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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Grzegorz Ombach

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars…

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1048

Abstract

Purpose

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars. This causes and forces the development of alternative concepts of propulsion systems and alternative fuels. These new trends of propulsion technologies such as hybrid and pure electric drive will have an impact on the entire design of cars. The purpose of this paper is to present an evolution of selected fractional horsepower electrical drives used in cars. Analysis of electromechanical components can be divided into two groups: the first one contains the currently used subsystems, e.g. electric power steering system, engine cooling systems, etc.; and the second one presents the development of new components, e.g. electric air‐conditioning compressor and other by‐wire technologies. Additionally, the development and trends of new materials and technologies used in electrical drives for the automotive industry are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Performed analysis based on a review of the literature and the author's own research and experience in the area of electromechanical systems for automotive applications. During motor design, computer numerical simulation method, CAD and experiment were used. The development perspectives in the area of electromechanical systems in automotive area are presented. Additionally, the evolution of fractional horse power electric motors, with the influence of new developments in the area of electric vehicles, are analysed and presented.

Findings

The presented analysis shows that a change of technology from brush type motors into brushless is inevitable. Additionally, further miniaturization will be conducted using a higher energy permanent magnet. Furthermore, an increase of efficiency will be achieved by increasing the voltage level from 12 V to 48 V or even higher, e.g. 120 V.

Originality/value

This is the first paper, where, in a comprehensive way, developments of fractional horse power electromechanical systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are presented. The results of this paper can be utilized during the creation of the products' road‐maps in this area.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Michael J. Armstrong and Christine A.H. Ross

This article is aims to inform aircraft propulsion system designers of the implications which fundamental power distribution design assumptions have on the effectiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

This article is aims to inform aircraft propulsion system designers of the implications which fundamental power distribution design assumptions have on the effectiveness and viability of turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) systems. Improvements and challenges associated with selecting alternating or direct current for normal- and superconducting distribution systems are presented. Additionally, for superconducting systems, the benefits of bi-polar DC distribution are discussed, as well as the implications of operating voltage on the mass and efficiency of TeDP grid components.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach to this paper selects several high-level fundamental configuration decisions, which must be made, and it qualitatively discusses potential implications of these decisions.

Findings

Near term TeDP architectures which employ conventionally conducting systems may benefit from alternating current (AC) distribution concepts to eliminate the mass and losses associated with power conversion. Farther term TeDP concepts which employ superconducting technologies may benefit from direct current (DC) distribution to reduce the cryocooling requirements stemming from AC conduction losses. Selecting the operating voltage for superconducting concepts requires a divergence from the present day criteria employed with terrestrial superconducting transmission systems.

Practical implications

The criteria presented in the paper will assist in the early conceptual architecting of TeDP systems.

Originality/value

The governing principles behind the configuration of multi-MW airborne electrical microgrid systems are presently immature. This paper represents a unique look and the motivating principles behind fundamental electrical configuration decisions in the context of TeDP.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2020

Marco Fioriti, Silvio Vaschetto, Sabrina Corpino and Giovanna Premoli

This paper aims to present the main results achieved in the frame of the TIVANO national-funded project which may anticipate, in a stepped approach, the evolution and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the main results achieved in the frame of the TIVANO national-funded project which may anticipate, in a stepped approach, the evolution and the design of the enabling technologies needed for a hybrid/electric medium altitude long endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to perform persistent intelligence surveillance reconnaissance (ISR) military operations.

Design/methodology/approach

Different architectures of hybrid-propulsion system are analyzed pointing out their operating modes to select the more suitable architecture for the reference aircraft. The selected architecture is further analyzed together with its electric power plant branch focusing on electric system architecture and the selected electric machine. A final comparison between the hybrid and standard propulsion is given at aircraft level.

Findings

The use of hybrid propulsion may lead to a reduction of the total aircraft mass and an increase in safety level. However, this result comes together with a reduced performance in climb phase.

Practical implications

This study can be used as a reference for similar studies and it provides a detailed description of propulsion operating modes, power management, electric system and machine architecture.

Originality/value

This study presents a novel application of hybrid propulsion focusing on a three tons class MALE UAV for ISR missions. It provides new operating modes of the propulsion system and a detailed electric architecture of its powertrain branch and machine. Some considerations on noise emissions and infra-red traceability of this propulsion, at aircraft level.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Soudamini Behera, Sasmita Behera, Ajit Kumar Barisal and Pratikhya Sahu

Dynamic economic and emission dispatch (DEED) aims to optimally set the active power generation with constraints in a power system, which should target minimum operation…

Abstract

Purpose

Dynamic economic and emission dispatch (DEED) aims to optimally set the active power generation with constraints in a power system, which should target minimum operation cost and at the same time minimize the pollution in terms of emission when the load dynamically changes hour to hour. The purpose of this study is to achieve optimal economic and emission dispatch of an electrical system with a renewable generation mix, consisting of 3-unit thermal, 2-unit wind and 2-unit solar generators for dynamic load variation in a day. An improved version of a simple, easy to understand and popular optimization algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO) referred to as a constriction factor-based particle swarm optimization (CFBPSO) algorithm is deployed to get optimal solution as compared to PSO, modified PSO and red deer algorithm (RDA).

