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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Grzegorz Ombach

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars…

1082

Abstract

Purpose

An electrical revolution in the automotive sector was decided on at the end of 2008, when the European Parliament passed legislation of lower CO2 emissions of new cars. This causes and forces the development of alternative concepts of propulsion systems and alternative fuels. These new trends of propulsion technologies such as hybrid and pure electric drive will have an impact on the entire design of cars. The purpose of this paper is to present an evolution of selected fractional horsepower electrical drives used in cars. Analysis of electromechanical components can be divided into two groups: the first one contains the currently used subsystems, e.g. electric power steering system, engine cooling systems, etc.; and the second one presents the development of new components, e.g. electric air‐conditioning compressor and other by‐wire technologies. Additionally, the development and trends of new materials and technologies used in electrical drives for the automotive industry are presented.

Design/methodology/approach

Performed analysis based on a review of the literature and the author's own research and experience in the area of electromechanical systems for automotive applications. During motor design, computer numerical simulation method, CAD and experiment were used. The development perspectives in the area of electromechanical systems in automotive area are presented. Additionally, the evolution of fractional horse power electric motors, with the influence of new developments in the area of electric vehicles, are analysed and presented.

Findings

The presented analysis shows that a change of technology from brush type motors into brushless is inevitable. Additionally, further miniaturization will be conducted using a higher energy permanent magnet. Furthermore, an increase of efficiency will be achieved by increasing the voltage level from 12 V to 48 V or even higher, e.g. 120 V.

Originality/value

This is the first paper, where, in a comprehensive way, developments of fractional horse power electromechanical systems for electric and hybrid vehicles are presented. The results of this paper can be utilized during the creation of the products' road‐maps in this area.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Massimo Barcaro and Nicola Bianchi

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the design issues of permanent magnet machines for the hybrid electric and plug‐in electric vehicles, including railway traction and naval propulsion.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus is given on both synchronous permanent magnet and reluctance machines. An overview of the design rules are provided, covering the topics of: fractional‐slot windings, fault‐tolerant configurations, flux‐weakening capability, and torque quality.

Findings

The peculiarities of these machines and the advanced design considerations to fit the automotive requirements are analyzed.

Originality/value

The paper includes a wide description of innovative electrical machines for electric vehicles, including not only the traction capability, but also analysis of features as weight reduction, torque ripple reduction, increase of fault tolerance, and so on.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Abdessattar Guermazi, Bassem El Badsi, Mourad Masmoudi and Ahmed Masmoudi

This paper seeks to discuss the implementation of the rotor flux oriented control (RFOC) in a four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction motor drive.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the implementation of the rotor flux oriented control (RFOC) in a four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction motor drive.

Design/methodology/approach

The implementation is achieved considering a current regulation of the FSTPI. Such a regulation is done thanks to bang‐bang regulators. As far as the FSTPI is fed by a battery pack, the paper considers an electrical equivalent circuit of such a power supply.

Findings

Simulation works, carried out considering the case of an ideal model of the battery pack and the case where the electrical equivalent circuit of the battery pack is taken into account, have shown that the drive dynamic performance are practically the same. Furthermore, and in order to highlight the performance of the induction motor fed by a FSTPI, these are compared with those obtained with the induction motor fed by a conventional six‐switch three‐phase inverter (SSTPI), considering both models of the battery pack. It has been found that the drive offers almost the same dynamic and steady‐state performance.

Research limitations/implications

The work should be extended by an experimental validation of the simulation results.

Practical implications

The established results open up crucial benefits from the point of view of cost‐effectiveness and volume‐compactness improvements of induction motor drives especially in large‐scale industries such as the automotive one where electric and hybrid propulsion systems are currently regarded as an interesting alternative to substitute or to assist the thermal propulsion systems.

Originality/value

The implementation of the RFOC in FSTPI‐fed induction motor drives is feasible and exhibits almost the same performance as those obtained by conventional SSTPI‐fed induction motor drives under the same control strategies.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Moez Abassi, Omar Khlaief, Oussama Saadaoui, Abdelkader Chaari and Mohamed Boussak

Electric vehicles (EVs) require uninterrupted and safe conditions during operations. Therefore, the diagnostic of power devices and electric motor faults are needed to…

Abstract

Purpose

Electric vehicles (EVs) require uninterrupted and safe conditions during operations. Therefore, the diagnostic of power devices and electric motor faults are needed to improve the availability of the system. Hence, fault-tolerant control (FTC), which combines switch fault detection, hardware redundancy and post-fault control, is used. This paper aims to propose an accurate open-phase fault detection and FTC of a direct torque control permanent magnet synchronous motor electrical vehicles by using discrete Fourier-transform phase method.

