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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Charles D. Wrege, Peter J. Gordon and Regina A. Greenwood

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of electric lamp renewal systems, an early, successful program to encourage the adoption of new technology…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of electric lamp renewal systems, an early, successful program to encourage the adoption of new technology, electric lighting.

Design/methodology/approach

Much material for the research comes from a variety of archival sources and publications of the early part of the twentieth century.

Findings

The free lamp renewal system was brilliant and effective: its high level of customer service and human contact dispelled fear raised by the new energy source, increasing the acceptance and use of electric lighting and thereby electricity. Lighting, in the absence of electrical appliances, was one of the few users of electricity. Thus, the electric companies created a marketing strategy that encouraged adoption of the new technology.

Research limitations/implications

We examined the electric lighting industry at the turn of the twentieth century. Other examples of technology adoption could generalize our findings.

Practical implications

Our research suggests that supportive programs, which are high in customer contact and customized service, can aid in the adoption of new technology and unfamiliar products. By encouraging the use of such free or cheap products, customers are induced to higher usage of related products that increase the revenue stream to the provider.

Originality/value

The lamp renewal system is forgotten today, yet was a crucial factor in winning consumer acceptance of electric lighting and an early example of how companies can encourage adoption of new technology. Although the concept of uniformed men in trucks coming to customer homes once a month to clean and replace light bulbs is quaint – it worked!

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Francesco De Luca, Raimo Simson, Hendrik Voll and Jarek Kurnitski

Electric lighting accounts for a large share of energy consumption in commercial buildings. Utilization of daylight can significantly help to reduce the need for…

Abstract

Purpose

Electric lighting accounts for a large share of energy consumption in commercial buildings. Utilization of daylight can significantly help to reduce the need for artificial lighting, increase workers productivity, customers’ satisfaction and consequently improve sales. However, excessive use of glazing and absence of lighting controls can contribute greatly to higher energy need for heating and cooling and cause undesired glare effects. Thus, optimizing the size, position and materials of external glazing, with the addition of deflectors and dynamic artificial lighting, can become key aspects in the design of sustainable low energy buildings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze daylight potential and energy performance of a hall-type commercial building, situated in the cold climate of Finland, by utilizing different combinations of skylights, windows and lighting controls.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have used computer simulations to estimate daylight and energy performance of a single floor commercial building in relation to various combinations of skylights and windows with variable glazing materials, light deflectors and zonal lighting controls.

Findings

The results show that electric light energy saving potential ranges from a negligible 1.9 percent to a significant 58.6 percent in the case of glass skylights and wall windows using multi-zone lighting control. Total delivered energy ranges between increase of 1.5 and 21.2 percent in the cases with single zone lighting control and between decrease of 4.5 percent and increase of 4.5 percent in the cases with multi-zone control. The highest decrease in primary energy consumption was 2.2 percent for single zone and 17.6 percent for multi-zone lighting control. The research underlines the significant potential of electric light energy savings using daylighting strategies that, including the control of direct solar access for glare and internal gains, can be more than 50 percent.

Originality/value

This research combines accurate daylight and energy assessment for commercial hall buildings based in cold climate region with multiple design variations. The novelty of this work is the consideration of interior elements, shelves and deflectors, in the calculations. This is made possible through the combined use of validated simulation platforms for detailed annual daylighting and electric lighting calculation (Radiance and Daysim) and energy analysis (IDA-ICE, Equa Simulation AB). This method allows to obtain a reliable assessment of the potential of using natural light sources in buildings.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

John A. Bryant and Kimberly Carlson

Engineers at the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University conducted short term energy metering studies at a complex of offices in northern Texas and several…

1309

Abstract

Engineers at the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University conducted short term energy metering studies at a complex of offices in northern Texas and several buildings on the Texas A&M University campus. These studies typically consisted of installing electrical metering at the whole building level and included sub‐metering of selected circuits when possible. A staged shut‐down sequence was performed for all lighting, fan, and mechanical systems of interest in the facility. Lighting system load verification was the primary goal. The study was a follow‐up to an earlier lighting study that had been conducted by the campus energy office. Base electrical load data were also determined from these tests, and in both studies significant “base” electrical loads were found. This paper presents results of these studies and suggests that the method is attractive to both contractors and facility energy managers as well.

Details

Facilities, vol. 20 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Chi‐nien Chung

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter…

Abstract

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well‐connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally‐owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large‐space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second‐generation gas lamp ‐ Welsbach mantle lamp ‐ was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2014

Paulette R. Hebert, Mihyun Kang and Rebekah J. Thompsen

– The purpose of this study was to examine lighting systems at 77 laboratories located within one building to save energy and associated costs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine lighting systems at 77 laboratories located within one building to save energy and associated costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Field measurements of illumination were conducted and compared to lighting standards and industry recommendations.

