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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2022

Hanene Rouabeh, Sami Gomri and Mohamed Masmoudi

The purpose of this paper is to design and validate an electronic nose (E-nose) prototype using commercially available metal oxide gas sensors (MOX). This prototype has a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design and validate an electronic nose (E-nose) prototype using commercially available metal oxide gas sensors (MOX). This prototype has a sensor array board that integrates eight different MOX gas sensors to handle multi-purpose applications. The number of sensors can be adapted to match different requirements and classification cases. The paper presents the validation of this E-nose prototype when used to identify three gas samples, namely, alcohol, butane and cigarette smoke. At the same time, it discusses the discriminative abilities of the prototype for the identification of alcohol, acetone and a mixture of them. In this respect, the selection of the appropriate type and number of gas sensors, as well as obtaining excellent discriminative abilities with a miniaturized design and minimal computation time, are all drivers for such implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested prototype contains two main parts: hardware (low-cost components) and software (Machine Learning). An interconnection printed circuit board, a Raspberry Pi and a sensor chamber with the sensor array board make up the first part. Eight sensors were put to the test to see how effective and feasible they were for the classification task at hand, and then the bare minimum of sensors was chosen. The second part consists of machine learning algorithms designed to ensure data acquisition and processing. These algorithms include feature extraction, dimensionality reduction and classification. To perform the classification task, two features taken from the sensors’ transient response were used.

Findings

Results reveal that the system presents high discriminative ability. The K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine radial basis function based (SVM-RBF) classifiers both achieved 97.81% and 98.44% mean accuracy, respectively. These results were obtained after data dimensionality reduction using linear discriminant analysis, which is more effective in terms of discrimination power than principal component analysis. A repeated stratified K-cross validation was used to train and test five different machine learning classifiers. The classifiers were each tested on sets of data to determine their accuracy. The SVM-RBF model had high, stable and consistent accuracy over many repeats and different data splits. The total execution time for detection and identification is about 10 s.

Originality/value

Using information extracted from transient response of the sensors, the system proved to be able to accurately classify the gas types only in three out of the eight MQ-X gas sensors. The training and validation results of the SVM-RBF classifier show a good bias-variance trade-off. This proves that the two transient features are sufficiently efficient for this classification purpose. Moreover, all data processing tasks are performed by the Raspberry Pi, which shows real-time data processing with miniaturized architecture and low prices.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Mercedes Crego‐Calama, Sywert Brongersma, Devrez Karabacak and Mieke Van Bavel

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach for fabricating electronic nose (e‐nose) systems for adaptation into autonomous wireless sensor nodes. Such…

1310

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach for fabricating electronic nose (e‐nose) systems for adaptation into autonomous wireless sensor nodes. Such systems must fulfill a combination of requirements that currently cannot be met by existing technologies. The paper also contains an overview of the various application domains that are envisaged for such miniaturized electronic nose systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach makes use of micromechanical systems that are an ideal technology for fabricating miniaturized sensor arrays for low‐power applications. An array of doubly clamped micromechanical beams with integrated piezoelectric transducers is presented.

Findings

The presented approach fulfills the requirements of sensitivity, arrayability, integratability and low‐power operation.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to integrate the structures with low‐power analog readout circuits and to demonstrate simultaneous measurements from multiple structures.

Practical implications

The presented technology makes use of established micromachining techniques and deploys commercial inkjet printing for functionalization of the individual detection elements. This enhances its potential adaptation by industry.

Originality/value

The innovative concept paves the way for autonomous electronic nose systems.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

D Hodgins

Outlines the development of an electronic nose for general applicationand examines it’s three major parts: a sensor array, a means of converting the sensor outputs into…

473

Abstract

Outlines the development of an electronic nose for general application and examines it’s three major parts: a sensor array, a means of converting the sensor outputs into suitable signals for analysis, and a software analysis tool. Describes the sensor array, electronics and overall system design, the conducting polymer sensors and the computer hardware and software. Discusses the analysis techniques and results of tests carried out on various gases, vapours and liquids. Concludes that although much further work is required into sensors and analysis techniques it is anticipated that a growing number of companies will become interested in developing these systems.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2021

Rabeb Faleh, Sami Gomri, Khalifa Aguir and Abdennaceur Kachouri

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the classification improvement of pollutant using WO3 gases sensors. To evaluate the discrimination capacity, some experiments…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the classification improvement of pollutant using WO3 gases sensors. To evaluate the discrimination capacity, some experiments were achieved using three gases: ozone, ethanol, acetone and a mixture of ozone and ethanol via four WO3 sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the classification accuracy and enhance selectivity, some combined features that were configured through the principal component analysis were used. First, evaluate the discrimination capacity; some experiments were performed using three gases: ozone, ethanol, acetone and a mixture of ozone and ethanol, via four WO3 sensors. To this end, three features that are derivate, integral and the time corresponding to the peak derivate have been extracted from each transient sensor response according to four WO3 gas sensors used. Then these extracted parameters were used in a combined array.

Findings

The results show that the proposed feature extraction method could extract robust information. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) was used to identify the studied gases. In addition, ELM was compared with the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental results prove the superiority of the combined features method in our E-nose application, as this method achieves the highest classification rate of 90% using the ELM and 93.03% using the SVM based on Radial Basis Kernel Function SVM-RBF.

Originality/value

Combined features have been configured from transient response to improve the classification accuracy. The achieved results show that the proposed feature extraction method could extract robust information. The ELM and SVM were used to identify the studied gases.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Maria Fransisca Njoman, Galih Nugroho, Sonia Dwi Puspita Chandra, Yoeska Permana, Suhadi Suhadi, Mujiono Mujiono, Agist Dwiki Hermawan and Sugiono Sugiono

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate subjectivity issue, particularly sensitivity variance and fatigue effect, in human sensory evaluation, as well as review the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate subjectivity issue, particularly sensitivity variance and fatigue effect, in human sensory evaluation, as well as review the feasibility of human-independent quality system, using E-tongue and E-nose.