Design/methodology/approach

The main idea is to propose detection and identification of open-phase fault (faulty leg) among three phases voltage source invertor (VSI)-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. Once the faulty leg is detected and isolated, a redundant phase leg insertion, shared by a three-phase VSI, is done by using independent bidirectional TRIAC switches to conduct FTC system. This accurate fault detection significantly improves system availability and reliability. The proposed method of open-phase fault detection and identification is based only on stator phase current measurement.

Findings

A novel method is proposed with experimental validation for fault detection, isolation and FTC for a three-phase VSI-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor.

Originality/value

The novel discrete Fourier-transform phase method is proposed to detect an open phase based on the measurement in real time of the instantaneous phase of stator current components in the stationary frame. The experimental implementation is carried out on powerful dSpace DS1104 controller board based on the digital signal processor TMS320F240. The validity of the proposed method has been experimentally verified.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

E. Pagano and O. Veneri

The paper suggests a fully digital technique, which may be successfully used for electric drives for road vehicles. The technique is based on the use of a feeding…

Abstract

The paper suggests a fully digital technique, which may be successfully used for electric drives for road vehicles. The technique is based on the use of a feeding algorithm which allows the drive to electrically satisfy all traction requirements, i.e. forward and reverse speed or braking action. Theoretical considerations are supported by sample results of numerical simulations which confirm the practical suitability of the suggested technique.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Sathishkumar Kaliyavarathan and Sivakumaran T.S.

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the development of novel multiphase induction motor (MPIM) with copper die cast rotor in the drive system of electric propulsion vehicles (EPV). It is estimated that the manufacturers are concerned about high torque,Efficiency, motor life, energy conservation and high thermal tolerance. To ensure maximum torque and efficiency with multiphase winding and copper die cast technology to increasing high thermal tolerance, life, energy conversations. On other hand, it is very important of EPV application.

Design/methodology/approach

The focus of the investigation is threefold: the modified method carried out on MPIM both stator and rotor can overcome the current scenario problem facing by electric vehicles manufacture and developed perfect suitable electric motor for EPV applications. The design and simulation carried out finite element method (FEM) that was more accurate calculations. Finally developed prototype model of MPIM with copper die cast are discussed with conventional three phase Die casting Induction motor.

Findings

The paper confirmed the multiphase copper die-cast rotor induction motor (MDCrIM) is providing better performance than conventional motor. Proposed motor can bring additional advantage like heat tolerances, long life and energy conversations.

Originality/value

The experiments confirmed the MDCIM suitable for EPV Applications. The modified MDCIM of both stator and rotor are giving better result and good performance compared to conventional method.

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

V. Mester, F. Gillon and P. Brochet

The paper highlights the process of electric vehicles optimal design as an inverse problem and presents the global constrained optimization as the best way to solve it.

1650

Abstract

Purpose

The paper highlights the process of electric vehicles optimal design as an inverse problem and presents the global constrained optimization as the best way to solve it.

Design/methodology/approach

The electric vehicle optimal design is carried out by a new approach. It consists an electric vehicle design model managed by constrained optimization techniques. It includes sizing models for all drive train components and a vehicle dynamic model build in a new “design way” as an energy‐based model using the response surface methodology. The sensitivity of first simple sizing models can be evaluated by the experimental design method, giving information about the most important part of the model that must be improved.

Findings

The result shows the superiority of the constrained optimization technique that treats simultaneously the global optimization and the model adjustment. This method of simultaneous resolution is much more powerful than the successive resolution of each subproblem. The proposed “design approach” used for electric vehicle optimal design offer a large potential in the field of the complex systems design.

Originality/value

The electric vehicle design process is treated on a vehicle design model based on a design approach. It allows determining the drive train components specifications for imposed vehicle performances, taking into account the dynamic model of the vehicle and all components interactions. Furthermore, considering fine components sizing models, the components can be sized taking into account the whole system behavior in an optimal global design.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Bassem El Badsi and Ahmed Masmoudi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a new direct torque control (DTC) strategy dedicated to four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of a new direct torque control (DTC) strategy dedicated to four‐switch three‐phase inverter (FSTPI)‐fed induction motor drives with extended speed range.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is based on the synthesis of a suitable vector selection table in order to reduce torque ripple. The performance analysis is carried out based on three criteria: the total harmonic distortion; the switching loss factor; and the quality factor.

