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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Vito Ricotta, Robert Ian Campbell, Tommaso Ingrassia and Vincenzo Nigrelli

The purpose of this paper is to implement a new process aimed at the design and production of orthopaedic devices fully manufacturable by additive manufacturing (AM). In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to implement a new process aimed at the design and production of orthopaedic devices fully manufacturable by additive manufacturing (AM). In this context, the use of generative algorithms for parametric modelling of additively manufactured textiles (AMTs) also has been investigated, and new modelling solutions have been proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

A new method for the design of customised elbow orthoses has been implemented. In particular, to better customise the elbow orthosis, a generative algorithm for parametric modelling and creation of a flexible structure, typical of an AMT, has been developed.

Findings

To test the developed modelling algorithm, a case study based on the design and production of an elbow orthosis made by selective laser sintering was investigated. The obtained results have demonstrated that the implemented algorithm overcomes many drawbacks typical of the traditional computer aided design (CAD) modelling approaches. The parametric CAD model of the orthosis obtained through the new approach is characterised by a flexible structure with no deformations or mismatches and has been effectively used to produce the prototype through AM technologies.

Originality/value

The obtained results present innovative elements of originality in the CAD modelling sector, which can contribute to solving problems related to modelling for AM in different application fields.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

L.C. Hieu, N. Zlatov, J. Vander Sloten, E. Bohez, L. Khanh, P.H. Binh, P. Oris and Y. Toshev

Aims to investigate medical rapid prototyping (medical RP) technology applications and methods based on reverse engineering (RE) and medical imaging data.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to investigate medical rapid prototyping (medical RP) technology applications and methods based on reverse engineering (RE) and medical imaging data.

Design/methodology/approach

Medical image processing and RE are applied to construct three‐dimensional models of anatomical structures, from which custom‐made (personalized) medical applications are developed.

Findings

The investigated methods were successfully used for design and manufacturing of biomodels, surgical aid tools, implants, medical devices and surgical training models. More than 40 medical RP applications were implemented in Europe and Asia since 1999.

Research limitations/implications

Medical RP is a multi‐discipline area. It involves in many human resources and requires high skills and know‐how in both engineering and medicine. In addition, medical RP applications are expensive, especially for low‐income countries. These practically limit its benefits and applications in hospitals.

Practical implications

In order to transfer medical RP into hospitals successfully, a good link and close collaboration between medical and engineering sites should be established. Moreover, new medical applications should be developed in the way that does not change the traditional approaches that medical doctors (MD) were trained, but provides solutions to improve the diagnosis and treatment quality.

Originality/value

The presented state‐of‐the‐art medical RP is applied for diagnosis and treatment in the following medical areas: cranio‐maxillofacial and dental surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics, orthosis and tissue engineering. The paper is useful for MD (radiologists and surgeons), biomedical and RP/CAD/CAM engineers.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Shahrzad Pakjouei, Aidin Aryankhesal, Mohammad Kamali, Hesam Seyedin and Mohammad Heidari

Earthquake usually causes death, injury, disability and destruction of buildings and infrastructure, and people with disabilities are usually affected more than healthy…

Abstract

Purpose

Earthquake usually causes death, injury, disability and destruction of buildings and infrastructure, and people with disabilities are usually affected more than healthy people. As undesirable experiences may also have positive outcomes, this study aims to investigate the experiences of PWD and identify the positive effects of earthquakes on them in Iran, as an earthquake-prone country.

Design/methodology/approach

In this qualitative study, 20 participants were selected purposively among those having physical disability, aged 23-55 years and with experience of an earthquake. Their opinions were collected using semi-structured interviews. Analysis was performed using thematic approach and MAXQDA software was used to organize the data.

Findings

The positive effects of earthquake were categorized into five main themes: promotion of preparedness, knowledge enhancement, improvement of structures, socio-economic improvement (economic situation enhancement and social cohesion promotion) and outstanding role of national and international non-governmental organizations.

Originality/value

Although disasters are generally unpleasant, in the long term, they can result in positive effects and may be considered as opportunities to improve the situation and eliminate certain limitations. It is also important to learn from experiences of people with disabilities and apply the lessons learned, for enhancing preparedness and providing better services in the response phase of disaster management. Additionally, paying attention to the positive attitudes of such people, with special conditions and limitations, indicates their enhanced resilience to cope with disasters and emergencies, including COVID-19, which should be taken into consideration by policymakers and planners in future programs.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Virginia P. Stofer, Scott McLean and Jimmy Smith

Wrist orthoses are used by occupational therapists to decrease pain, support weak muscles and protect tissues during healing. However, use of wrist orthoses has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Wrist orthoses are used by occupational therapists to decrease pain, support weak muscles and protect tissues during healing. However, use of wrist orthoses has been observed to produce compensatory movements in other upper extremity joints. This paper aims to determine whether wearing wrist orthoses produced compensatory movements of the elbow in addition to the shoulder when performing drinking and hammering tasks.