Design/methodology/approach

The sensitivity level is evaluated by measuring the threshold of Acesulfame-K, while the fatigue effect is evaluated by measuring the accuracy level of evaluation through the time. The experiment was administered to six trained sensory panelists.

Findings

The experiment result shows that each panelist has a different level of sensitivity and tendency in evaluating samples containing Acesulfame-K. Furthermore, by simulating the panelists’ daily inspection, the fatigue effect is also found in one out of six panelists. The use of E-nose and E-tongue, may eliminate the subjectivity issue, supporting the development of human error-free quality system.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings indicate the needs of human substitution-built into the quality system to avoid both of subjectivity and error judgment while defining the products quality. However, the small numbers of panelists as well as the unvalidated substitute instruments application in the target workcenter were the main limitation of this study. Human-independent quality system could be applied only when the instruments have been calibrated to human response in perceiving taste and odor.

Originality/value

The research finding supports the theory of human panels’ tradeoffs in a sensory analysis in terms of sensitivity level variance and fatigue. It has provided additional contributions to the existing theories as well as developed effective strategies for the development of the human-independent quality system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Samaneh Matindoust, Majid Baghaei-Nejad, Mohammad Hadi Shahrokh Abadi, Zhuo Zou and Li-Rong Zheng

This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The…

6510

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study different possibilities for implementing easy-to-use and cost-effective micro-systems to detect and trace expelled gases from rotten food. The paper covers various radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies and gas sensors as the two promoting feasibilities for the tracing of packaged food. Monitoring and maintaining quality and safety of food in transport and storage from producer to consumer are the most important concerns in food industry. Many toxin gases, even in parts per billion ranges, are produced from corrupted and rotten food and can endanger the consumers’ health. To overcome the issues, intelligent traceability of food products, specifically the packaged ones, in terms of temperature, humidity, atmospheric conditions, etc., has been paid attention to by many researchers.

Design/methodology/approach

Food poisoning is a serious problem that affects thousands of people every year. Poisoning food must be recognized early to prevent a serious health problem.

Contaminated food is usually detectable by odor. A small gas sensors and low-cost tailored to the type of food packaging and a communication device for transmitting alarm output to the consumer are key factors in achieving intelligent packaging.

Findings

Conducting polymer composite, intrinsically conducting polymer and metal oxide conductivity gas sensors, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) gas sensors offer excellent discrimination and lead the way for a new generation of “smart sensors” which will mould the future commercial markets for gas sensors.

Originality/value

Small size, low power consumption, short response time, wide operating temperature, high efficiency and small area are most important features of introduced system for using in package food.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Sari Lakkis, Rafic Younes, Yasser Alayli and Mohamad Sawan

This paper aims to give an overview about the state of the art and novel technologies used in gas sensing. It also discusses the miniaturization potential of some of these…

1497

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to give an overview about the state of the art and novel technologies used in gas sensing. It also discusses the miniaturization potential of some of these technologies in a comparative way.

Design/methodology/approach

In this article, the authors state the most of the methods used in gas sensing discuss their advantages and disadvantages and at last the authors discuss the ability of their miniaturization comparing between them in terms of their sensing parameters like sensitivity, selectivity and cost.

Findings

In this article, the authors will try to cover most of the important methods used in gas sensing and their recent developments. The authors will also discuss their miniaturization potential trying to find the best candidate among the different types for the aim of miniaturization.

Originality/value

In this article, the authors will review most of the methods used in gas sensing and discuss their miniaturization potential delimiting the research to a certain type of technology or application.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Aleksandra Nikolić, Alen Mujčinović and Dušanka Bošković

Food fraud as intentional deception for economic gain relies on a low-tech food value chain, that applies a ‘paper-and-pencil approach’, unable to provide reliable and…

Abstract

Food fraud as intentional deception for economic gain relies on a low-tech food value chain, that applies a ‘paper-and-pencil approach’, unable to provide reliable and trusted data about food products, accompanied processes/activities and actors involved. Such approach has created the information asymmetry that leads to erosion of stakeholders and consumers trust, which in turn discourages cooperation within the food chain by damaging its ability to decrease uncertainty and capability to provide authentic, nutritional, accessible and affordable food for all. Lack of holistic approach, focus on stand-alone measures, lack of proactive measures and undermined role of customers have been major factors behind weaknesses of current anti-fraud measures system. Thus, the process of strong and fast digitalisation enabled by the new emerging technology called Industry 4.0 is a way to provide a shift from food fraud detection to efficient prevention. Therefore, the objective of this chapter is to shed light on current challenges and opportunities associated with Industry 4.0 technology enablers' guardian role in food fraud prevention with the hope to inform future researchers, experts and decision-makers about opportunities opened up by transforming to new cyber-physical-social ecosystem, or better to say ‘self-thinking’ food value chain whose foundations are already under development. The systematic literature network analysis is applied to fulfil the stated objective. Digitalisation and Industry 4.0 can be used to develop a system that is cost effective and ensures data integrity and prevents tampering and single point failure through offering fault tolerance, immutability, trust, transparency and full traceability of the stored transaction records to all agri-food value chain partners. In addition, such approach lays a foundation for adopting new business models, strengthening food chain resilience, sustainability and innovation capacity.

Details

Counterfeiting and Fraud in Supply Chains
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-574-6

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Jon-Arild Johannessen

Abstract

Details

The Philosophy of Tacit Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-678-3

Abstract

Details

The Philosophy of Tacit Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-678-3

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