New Zealand construction.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

David O'Brien, Sandra Carrasco and Kim Dovey

This paper analyses the incremental housing process developed at Villa Verde, a housing project designed by the Chilean architecture firm Elemental, whose director…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the incremental housing process developed at Villa Verde, a housing project designed by the Chilean architecture firm Elemental, whose director Alejandro Aravena received the Pritzker Prize in 2016. This project is conceived within a social housing framework and designed as an affordable “half-house” to be incrementally extended by the owners.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on research undertaken in August 2017 with data obtained through site surveys, trace analysis, interviews with 32 residents and photographic surveys. The researchers mapped the modifications made by all households at Villa Verde in the four years after occupation.

Findings

The strategy of designing a formal framework for informal additions has generally been successful with most houses undergoing substantial expansion to a high standard of construction. The paper raises concerns regarding the settlement's urban design, response to local climate and the quality of shared open space. We also find evidence of over-development as informal additions extend across front and rear yards that are in some cases fully enclosed.

Originality/value

This project is critiqued within the context of a long series of architectural attempts to harness the productive capacities of self-help housing. Villa Verde engages the freedom to build in a self-organised manner within a formal framework. But what will stop these additions from escalating into a “slum”?

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Wee Li Woon and Lim Yoke Mui

This paper aims to propose a new format to present the cost of building conservation works which will better reflect the actual cost components and have a higher relevance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a new format to present the cost of building conservation works which will better reflect the actual cost components and have a higher relevance to building conservation works.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the study's aim of presenting a new format suitable for building conservation works, a total of 16 conservation projects were selected and work items of the highest frequency were identified and aggregated into the relevant elemental component to formulate a new elemental cost format.

Findings

Work items of the highest frequency identified are partitions, doors and ironmongeries, followed by roof finishes and rainwater goods, floor finishes, external walls and windows. In addition to the usual building works, new work items such as scientific analysis, archaeology excavation and temporary roof are also found to be important.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed format has yet to be tested in the local industry, which is necessary to ensure compatibility with industry needs.

Practical implications

This new cost analysis format includes a list of work items that are specific to building conservation works, which may guide the quantity surveyor in preparing a budget/cost estimate with higher accuracy by reducing the risk of omitted work items that are pertinent in building conservation works.

Originality/value

Owing to the lack of cost data information for building conservation works, estimating and controlling the cost in this area of work is very challenging. The proposed new format of elemental cost analysis designed for building conservation works seeks to fill this void by providing a guide in estimating costs for building conservation.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2013

Aihwa Chang, Chung-Hui Tseng and Min-yeh Chu

A food traceability system that provides detailed information on food production, processing, transfer, and distribution can create value in food exchange. This study aims…

Abstract

Purpose

A food traceability system that provides detailed information on food production, processing, transfer, and distribution can create value in food exchange. This study aims to investigate which type of consumer personality places greater value on the food traceability label.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the meta-theoretic model of motivation and personality (3M), this study develops a framework that links personality traits with food safety issues. Data are collected from a survey of consumers in shopping malls. The research hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Based on the 3M hierarchical model, consumers who have open, conscientious, and extroverted personalities, and material and body needs tend to have higher needs for learning and health consciousness. They care more for food value and have positive perception of food traceability labels. This results in intentions to purchase products with a food traceability label.

Practical implications

Using their conclusions on the relationship of personality traits with a food traceability system, the authors provide suggestions for businesses planning marketing strategies to gain competitive advantages. For consumers, a food traceability system creates value in food exchange. Regarding policy concerns, the government should regulate the implementation of a food traceability label to disclose comprehensive information regarding food safety.

Originality/value

Although various constructs are linked to food traceability, few studies have focused on the value of food exchange. Consumers with specific personality characteristics have different perceptions and reactions to a food traceability system. This study can fill the knowledge gap regarding the relationship between the value of food exchange and consumer personality traits.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Johnson Adafin, James O.B. Rotimi and Suzanne Wilkinson

There has been a lack of research, particularly within the New Zealand (NZ) context, focusing on the identification and assessment of risk factors for construction…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a lack of research, particularly within the New Zealand (NZ) context, focusing on the identification and assessment of risk factors for construction projects, leading to a wide variation between design-phase elemental cost plans (ECPs) and the outturn tender sums (OTS). Still to be investigated is how risks interact to produce such variability. This study aims to determine the risk-influencing factors, identified through risk measurement, during design development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted literature review and online questionnaire survey. The literature review was used to identify the factors affecting project budgetary performance, which was used to design the questionnaire survey culminating in data analysis. The questionnaire was administered to 64 practising project managers (PMs) in NZ. Their responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, mean ranking analysis, degree-of-risk measure and correlational analysis, to find the top-five risk factors impacting the variability observed, through ranking the mean and degree of risk values that produce such variability.