Design/methodology/approach

Different model with and without wind and solar power generating systems; with valve point effect is analyzed. The thermal generating system (TGs) are the major green house gaseous emission producers on earth. To take up this ecological issue in addition to economic operation cost, the wind and solar energy sources are integrated with the thermal system in a phased manner for electrical power generation and optimized for dynamic load variation. This DEED being a multi-objective optimization (MO) has contradictory objectives of fuel cost and emission. To get the finest combination of the two objectives and to get a non-dominated solution the fuzzy decision-making (FDM) method is used herein, the MO problem is solved by a single objective function, including min-max price penalty factor on emission in the total cost to treat as cost. Further, the weight factor accumulation (WFA) technique normalizes the pair of objectives into a single objective by giving each objective a weightage. The weightage is decided by the FDM approach in a systematic manner from a set of non-dominated solutions. Here, the CFBPSO algorithm is applied to lessen the total generation cost and emission of the thermal power meeting the load dynamically.

Findings

The efficacy of the contribution of stochastic wind and solar power generation with the TGs in the dropping of net fuel cost and emission in a day for dynamic load vis-à-vis the case with TGs is established.

Research limitations/implications

Cost and emission are conflicting objectives and can be handled carefully by weight factors and penalty factors to find out the best solution.

Practical implications

The proposed methodology and its strategy are very useful for thermal power plants incorporating diverse sources of generations. As the execution time is very less, practical implementation can be possible.

Social implications

As the cheaper generation schedule is obtained with respect to time, cost and emission are minimized, a huge revenue can be saved over the passage of time, and therefore it has a societal impact.

Originality/value

In this work, the WFA with the FDM method is used to facilitate CFBPSO to decipher this DEED multi-objective problem. The results reveal the competence of the projected proposal to satisfy the dynamic load demand and to diminish the combined cost in contrast to the PSO algorithm, modified PSO algorithm and a newly developed meta-heuristic algorithm RDA in a similar system.

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

James Nutaro, Phani Teja Kuruganti, Mallikarjun Shankar, Laurie Miller and Sara Mullen

This paper aims to address a central concern in modeling and simulating electric grids and the information infrastructure that monitors and controls them. The paper…

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1022

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address a central concern in modeling and simulating electric grids and the information infrastructure that monitors and controls them. The paper discusses the need for and methods to construct simulation models that include important interactions between the physical and computational elements of a large power system.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers a particular approach to modeling and simulation of hybrid systems as an enabling technology for analysis (via simulation) of modern electric power grids. The approach, based on the discrete event system specification, integrates existing simulation tools into a unified simulation scheme. The paper demonstrates this approach with an integrated information and electric grid model of a distributed, automatic frequency maintenance activity.

Findings

Power grid modernization efforts need powerful modeling and simulation tools for hybrid systems.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this approach is a lack of advanced simulation tools that support it. Existing commercial offerings are not designed to support integration with other simulation software products. The approach to integrating continuous and discrete event simulation models can overcome this problem by allowing specific tools to focus on continuous or discrete event dynamics. This will require, however, adjustments to the underlying simulation technology.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates an approach to simulating complex hybrid systems that can, in principle, be supported by existing simulation tools. It also indicates how existing tools must be modified to support our approach.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Christopher Perullo and Dimitri Mavris

The purpose of this study is to examine state-of-the-art in hybrid-electric propulsion system modeling and suggest new methodologies for sizing such advanced concepts…

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1010

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine state-of-the-art in hybrid-electric propulsion system modeling and suggest new methodologies for sizing such advanced concepts. Many entities are involved in the modelling and design of hybrid electric aircraft; however, the highly multidisciplinary nature of the problem means that most tools focus heavily on one discipline and over simplify others to keep the analysis reasonable in scope. Correctly sizing a hybrid-electric system requires knowledge of aircraft and engine performance along with a working knowledge of electrical and energy storage systems. The difficulty is compounded by the multi-timescale dynamic nature of the problem. Furthermore, the choice of energy management in a hybrid electric system presents multiple degrees of freedom, which means the aircraft sizing problem now becomes not just a root-finding exercise, but also a constrained optimization problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid electric vehicle sizing problem can be sub-divided into three areas: modelling methods/fidelity, energy management and optimization technique. The literature is reviewed to find desirable characteristics and features of each area. Subsequently, a new process for sizing a new hybrid electric aircraft is proposed by synthesizing techniques from model predictive control and detailed conceptual design modelling. Elements from model predictive control and concurrent optimization are combined to formulate a new structure for the optimization of the sizing and energy management of future aircraft.

