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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Flavio Allella, Elio Chiodo and Davide Lauria

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the main aspects of optimal reliability allocation with respect to the design of hybrid electric vehicles. In particular, with…

1278

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the main aspects of optimal reliability allocation with respect to the design of hybrid electric vehicles. In particular, with reference to the hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system, the problem of data uncertainty, due to a scarce knowledge of the components' reliabilities, is taken into account. This problem is crucial for new technology systems and it is faced with a Bayesian approach: components' reliabilities are considered as random variables, characterised in the paper by negative log‐gamma distributions.

Design/methodology/approach

The main aspects of optimal reliability allocation with the design of hybrid electric vehicles are presented, pointing out the opportunity of a reliability evaluation in the planning stage.

Findings

The topic of a series hybrid vehicle reliability is addressed, nevertheless results can be easily extended to the parallel configuration. In particular, the opportunity of a reliability evaluation of the propulsion system in the design stage is highlighted, mainly when new technology components are involved.

Originality/value

The value of the paper consists in the methodology allowing to express the system reliability uncertainty as a function of component uncertain data. Then, as far as concern the practical implications, the optimal allocation of the components' reliabilities can be efficiently performed, in order to minimise the system total cost respecting a prefixed value of the system reliability. In the final part of the paper, a numerical application, related to a series hybrid electric vehicle propulsion system, is presented to show the feasibility of the approach.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Christopher Perullo and Dimitri Mavris

The purpose of this study is to examine state-of-the-art in hybrid-electric propulsion system modeling and suggest new methodologies for sizing such advanced concepts. Many…

1321

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine state-of-the-art in hybrid-electric propulsion system modeling and suggest new methodologies for sizing such advanced concepts. Many entities are involved in the modelling and design of hybrid electric aircraft; however, the highly multidisciplinary nature of the problem means that most tools focus heavily on one discipline and over simplify others to keep the analysis reasonable in scope. Correctly sizing a hybrid-electric system requires knowledge of aircraft and engine performance along with a working knowledge of electrical and energy storage systems. The difficulty is compounded by the multi-timescale dynamic nature of the problem. Furthermore, the choice of energy management in a hybrid electric system presents multiple degrees of freedom, which means the aircraft sizing problem now becomes not just a root-finding exercise, but also a constrained optimization problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid electric vehicle sizing problem can be sub-divided into three areas: modelling methods/fidelity, energy management and optimization technique. The literature is reviewed to find desirable characteristics and features of each area. Subsequently, a new process for sizing a new hybrid electric aircraft is proposed by synthesizing techniques from model predictive control and detailed conceptual design modelling. Elements from model predictive control and concurrent optimization are combined to formulate a new structure for the optimization of the sizing and energy management of future aircraft.

Findings

While the example optimization formulation provided is specific to a hybrid electric concept, the proposed structure is general enough to be adapted to any vehicle concept which contains multiple degrees of control freedom that can be optimized continuously throughout a mission.

Originality/value

The proposed technique is novel in its application of model predictive control to the conceptual design phase.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Lionel Dongmo Fouellefack, Lelanie Smith and Michael Kruger

A hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (HE-UAV) model has been developed to address the problem of low endurance of a small electric UAV. Electric-powered UAVs are not capable…

Abstract

Purpose

A hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (HE-UAV) model has been developed to address the problem of low endurance of a small electric UAV. Electric-powered UAVs are not capable of achieving a high range and endurance due to the low energy density of its batteries. Alternatively, conventional UAVs (cUAVs) using fuel with an internal combustion engine (ICE) produces more noise and thermal signatures which is undesirable, especially if the air vehicle is required to patrol at low altitudes and remain undetected by ground patrols. This paper aims to investigate the impact of implementing hybrid propulsion technology to improve on the endurance of the UAV (based on a 13.6 kg UAV).

Design/methodology/approach

A HE-UAV model is developed to analyze the fuel consumption of the UAV for given mission profiles which were then compared to a cUAV. Although, this UAV size was used as reference case study, it can potentially be used to analyze the fuel consumption of any fixed wing UAV of similar take-off weight. The model was developed in a Matlab-Simulink environment using Simulink built-in functionalities, including all the subsystem of the hybrid powertrain. That is, the ICE, electric motor, battery, DC-DC converter, fuel system and propeller system as well as the aerodynamic system of the UAV. In addition, a ruled-based supervisory controlled strategy was implemented to characterize the split between the two propulsive components (ICE and electric motor) during the UAV mission. Finally, an electrification scheme was implemented to account for the hybridization of the UAV during certain stages of flight. The electrification scheme was then varied by changing the time duration of the UAV during certain stages of flight.

Findings

Based on simulation, it was observed a HE-UAV could achieve a fuel saving of 33% compared to the cUAV. A validation study showed a predicted improved fuel consumption of 9.5% for the Aerosonde UAV.

