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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Stavros Valsamidis, Sotirios Kontogiannis, Theodosios G. Theodosiou and Ioannis Petasakis

Currently, electronic election is one of the most popular issues of e-democracy. This has led to the development of applications and several security mechanisms to address…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, electronic election is one of the most popular issues of e-democracy. This has led to the development of applications and several security mechanisms to address such necessity. The problem that arises is that such applications are created either on demand for a specific election process, or experimentally for scientific purposes. The purpose of this study is to present a new e-voting system, called VOTAN. The VOTAN system involves a combination of new features with basic advantages, the implementation as open source software, its modular organization covering the functional requirements of a typical electronic voting system (EVS) and the capability of data analysis of candidates and voters.

Design/methodology/approach

VOTAN stands for VOTes Analyzer. It is a secure application for the conduct of electronic elections through the internet based on its own security protocol. It also includes a data analysis component which analyzes the election results and investigates the factors that play a crucial role. The major advantages of the system are that it is an open source and includes a data analysis module that can distinguish important variables from the elections and help make predictions for the outcome based on the selected variables. It is a practical solution to the existing e-voting applications and is ideal for small communities such as organizations, universities and chambers.

Findings

Its main advantage, compared to similar e-voting systems, is the integration of the data analysis component. The analysis of the data produced from elections is considered a critical process to fully comprehend the outcome of the elections and its correlation to specific attributes/variables of the election process. The data analysis module is a unique feature of VOTAN. It facilitates the selection of the most important attributes that influence the outcome of elections and creates a mathematical model to predict the outcome of an election based on the selected attributes. The method used in the module is the LDA.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper derives from the data analysis component and its security protocol/schema that fulfils several requirements.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2004

Jason Kitcat

This paper examines and illustrates the process of setting technical intercommunication standards through a case‐study taken from the electronic voting industry. It begins…

Abstract

This paper examines and illustrates the process of setting technical intercommunication standards through a case‐study taken from the electronic voting industry. It begins by addressing the large number of types of standards and the many ways in which they are created. The tensions between the speed to market, stakeholder involvement, the mode of production and the legitimacy of a standard are explored. The modes of standards production are then presented in a linear model. The preceding discussion sets the context for a case which presents attempts to standardise the large number of competing electronic voting solutions. The importance of which actors back and influence a standard’s development up to successful adoption is exposed. The vital role government can play in preventing a standards market failure is raised and recommendations are offered on how governments can improve their contributions to standardisation.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Sergei Ablameiko, Nikolai Kalosha, Denis Lipen and Vitaly Lipen

The research is aimed at developing an efficient electronic voting platform that would offer distinct advantages over traditional paper ballot voting and the available…

Abstract

Purpose

The research is aimed at developing an efficient electronic voting platform that would offer distinct advantages over traditional paper ballot voting and the available electronic voting systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of the existing technologies and the authors' prior findings, electronic voting was approached as a public information and communication technologies service.

Findings

A new methodology of forming election event outcomes is proposed, which is based on the outcomes of internet transactions between web portals such as “The Guarantor” and millions of remote electors, voting event officials and independent observers (auditors). The paper presents the structure of a state‐scale voting system that collects, processes publishes the results of different election events.

Originality/value

The system can accept votes cast online by internet or SMS, by mail, via electronic kiosks and by special computer‐filled paper ballots at polling stations. The system also provides a number of new possibilities for network verification of voter registration and the individual votes without compromising the voters' privacy. A model implementation of a web portal for remote monitoring of election events and individual outcome verification is presented.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Funmilola Olubunmi Omotayo and Olasubomi Adetutu Adekunle

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the adoption and use of electronic voting (e-voting) system as an option to credible elections in Nigeria, as well as the factors that could influence the readiness of Oyo state citizens in Nigeria to use the system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the survey research design, while the Technology Readiness Acceptance Model provides the theoretical framework. A two-stage sampling procedure (random and convenience) was used to select 500 Nigerian citizens, who are of voting age, while data were collected with a structured questionnaire.

Findings

Findings reveal that the citizens are ready to use the e-voting system if adopted by the Nigerian Government. Optimism and innovativeness are positively correlated, and perceived discomfort and perceived insecurity are negatively correlated, with readiness to use e-voting system by Oyo state citizens. The Technology Acceptance Model constructs (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use), as well as computer self-efficacy also have positive correlations with readiness to use of e-voting.

Research limitations/implications

The population of the study was limited to only citizens in one state of the federation; hence, the results cannot be generalised to all citizens in Nigeria.