Findings

For energy and cost saving, de-lamping all four-lamp luminaires down to two-lamp luminaires and installing occupancy sensors in all laboratories were recommended.

Research limitations/implications

The research team’s project working hours and study period were limited. This study begins to fill the gap in the literature regarding lighting field studies.

Practical implications

By carefully considering light level recommendations, industry standards and installation budgets, existing facilities can install appropriate retrofits to save energy and money without sacrificing illumination levels. Recommended retrofits are anticipated to significantly curtail annual federal energy consumption practices at the labs.

Social implications

The retrofits recommended in this study will reduce US federal government’s energy-related expenditures and greenhouse gas emissions in support of the 2010 Presidential Mandate. The proposed occupancy sensors are anticipated to compensate for humans’ failure to manually control lighting.

Originality/value

This field study adds value by documenting cost-effective methods to measure, record and manage laboratory lighting, and it calls for the implementation of social, economic and ecological interventions. The recommended retrofits will reduce US federal government’s energy-related expenditures and greenhouse gas emissions in support of the 2010 Presidential Mandate.

Details

Facilities, vol. 32 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Jonathan Elliott and Angela Guggemos

In the Poudre School District of Northern Colorado, USA, Fort Collins High School (FCHS) and Fossil Ridge High School (FRHS) have similar square footages, mechanical…

784

Abstract

Purpose

In the Poudre School District of Northern Colorado, USA, Fort Collins High School (FCHS) and Fossil Ridge High School (FRHS) have similar square footages, mechanical systems, and architectural capacities. While FRHS (built 2005) is leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED)‐Silver and Energy Star (2009) certified, FCHS (built 1995) is not. Despite the sustainable features of FRHS, the whole‐building electric use intensities (EUIs) were comparable for the schools. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate electricity consumption and use patterns at these schools.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate whole‐building EUI and identify areas of high consumption, the buildings were divided into workspaces for which workspace‐specific EUIs were calculated and compared. Further, workspace EUIs were partitioned into their heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, plug load, food service and residual components for analysis.

Findings

Significantly, more electricity is used for lighting and HVAC at FCHS (44.04 and 33.16 per cent of total, respectively) compared to FRHS (36.90 and 29.17 per cent of total, respectively). However, plug load consumption accounted for 24.99 per cent of electric use at FRHS but only 16.35 per cent at FCHS. Component EUI analysis identified high‐wattage lighting at FCHS and high computer density at FRHS as areas for possible efficiency improvements.

Practical implications

Whole‐building EUI values are most useful for comparing energy performance of buildings dedicated to a single use. Workspace‐to‐workspace EUI comparisons offer improved energy performance indicators for facility managers. Component EUI analysis identifies specific consumptive activities which should be targeted for potential reduction in electricity use and expenditure.

Originality/value

Workspace and component EUIs provide for more insight than whole‐building EUI when comparing electric consumption of multi‐use facilities.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 1998

Kung‐Jen Tu and Vivian Loftness

Despite discussions about the universal work station, there is increasing workplace dynamics in US organisations. These dynamics include space configuration changes, space…

Abstract

Despite discussions about the universal work station, there is increasing workplace dynamics in US organisations. These dynamics include space configuration changes, space enclosure changes, changes in occupant density and increasing equipment density. At the same time, building infrastructures have not evolved to meet these demands, with little flexibility in the heating, ventilation and air‐conditioning (HVAC), lighting, or electrical/telecommunication systems of new or existing office buildings. This paper examines the effects of organisational workplace dynamics and building infrastructure flexibility on the environmental and technical quality of offices. Resulting from extensive field studies in US buildings, the authors contend that there are numerous statistically significant issues for the design and management of buildings for the dynamic organisation. The study identified numerous factors that affect thermal, air, lighting and technical quality in offices. In relation to infrastructure, for example, occupants who work in office areas provided with greater cooling capacity and more supply air volume, and combined with smaller HVAC zones, appeared to have higher levels of thermal satisfaction. Those who work in areas with higher outlet densities gave higher technical quality ratings; and those provided with relocatable outlets (raised floor and furniture based) gave significantly higher technical satisfaction ratings than those provided with least‐first‐cost ‘tombstones’. In relation to organisational dynamics, increasing occupant densities in existing buildings are related to more thermal and air quality complaints, more complaints about outlet accessibility, as well as more complaints about inadequate light levels on work surfaces. This paper will outline the major findings of a study linking organisational dynamics with building infrastructure, moving towards the definition of innovations in facility design that will more effectively support dynamic organisations.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Pimkamol Maleetipwan-Mattsson and Thorbjörn Laike

The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal office lighting use with different types of lighting controls to achieve energy savings and provide visual comfort…

1017

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal office lighting use with different types of lighting controls to achieve energy savings and provide visual comfort for individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study and field measurements were carried out in 18 single-occupancy offices in Sweden where six different lighting controls were investigated. Occupancy and daylight hours were key issues for determining the lighting use. For each office, occupancy patterns, use of a ceiling luminaire, energy usage and perceptions of office lighting in the spring-summer and autumn-winter were established.