Originality/value

The novelty of this work comes with the implementation of a rule-based supervisory controller to characterize the split between the two propulsive components during the UAV mission. Also, the model was created by considering steady flight during cruise, but not during the climb and descend segment of the mission.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 95 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 January 2012

Wolfgang Schade, Fabian Kley, Jonathan Köhler and Anja Peters

Purpose – Electric vehicles are very topical in developed countries. The breakthrough of new battery technologies and changing conditions driven by climate policy and growing…

Abstract

Purpose – Electric vehicles are very topical in developed countries. The breakthrough of new battery technologies and changing conditions driven by climate policy and growing fossil fuel prices has caused all major car manufacturing countries in the developed world to initiate R&D programmes to gain competitive advantage and to foster market diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs). This chapter looks at developments in China and compares them with observations from developed countries to draw conclusions about differences in their future paths of development.

Methodology – This chapter escribes the potentials and R&D approaches for different types of EVs in developing countries, using China as example, in comparison with developed countries. It looks at innovation strategies, policy framework and potential diffusion of EVs.

Findings – Market diffusion strategies in developed countries and China may differ, since, in the former manufacturers try to implement a premium strategy (i.e. offer high-price sophisticated EVs), while in the latter market, diffusion will probably appear at the lower end of vehicle types, i.e. via electric scooters and small urban vehicles. It is concluded that the market introduction strategies of EVs in developing countries and developed countries could converge because signs of downsizing of vehicles can be observed in the developed world, while upscaling from bikes and electric scooters can be expected for China, so that large-scale market introduction could occur via small city cars.

Implications for China – Instead of following the Western motorisation path, an option for China could be to develop a new one-stop-shop mobility concept integrating small EVs into such a concept.

Details

Sustainable Transport for Chinese Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-476-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

Carlo Rafele, Giulio Mangano, Anna Corinna Cagliano and Antonio Carlin

This paper aims to evaluate different logistics configuration to deliver batteries from the supplier to the production lines of a European carmaker who is implementing new…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate different logistics configuration to deliver batteries from the supplier to the production lines of a European carmaker who is implementing new propulsions for its models.

Design/methodology/approach

Several scenarios about the supply chain for traction batteries have been identified based on the company’s requirements and constraints. Then, the variables used for the assessment of each scenario have been selected to calculate the unit battery supply chain cost.

Findings

The results underline that a direct transport without intermediate nodes is the cheapest one. On the contrary, an additional warehouse makes the organization of the network more complex. However, with this configuration, it is possible to cover the risk of supply since that a certain level of inventory is always guaranteed.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the analysis of only one model car, and just manual operations have been taken into account for computing the human resource time and cost. The present study is one of the first works exploring the organization of the supply chain for the batteries integrated in electric and hybrid vehicles together with the choice of the location of the related warehouses.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first work on the assessment of batteries’ supply chain that are going to be integrated in low impact vehicles, focusing on location of the associated warehouse. The evaluation is carried out by taking into account all the sources of cost.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 March 2022

Melih Yildiz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the electric propulsion use in civil aviation and propose a framework for certification of electric propulsion subsystems. Although electric

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the electric propulsion use in civil aviation and propose a framework for certification of electric propulsion subsystems. Although electric propulsion architectures are discussed as key technology for the future of aviation, the industry standards as well as regulations fail to cover the application in full extent, specifically for commercial large airplanes. This paper proposes an approach for the analyses of reliability and certification of the new-generation propulsion system by pointing out the “common structure” among the possible architectures.

Design/methodology/approach

The research process used in this paper consists of following steps: the challenges of the hybrid-electric propulsion is listed, the architectures of the hybrid-electric applications in the literature are identified, the differences of the hybrid architectures from the present applications by means of application and standardization are discovered, the architectures are analyzed and the two main subsystems are defined – the present combustion system and the common unit, which is a similar structure used in all-electric aircraft. For this purpose, the standards used for design basis and certification of the present propulsion system and their relationship with the subsystems of the architectures have been analyzed. The procedure for the reliability assessment of the system is given, a framework for the safety assessment and the certification of the propulsion systems is proposed to make it easier and without sacrificing the already accumulated experience. This study shows that by using the common unit, the present certification framework can be used, by focusing on the reliability of the common unit and its integration with the rest of the architecture.

Findings

A specific definition of common unit is proposed, to point out the difference in certification efforts of hybrid-electric propulsion architectures. Yet, there is no data available for propulsion-level airborne battery and electrical systems to assess the reliability. Thus, dividing the propulsion system into two main systems and providing a model for certification of the common unit sub-system would be beneficial for easy deployment of the hybrid architectures both for design and for certification. In this paper, it is proposed that by using this common unit, the present certification framework can be used as it is, by focusing on the reliability of the common unit and its integration with the rest of the architecture.

Practical implications

The aircraft certification regulations act in two ways: they provide a starting point for new design projects, and they are a basis for certification of the final system. This study aims to draw focus on certification issues on the new-generation hybrid-electric propulsion systems. With the introduction of hybrid-electric propulsion for large aircraft, the present standards (CS-25, CS-E, CS-P, CS-Battery and CS-APU) create an obstacle for further progress as their borders get into each other. Instead of developing a new set of standard(s), this paper proposes a new approach by dividing the propulsion system into two subsystems.