Design/methodology/approach

Two twin-axis electrogoniometers were positioned on the elbow and shoulder to track joint movement. The four conditions were drink with orthosis, hammer with orthosis, drink without orthosis and hammer without orthosis. Joint movement was defined as total angular excursion of the joint throughout the performance of the task. Separate 2 × 2 (joint × orthosis) repeated measures analyzes of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate differences in joint excursion of the elbow and shoulder joints between orthosis conditions for each task.

Findings

Wearing a wrist orthosis did not change the amount of joint excursion compared to not wearing an orthosis during the drinking and hammering tasks.

Originality/value

Findings suggest that wrist orthoses do not result in statistically significant changes in elbow and shoulder joint movements during simulated drinking and hammering tasks.

Details

Irish Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-8819

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Wei Meng, Quan Liu, Zude Zhou and Qingsong Ai

The purpose of this paper is to propose a seamless active interaction control method integrating electromyography (EMG)-triggered assistance and the adaptive impedance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a seamless active interaction control method integrating electromyography (EMG)-triggered assistance and the adaptive impedance control scheme for parallel robot-assisted lower limb rehabilitation and training.

Design/methodology/approach

An active interaction control strategy based on EMG motion recognition and adaptive impedance model is implemented on a six-degrees of freedom parallel robot for lower limb rehabilitation. The autoregressive coefficients of EMG signals integrating with a support vector machine classifier are utilized to predict the movement intention and trigger the robot assistance. An adaptive impedance controller is adopted to influence the robot velocity during the exercise, and in the meantime, the user’s muscle activity level is evaluated online and the robot impedance is adapted in accordance with the recovery conditions.

Findings

Experiments on healthy subjects demonstrated that the proposed method was able to drive the robot according to the user’s intention, and the robot impedance can be updated with the muscle conditions. Within the movement sessions, there was a distinct increase in the muscle activity levels for all subjects with the active mode in comparison to the EMG-triggered mode.

Originality/value

Both users’ movement intention and voluntary participation are considered, not only triggering the robot when people attempt to move but also changing the robot movement in accordance with user’s efforts. The impedance model here responds directly to velocity changes, and thus allows the exercise along a physiological trajectory. Moreover, the muscle activity level depends on both the normalized EMG signals and the weight coefficients of involved muscles.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

David Palousek, Jiri Rosicky, Daniel Koutny, Pavel Stoklásek and Tomas Navrat

– The purpose of this paper is to describe a manufacturing methodology for a wrist orthosis. The case study aims to offer new approaches in the area of human orthoses.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a manufacturing methodology for a wrist orthosis. The case study aims to offer new approaches in the area of human orthoses.

Design/methodology/approach

The article describes the utilization of rapid prototyping (RP), passive stereo photogrammetry and software tools for the orthosis design process. This study shows the key points of the design and manufacturing methodology. The approach uses specific technologies, such as 3D digitizing, reverse engineering and polygonal-surface software, FDM RP and 3D printing.

Findings

The results show that the used technologies reflect the patient's requirements and also they could be an alternative solution to the standard method of orthosis design.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology provides a good position for further development issues.

Practical implications

The methodology could be usable for clinical practice and allows the manufacturing of the perfect orthosis of the upper limb. The usage of this methodology depends on the RP system and type of material.

Originality/value

The article describes a particular topical problem and it is following previous publications in the field of human orthoses. The paper presents the methodology of wrist orthosis design and manufacturing. The paper presents an alternative approach applicable in clinical practice.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Mohamed E. Lalami, Hala Rifaï, Samer Mohammed, Walid Hassani, Georges Fried and Yacine Amirat

– The purpose of this paper is the control of lower limb orthosis acting at the knee joint level for a passive rehabilitation purpose.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the control of lower limb orthosis acting at the knee joint level for a passive rehabilitation purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

A control law, based on a saturated proportional derivative controller, is proposed in order to drive the shank-foot-orthosis system along a desired trajectory.

Findings

The proposed control law is tested in real time using the orthosis EICOSI of the LISSI-Laboratory. The experiments show that the proposed control law is capable of providing satisfactory trajectory tracking performance given only the knee joint angle measurement. Moreover, the control law is robust with respect to external disturbances.