Findings

The use of luminaires varied among the occupants and could be habitual. Though the study yielded positive results concerning the potential for manual or daylight dimming with occupancy switch-off controls to increase optimal lighting use, combining dimming controls with manual on/off controls is rather effective if occupants generally sit in their offices most of the day.

Research limitations/implications

Precise comparisons of the performances of the different controls were limited due to the offices’ different window orientations; thus, measurements in identical offices are desirable. The small sample size limited analyses of lighting use and the personal perceptions of lighting quality.

Practical implications

Apart from the contribution to simulation techniques, the findings imply that office lighting controls should be selected taking individuals’ behavioural patterns and perceived lighting quality into consideration.

Originality/value

This paper describes an approach to determine the use of lighting controls and provides a basis for establishing optimal lighting use for individuals with regard to occupancy and daylight availability.

Details

Facilities, vol. 33 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 March 2022

Mahdiyeh Zaferanchi and Hatice Sozer

The amount of energy consumption of buildings has obtained international concern so the concept of zero energy building becomes a target for building designers. There are…

Abstract

Purpose

The amount of energy consumption of buildings has obtained international concern so the concept of zero energy building becomes a target for building designers. There are various definitions and evaluation methods for efficient buildings. However, detailed research about the critical parameters that have a major effect through the operational time to reduce the energy consumption is not emphasized as this paper represents. The main aim of this study is to identify the effect of applicable interventions on energy consumption parameters with their sensitivity to each other to reach zero energy building. Relatedly, the cost of energy reduction is also determined.

Design/methodology/approach

Energy consumption parameters were defined as area lightings, space heating, space cooling, ventilation fans, pumps, auxiliary equipment and related miscellaneous equipment. The effect of each applied intervention on energy consumption was classified as high, medium, low, very low, no effect and negative effect by utilizing a sensitivity analysis. The base case's energy model is created by utilizing energy performance software such as e-Quest. Accordingly, energy performance improvement scenarios are developed by applying interventions such as lamp replacements, sensors, heat pumps and photovoltaic panels’ integration. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses of each intervention were developed for consumed energy and its cost.

Findings

Results indicated the electric consumption is more effective than gas consumption on primary energy and energy cost. Solar systems decline primary energy by 78.53%, lighting systems by 13.47% and heat pump by 5.48% in this building; therefore, integrating mentioned strategies could rise the improvement rate to 100%, in other words, zero amount of energy is using from the grid that means saving $ 5,750.39 in one year.

Research limitations/implications

The study can be applied to similar buildings. It is worthwhile to investigate suggested methods in diverse buildings with different functions and climates in future works.

Practical implications

This study aims to investigate of energy consumption of an educational building in the Mediterranean climate to convert an existing building into a zero energy building by saving energy and renewable sources. Subsequent purposes are analyzing the effect of each strategy on energy consumption and cost.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is filling gaps in sensitivity analysis of energy consumption parameters by not only identifying their effect on overall energy consumption but also identifying their effect on each other. Some interventions may have a positive effect on overall consumption while having a negative effect on each other. Identifying this critical effect in detail not only further improves the energy performance, but also may affect the decision-making of the interventions.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Dinesh Kumar Anguraj, S. Balasubramaniyan, E. Saravana Kumar, J. Vakula Rani and M. Ashwin

The purpose of the research is to concentrate on the most important smart metropolitan applications which are smart living, smart security and smart maintainable. In that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to concentrate on the most important smart metropolitan applications which are smart living, smart security and smart maintainable. In that, Power management and security is a most important problem in the current metropolitan situation.

Design/methodology/approach

A smart metropolitan area utilizes recent innovative technologies to improve its living, security and maintainable. The aim of this study is to recognize and resolve the difficulties in metropolitan area applications.

Findings

The main aim of this study is to reduce the metropolitan foremost energy consumption, to recharge the electric vehicles and to increase the lifetime of smart street lights.

Originality/value

The hybrid renewable energy street light applies smart resolutions to substructure and facilities in rural and metropolitan areas to create them well. This study will be applying smart metropolitan solar and wind turbine street light using renewable energy for existing areas. In future, the smart street light work will be implemented everywhere else.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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