Practical implications

The study contributes to existing knowledge on adoption and use of technology and confirms that optimism and innovativeness are motivators and discomfort and insecurity are inhibitors of intention to use and actual usage of technology. Hence, these constructs should be taken into account and promoted when Nigeria is planning to adopt the e-voting system.

Social implications

This paper could assist the Nigerian Government on the factors to consider when implementing the e-voting system.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first pieces of empirical research that attempted to investigate the factors that could promote acceptance and use of the e-voting system in Nigeria.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Charlott Eliasson and André Zúquete

This paper aims to provide a solution for allowing an arbitrary number of weights and weight values to be used in an electronic voting system.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a solution for allowing an arbitrary number of weights and weight values to be used in an electronic voting system.

Design/methodology/approach

Robust Electronic Voting System (REVS) was chosen, a voting system designed to support internet voting processes, as the start point for studying the introduction of vote weights.

Findings

The work resulted in an internet voting system supporting vote weights, based on REVS.

Research limitations/implications

In the solution presented, there is still a problem regarding anonymity, for the case of a single voter with a particular weighted vote. This is a fundamental problem, since it also exists in paper‐based elections.

Practical implications

This version of REVS has the same properties as the original REVS, apart from the anonymity issue above. Apart from this the process of registering voters got more complicated, since now it includes an extra action for binding a weight.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this modified version of REVS is the first electronic voting system supporting vote weights. Another novelty of this work is the modulus sharing optimization used for the RSA key pairs of each entity.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2007

Wolter Pieters and Robert van Haren

The aim of the research described was to identify reasons for differences between discourses on electronic voting in the UK and The Netherlands, from a qualitative point of view.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research described was to identify reasons for differences between discourses on electronic voting in the UK and The Netherlands, from a qualitative point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

From both countries, eight e‐voting experts were interviewed on their expectations, risk estimations, cooperation and learning experiences. The design was based on the theory of strategic niche management. A qualitative analysis of the data was performed to refine the main variables and identify connections.

Findings

The results show that differences in these variables can partly explain the variations in the embedding of e‐voting in the two countries, from a qualitative point of view. Key differences include the goals of introducing e‐voting, concerns in relation to verifiability and authenticity, the role of the Electoral Commissions and a focus on learning versus a focus on phased introduction.

Research limitations/implications

The current study was limited to two countries. More empirical data can reveal other relevant subvariables, and contribute to a framework that can improve our understanding of the challenges of electronic voting.

Originality/value

This study shows the context‐dependent character of discussions on information security. It can be informative for actors involved in e‐voting in the UK and The Netherlands, and other countries using or considering electronic voting.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

L. Christian Schaupp and Lemuria Carter

To identify the factors that influence adoption of e‐voting services by citizens between the ages of 18‐24.

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the factors that influence adoption of e‐voting services by citizens between the ages of 18‐24.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Carter and Belanger's (2005) model of e‐government adoption to assess young voters' intention to use an online voting system. The study integrates constructs from technology acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and web trust models. A survey is administered to 208 young voters. The data is analyzed using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that user perceptions of compatibility, usefulness, and trust significantly impact their intention to use an electronicvoting system. The model explains 76 percent of the variance in young voters' intention to use an e‐voting system.

Research limitations/implications

The study only explores the perceptions of one age group. Future studies could use the model to access adoption perceptions of a more diverse pool of citizens.

Practical implications

Government agencies should emphasize the benefits of this electronic service to young voters. If marketed properly, the convenience and compatibility of e‐voting may be influential enough to motivate this normally apathetic demographic to participate in the election process.

Originality/value

This study explores adoption of internet voting by young citizens. An understanding of the factors that influence this demographics' intention to use e‐voting systems can be used to increase voter participation. The findings of this study also lay the foundation for future studies on e‐voting adoption.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Mohammed Awad and Ernst L. Leiss

The first American internet voting (I‐voting) implementation was in 2000. Since then many attempts and trials have taken place in this field. This paper aims to analyze…

Abstract

Purpose

The first American internet voting (I‐voting) implementation was in 2000. Since then many attempts and trials have taken place in this field. This paper aims to analyze these various attempts and discuss their benefits and vulnerabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

I‐voting can provide ease to elderly citizens and people with disabilities. Some also believe that the convenience that the internet offers will attract young voters, and hence increase voter turnout. I‐voting can also solve the problems of late delivery of absentee ballots “which leads to discarding the votes”.

Findings

Election officials believe that I‐voting can be considered a valid voting option if it offers at least the same level of security as traditional remote voting methods. On the other hand, many data security experts doubt that the current internet infrastructure is safe enough to support such an important function. I‐voting is still far from being a voting option for US citizens residing in the States; however, it is considered a promising alternative to facilitate voting for those living overseas.