Findings

Significant risk factors were identified from the questionnaire survey analysis, such as changes in project owner/stakeholder requirements, experience of project team, site condition information, competency of consultants and information flow and quality. These provided some insights in explaining the variability between the design-phase ECPs and OTS based on risk impacts from PMs’ viewpoints.

Research limitations/implications

Findings revealed a drift of 23.86% in budgeted costs (inflated risks), which seems significant. Prioritising top risk factors may provide handy information for researchers on the variables that could be relied upon for the development of a forecasting model for application in NZ.

Practical implications

The study findings have implications for PMs seeking to provide information on mitigation strategies by using risk management approach, considering the influence of development risks on building project delivery and, consequently the project owner’s financial position. To guard against wide variation between design-phase ECPs and OTS, the main contribution of this study is to raise consultants’ awareness of the important risk factors for their planning at the outset, thus assisting PMs in pro-actively managing their clients' budgets.

Originality/value

This study creates value by synthesising literature on construction project budgeting and highlighting areas for further research. By giving adequate attention to key risks associated with budget overruns in commercial projects, variability between ECPs and OTS, a common phenomenon in NZ, can be controlled to achieve cost savings. Based on this, further study suggests the development of a model that could assist the stakeholders in NZ to more reliably predict OTS from the design-phase ECP and pro-actively avoid unfortunate budget/cost overruns, disputes and even project abandonment.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Tong Wu and Andres Tovar

This paper aims to establish a multiscale topology optimization method for the optimal design of non-periodic, self-supporting cellular structures subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish a multiscale topology optimization method for the optimal design of non-periodic, self-supporting cellular structures subjected to thermo-mechanical loads. The result is a hierarchically complex design that is thermally efficient, mechanically stable and suitable for additive manufacturing (AM).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method seeks to maximize thermo-mechanical performance at the macroscale in a conceptual design while obtaining maximum shear modulus for each unit cell at the mesoscale. Then, the macroscale performance is re-estimated, and the mesoscale design is updated until the macroscale performance is satisfied.

Findings

A two-dimensional Messerschmitt Bolkow Bolhm (MBB) beam withstanding thermo-mechanical load is presented to illustrate the proposed design method. Furthermore, the method is implemented to optimize a three-dimensional injection mold, which is successfully prototyped using 420 stainless steel infiltrated with bronze.

Originality/value

By developing a computationally efficient and manufacturing friendly inverse homogenization approach, the novel multiscale design could generate porous molds which can save up to 30 per cent material compared to their solid counterpart without decreasing thermo-mechanical performance.

Practical implications

This study is a useful tool for the designer in molding industries to reduce the cost of the injection mold and take full advantage of AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Maria Veronica Elias and Justin T. Piccorelli

The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of phenomenological or attuned listening and explore its implications for deliberative governance. Drawing on examples…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of phenomenological or attuned listening and explore its implications for deliberative governance. Drawing on examples from urban planning and city administration, we make a case for listening as a hermeneutic phenomenological practice of crucial importance for public organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

This research relies on interpretive phenomenology, critical reflection, and political theory. Through the examination of case studies, we show that attuned or phenomenological listening contributes to greater participatory processes in organizations and to democratic governance processes, more generally.

Findings

By enhancing both collaborative endeavors and discretionary action, phenomenological listening acknowledges the unpredictable, dynamic and political aspects of organizations. Finally, it helps transform the latter into spaces where democratic and accountable action can take place.

Practical implications

This perspective encourages public deliberation and attentive listening for practitioners to make decisions on the spot that are sensitive to people’s needs.

Originality/value

Embodied and attuned listening fosters reflection-in-action, as well as a reasoned pathway toward public accountability and deliberative democracy.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

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