Findings

It has been clearly shown that the introduced DTC strategy offers high performance during both transient and steady‐state operations of the FSTPI‐fed induction motor drive, which are almost the same as those yielded by the Takahashi DTC strategy implemented in the same motor fed by a conventional six‐switch three‐phase inverter (SSTPI).

Research limitations/implications

The work should be extended by an experimental validation of the simulation results.

Practical implications

The established results open up crucial benefits from the point of view of cost‐effectiveness and volume‐compactness of induction motor drives especially in large‐scale industries such as the automotive, where electric and hybrid propulsion systems are currently regarded as an interesting alternative to substitute or to assist the thermal propulsion systems.

Originality/value

The paper presents the implementation of a dedicated DTC strategy in FSTPI‐fed induction motor drives with extended speed range. The proposed DTC strategy offers interesting performance compared with that yielded by the Takahashi DTC strategy implemented in the same motor fed by an SSTPI.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Dubravko Rogale, Igor Petrunić, Zvonko Dragčević and Snježana Firšt Rogale

The equipment for computerised measuring of electrical power and energy is presented, adapted to the needs of investigating processing parameters of garment sewing operations.

Abstract

Purpose

The equipment for computerised measuring of electrical power and energy is presented, adapted to the needs of investigating processing parameters of garment sewing operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The method of measuring the energy necessary to run the sewing‐machine driving electrical motor is also presented, correlated to the stitching speed in joining a straight seam in a single, two, or three, segments. Electrical energy consumption is analysed as dependent on the stitching speed, varying the number of stitches in the seam.

Findings

The investigations described have shown the impact of the method of work applied and the effect of the changes in garment sewing operation in processing parameters on the level of electrical energy consumed by the sewing‐machine drive electrical motor. A new measuring method has been introduced in garment engineering, aimed at predicting electrical energy consumption in garment sewing operations, thus opening a completely new field of investigation in the area of garment technologies.

Originality/value

A method of calculating the energy processing parameters of sewing operations.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Liang Su, Zhenpo Wang and Chao Chen

The purpose of this study is to propose a torque vectoring control system for improving the handling stability of distributed drive electric buses under complicated driving

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a torque vectoring control system for improving the handling stability of distributed drive electric buses under complicated driving conditions. Energy crisis and environment pollution are two key pressing issues faced by mankind. Pure electric buses are recognized as the effective method to solve the problems. Distributed drive electric buses (DDEBs) as an emerging mode of pure electric buses are attracting intense research interests around the world. Compared with the central driven electric buses, DDEB is able to control the driving and braking torque of each wheel individually and accurately to significantly enhance the handling stability. Therefore, the torque vectoring control (TVC) system is proposed to allocate the driving torque among four wheels reasonably to improve the handling stability of DDEBs.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed TVC system is designed based on hierarchical control. The upper layer is direct yaw moment controller based on feedforward and feedback control. The feedforward control algorithm is designed to calculate the desired steady-state yaw moment based on the steering wheel angle and the longitudinal velocity. The feedback control is anti-windup sliding mode control algorithm, which takes the errors between actual and reference yaw rate as the control variables. The lower layer is torque allocation controller, including economical torque allocation control algorithm and optimal torque allocation control algorithm.

Findings

The steady static circular test has been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and control effort of the proposed TVC system. Compared with the field experiment results of tested bus with TVC system and without TVC system, the slip angle of tested bus with TVC system is much less than without TVC. And the actual yaw rate of tested bus with TVC system is able to track the reference yaw rate completely. The experiment results demonstrate that the TVC system has a remarkable performance in the real practice and improve the handling stability effectively.

Originality/value

In view of the large load transfer, the strong coupling characteristics of tire , the suspension and the steering system during coach corning, the vehicle reference steering characteristics is defined considering vehicle nonlinear characteristics and the feedforward term of torque vectoring control at different steering angles and speeds is designed. Meanwhile, in order to improve the robustness of controller, an anti-integral saturation sliding mode variable structure control algorithm is proposed as the feedback term of torque vectoring control.

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