Findings

While the example optimization formulation provided is specific to a hybrid electric concept, the proposed structure is general enough to be adapted to any vehicle concept which contains multiple degrees of control freedom that can be optimized continuously throughout a mission.

Originality/value

The proposed technique is novel in its application of model predictive control to the conceptual design phase.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Anna Maria Mazur and Roman Domanski

The presented research is carried out in reaction to the soaring costs of fuel and tight control over environmental issues such as carbon dioxide emissions and noise. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The presented research is carried out in reaction to the soaring costs of fuel and tight control over environmental issues such as carbon dioxide emissions and noise. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of applying the environmental-friendly energy source in an unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) propulsion system.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, the majority of UAVs are still powered by conventional combustion engines. An electric propulsion system is most commonly found in civilian micro and mini UAVs. The UAV classification is reviewed in this study. This paper focuses mainly on application of electric propulsion systems in UAVs. Investigated hybrid energy systems consist of fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, super-capacitors and photovoltaic (PV) modules. Current applications of fuel cell systems in UAVs are also presented.

Findings

The conducted research shows that hybridization allows for better energy management and operation of every energy source onboard the UAV within its limits. The hybrid energy system design should be created to maximize system efficiency without compromising the performance of the aircraft.

Practical implications

The presented study highlights the reduction of the energy consumption, necessary to perform the mission and maximizing of the endurance with simultaneous decrease in emissions and noise level.

Originality/value

The conducted research studies the feasibility of implementing the environmental-friendly hybrid electric propulsion systems in UAVs that offers high efficiency, reliability, controllability, lack of thermal and noise signature, thus, providing quiet and clean drive with low vibration levels. This paper highlights the main challenges and current research on fuel cell in aviation and draws attention to fuel cell – electric system modeling, hybridization and energy management.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2013

Gheorghe Grigoras and Gheorghe Cartina

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method based on the fuzzy correlation for modelling of active and reactive powers from the substations of the electrical

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method based on the fuzzy correlation for modelling of active and reactive powers from the substations of the electrical distribution systems, at the peak load.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the correlation theory, the fuzzy models of the loads can be obtained using a new algorithm. If in the case of the principal/connection station there is sufficient database information for a good forecasting of the load, then for those substations where data are missing (there is no continuous monitoring or the measuring system can be broken for a while) the forecasting of the load can be performed using the correlation studies. The starting point of the algorithm is statistical analysis of the active and reactive curves of the substations and utilization of a fuzzy linear regression model. This can be made for different time windows (window 24 h, window 7 h, etc). The window 24 h can be used successfully to estimate the hourly load on any substation. The other time window (7 h) can be used in the peak load estimation of the substations, using the maximum value of the active power recorded in a reference substation.

Findings

The numerical data show that the fuzzy correlation models can be used with very good results for determination of the peak load corresponding distribution substations, and further with the state estimation of the system. In this study, the influence of the time window size is presented in detail, and the fuzzy correlation models for the peak loads from the distribution substations are obtained.

Originality/value

Starting from the correlation theory, a method of fuzzy modelling of active and reactive powers from the substations of an electrical distribution system is proposed.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

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4138

Abstract

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2021

Anges Akim Aminou Moussavou, Ayokunle Oluwaseun Ayeleso, Marcos Adonis and Atanda Raji

This paper aims to develop a selective energy optimisation of the photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) system performance. The PV cell inside the PV/T system could be periodically…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a selective energy optimisation of the photovoltaic–thermal (PV/T) system performance. The PV cell inside the PV/T system could be periodically manipulated to produce domestic hot water without applying an external power supply.

Design/methodology/approach

A numerical simulation model of the proposed PV/T model was developed in MATLAB/Simulink to analyse the selective energy optimisation of the model. The extrinsic cell resistance (Rse) is adjusted to control the ratio of thermal to the electrical energy, generated from the PV cell inside the PV/T system. Therefore, the internal heat of the PV cell inside the PV/T system is periodically used as a thermal element to produce electrical power and hot water.

Findings

The optimisation of PV/T energy shows that the electrical power efficiency can increase by 11.6% when Rse was 0 Ω, and the 200 L water tank temperature increased by 22ºC when Rse was 50 Ω.

Originality/value

This study showed that the use of the PV cell could be extended to domestic hot water and space heating, and not only for electricity.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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