Originality/value

Robust control of an actuated lower limb orthosis.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Xiufeng Zhang, Jitao Dai, Xia Li, Huizi Li, Huiqun Fu, Guoxin Pan, Ning Zhang, Rong Yang and Jianguang Xu

This paper aims to develop a signal acquisition system of surface electromyography (sEMG) and use the characteristics of (sEMG) signal to interference action pattern.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a signal acquisition system of surface electromyography (sEMG) and use the characteristics of (sEMG) signal to interference action pattern.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a fusion method based on combining the coefficient of AR model and wavelet coefficient. It improves the recognition rate of the target action. To overcome the slow convergence speed and local optimum in standard BP network, the study presents a BP algorithm which combine with LM algorithm and PSO algorithm, and it improves the convergence speed and the recognition rate of the target action.

Findings

Experiments verify the effectiveness of the system from two aspects the target motion recognition rate and the corresponding reaction speed of the robotic system.

Originality/value

The study developed a signal acquisition system of sEMG and used the characteristics of (sEMG) signal to interference action pattern. The myoelectricity integral values are presented to determine the starting point and end point of target movement, which is more effective than using single sample point amplitude method.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Mohammad Esmaeili, Nathanaël Jarrassé, Wayne Dailey, Etienne Burdet and Domenico Campolo

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to avoid hyperstaticity and eventually reduce the magnitude of undesired force/torques. The authors also study the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to avoid hyperstaticity and eventually reduce the magnitude of undesired force/torques. The authors also study the influence of hyperstaticity on human motor control during a redundant task.

Design/methodology/approach

Increasing the level of transparency of robotic interfaces is critical to haptic investigations and applications. This issue is particularly important to robotic structures that mimic the human counterpart's morphology and attach directly to the limb. Problems arise for complex joints such as the wrist, which cannot be accurately matched with a traditional mechanical joint. In such cases, mechanical differences between human and robotic joint cause hyperstaticity (i.e. over-constrained) which, coupled with kinematic misalignment, leads to uncontrolled force/torque at the joint. This paper focusses on the prono-supination (PS) degree of freedom of the forearm. The overall force and torque in the wrist PS rotation is quantified by means of a wrist robot.

Findings

A practical solution to avoid hyperstaticity and reduce the level of undesired force/torque in the wrist is presented. This technique is shown to reduce 75 percent of the force and 68 percent of the torque. It is also shown an over-constrained mechanism could alter human motor strategies.

Practical implications

The presented solution could be taken into account in the early phase of design of robots. It could also be applied to modify the fixation points of commercial robots in order to reduce the magnitude of reaction forces and avoid changes in motor strategy during the robotic therapy.

Originality/value

In this paper for the first time the authors study the effect of hyperstaticity on both reaction forces and human motor strategies.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Matt Simkins, Nancy Byl, Hyunchul Kim, Gary Abrams and Jacob Rosen

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the physiotherapeutic benefits of bilateral symmetric training (BST) for stroke survivors affected by hemiparesis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the physiotherapeutic benefits of bilateral symmetric training (BST) for stroke survivors affected by hemiparesis.

Design/methodology/approach

Other studies have investigated symmetric physiotherapy. A key difficulty in previous work is in maintaining mirror-imaged trajectories between the affected and less-affected limbs. This obstacle was overcome in this work by using a two-armed robotic exoskeleton to enforce symmetry. In total, 15 subjects, > 6 months post stroke were, randomly assigned to bilateral symmetric robotic training, unilateral robotic training, and standard physical therapy.

Findings

After 12 training sessions (90 minutes/session), the bilateral training group had the greatest intensity of movement training. They also had the greatest improvement in range of motion at the shoulder. The unilateral training group showed the greatest reduction in spasticity.

Research limitations/implications

The rationale for symmetric physiotherapy is that it might promote connections from the undamaged brain hemisphere. The robot generated copious amounts of detailed kinematic data. Even though these data provided insights into the human to machine interface using different training modalities, it proved difficult to draw neurological conclusions. It is recommended that future research along these lines should include measures of neurophysiological change and/or changes in neurological activity.

Practical implications

This research suggests that the advantage of bilateral symmetric movement over other modalities is slight, and that robotic training has comparable results with standard care. If BST is used, care is potentially needed to avoid exacerbation of spasticity. Finally, this research includes a novel quantitative approach for evaluating robotic training.

Originality/value

This study is of value to therapeutic researchers interested in new physiotherapy techniques, roboticists interested in developing rehabilitation devices, or for rehabilitation game designers interested in using virtual reality.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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