Originality/value

The authors believe this paper contains the most comprehensive analysis of the I‐voting trials that have been carried out in the USA over the last decade.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Maxat Kassen

Despite certain political, organizational, technological and socioeconomic benefits that e-voting brings, governments around the world are beginning one by one to denounce…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite certain political, organizational, technological and socioeconomic benefits that e-voting brings, governments around the world are beginning one by one to denounce its further use in the electoral process. In this regard, the paper aims to analyze reasons that led to the discontinuation of e-voting, resorting to the case of Kazakhstan, a transitional post-soviet country, which actively used the technology in 2004-2011, as a poster child of the global trend, elaborating on key political, socioeconomic, organizational and technological risks that could be associated with the possible return of this innovation in future elections.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on the combination of context and policy analysis, as well as focus groups studies and semi-structured interviews. The context analysis was aimed to understand various political and socioeconomic benefits in adopting e-voting in Kazakhstan. The policy analysis was useful in identifying implementation strategies of the government in promoting e-voting. The focus groups were helpful in understanding the perspectives of various audiences on e-voting. The semi-structured interviews were carried among independent developers in regard to the potential software products that could be used to propose new solutions in the area, including by experimenting with various blockchain platforms.

Findings

Analyzing the lessons from Kazakhstan, one can conclude that e-voting was introduced and used for several years by authorities in this country for certain economic and organizational benefits, but later they had to reject it and return to traditional paper ballot due to lack of confidence from the non-governmental sector in the capacity of public sector to ensure the integrity of e-voting procedures. As a result, building trust and applying innovative approaches should be a priority for policymakers in the area, if they wish to return to this technology, especially in adopting new presumably more reliable solutions based on blockchain technologies.

Research limitations/implications

The primary data that was collected by the author from field studies were indexed, refined and presented in a special matrix in a separate section, which were interpreted in the discussion session. These data could be used by other scholars for further interpretation and analysis in their own studies, setting new research agendas and testing hypotheses. This is a single case study research, which is focused on the analysis of reasons that led to the denunciation of e-voting in Kazakhstan, which results could be extrapolated mostly to similar transitional post-totalitarian settings.

Practical implications

The study can be used to inform ways of how to improve the current e-voting platforms, especially in ensuring better security and transparency of the systems, which could be useful for developers who work on blockchain-driven solutions.

Social implications

The results of the case study research and expert opinions expressed by various software developers in the e-government areas, which were presented in the paper, could be used by both an academic community and practitioners in understanding better a wide range of political, organizational, economic, social and technological drivers, risks and new opportunities in promoting e-voting technology as a trust generating social phenomenon.

Originality/value

The paper proposes the first case study of reasons that led to the discontinuation of e-voting in the context of such a typical transitional, post-totalitarian and post-soviet society as Kazakhstan, providing new insights into a wide range of political, regulatory, socioeconomic, organizational and technological aspects of related policy decision-making and implementation strategies adopted by public institutions in this country.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Mohammad Kamel Alomari

The purpose of this paper is to present factors that affect e-voting adoption in the Middle East and, in particular, Jordan. Changing the election voting method for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present factors that affect e-voting adoption in the Middle East and, in particular, Jordan. Changing the election voting method for the people in Jordan from traditional voting to interactive voting via the web needs exploration to understand the factors affecting e-voting adoption by citizens. Therefore, this paper reports on a study undertaken to identify the main factors that would influence citizens’ intentions to adopt the use of an e-voting system in Jordan, using an established e-government adoption model and a theoretical framework consisting of the diffusion of innovations (DOI) theory and the technology acceptance model (TAM).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey study of 267 Jordanian citizens who were internet users investigated the influence of the aforementioned factors on the adoption and use of e-voting websites. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Contrary to the previous established e-government adoption model, beliefs and website design were not found to be significant predictors of the intention to use e-voting websites. The paper found that trust in government, attitudes, perceived usefulness and complexity were significant factors in Jordanian citizens’ intentions to use e-voting websites.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies to have used an established e-government adoption model to test the adoption of e-voting as one of the e-government applications. In addition, this paper is one of the few to examine the factors that influence the adoption and use of e-voting systems by citizens in the Middle East. Although the previous e-government adoption model showed the impact of attitude to be non-significant on e-government adoption, this paper shows the significant influence of attitudes on citizens’ intentions to use e-voting websites. On the other hand, this paper supports previous e-government adoption studies in showing the importance of including constructs of the DOI theory (relative advantage and complexity) and those related to TAM (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) when considering the topic of e-government adoption in a Middle Eastern country, although previous studies have shown similarities between these constructs.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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