Originality/value

This research proposes a definition of “common unit” for simplification of the hybrid-electric propulsion architectures for large civil aircraft. The common unit consists of both battery and electrical components and their reliability shall be considered for hybrid-electric propulsion.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 94 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Sathishkumar Kaliyavarathan and Sivakumaran T.S.

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles (EPV). It is estimated that the manufacturers are concerned about high torque,Efficiency, motor life, energy conservation and high thermal tolerance. To ensure maximum torque and efficiency with multiphase winding and copper die cast technology to increasing high thermal tolerance, life, energy conversations. On other hand, it is very important of EPV application.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of the investigation is threefold: the modified method carried out on MPIM both stator and rotor can overcome the current scenario problem facing by electric vehicles manufacture and developed perfect suitable electric motor for EPV applications. The design and simulation carried out finite element method (FEM) that was more accurate calculations. Finally developed prototype model of MPIM with copper die cast are discussed with conventional three phase Die casting Induction motor.

Findings

The paper confirmed the multiphase copper die-cast rotor induction motor (MDCrIM) is providing better performance than conventional motor. Proposed motor can bring additional advantage like heat tolerances, long life and energy conversations.

Originality/value

The experiments confirmed the MDCIM suitable for EPV Applications. The modified MDCIM of both stator and rotor are giving better result and good performance compared to conventional method.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Massimo Barcaro and Nicola Bianchi

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway traction and naval propulsion.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus is given on both synchronous permanent magnet and reluctance machines. An overview of the design rules are provided, covering the topics of: fractional‐slot windings, fault‐tolerant configurations, flux‐weakening capability, and torque quality.

Findings

The peculiarities of these machines and the advanced design considerations to fit the automotive requirements are analyzed.

Originality/value

The paper includes a wide description of innovative electrical machines for electric vehicles, including not only the traction capability, but also analysis of features as weight reduction, torque ripple reduction, increase of fault tolerance, and so on.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2011

Wei‐Zhong Fei, Jian‐Xin Shen, Can‐Fei Wang and Patrick Chi‐Kwong Luk

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new outer‐rotor permanent‐magnet flux‐switching machine (ORPMFSM) for electric vehicle (EV) in‐wheel propulsion. The paper documents both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new outer‐rotor permanent‐magnet flux‐switching machine (ORPMFSM) for electric vehicle (EV) in‐wheel propulsion. The paper documents both the design procedure and performance investigation of this novel machine.

Design/methodology/approach

The topology and preliminary sizing equations of the ORPMFSM are introduced. The rotor poles are optimized, whilst the machine losses are particularly investigated, using 2‐D finite element analysis (FEA).

Findings

An ORPMFSM, with 12 stator poles and 22 rotor poles, is most suitable for the proposed EV application. The analytical sizing equations are quite efficient with a sufficient accuracy for the preliminary design. The optimal rotor pole width from the FEA results is nearly 1.3 times the original value which was proposed in early literatures. The efficiency of the proposed machine under rated load is slightly low, as a result of significant eddy current losses in the permanent magnets. The losses can be effectively suppressed with the technique of magnet segmenting. The predicted outstanding performance implies that by adopting magnet segmentation the proposed machine is a leading contender for EV direct drives.

Originality/value

The outer‐rotor structure of PMFSM was not addressed in early literatures. This paper provides designers with the technical background and an alternative candidate for the EV propulsion.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Benoit Picard, Mathieu Picard, Jean-Sébastien Plante and David Rancourt

The limited energy density of batteries generates the need for high-performance power sources for emerging eVTOL applications with radical operational improvement potential over…

Abstract

Purpose

The limited energy density of batteries generates the need for high-performance power sources for emerging eVTOL applications with radical operational improvement potential over traditional aircraft. This paper aims to evaluate on-design and off-design recuperated turbogenerator performances based on newly developed compression loaded ceramic turbines, the Inside-out Ceramic Turbine (ICT), in order to select the optimum engine configuration for sub-megawatt systems.

Design/methodology/approach

System-level thermal engine modeling is combined with electric generators and power electronics performance predictions to obtain the Pareto front between efficiency and power density for a variety of engine designs, both for recuperated and simple cycle turbines. Part load efficiency for those engines are evaluated, and the results are used for an engine selection based on a simplified eVTOL mission capability.

Findings

By operating with high turbine inlet temperature, variable output speed and adequately sized recuperator, a turbogenerator provides exceptional efficiency at both nominal power and part load operation for a turbomachine, while maintaining the high power density required for aircraft. In application with a high peak-to-cruise power ratio, such power source would provide eight times the range of battery-electric power pack and an 80% improvement over the state-of-the-art simple cycle turbogenerator.

Practical implications

The implementation of a recuperator would provide additional gains especially important for military and on-demand mobility applications, notably reducing the heat signature and noise of the system. The engine low-pressure ratio reduces its complexity and combined with the fuel savings, the system could significantly reduce operational cost.

Originality/value

Implementation of radically new ICT architecture provides the key element to make a sub-megawatt recuperated turbogenerator viable in terms of power density. The synergetic combination of a recuperator, high temperature turbine and variable speed electric generator provides drastic improvement over simple-cycle turbines, making such a system highly relevant as the power source for future eVTOL applications.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000