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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Justus Wesseler, Sara Scatasta and El Hadji Fall

The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are…

Abstract

The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social welfare maximization. This chapter proposes that GM crops have net positive environmental effects, while regulatory responses focus mainly on environmental concerns, giving an unbalanced picture of the regulatory context. This unbalance supports the hypothesis that environmental concerns about GM crops have been politically instrumentalized and that more attention should be paid to regulatory responses considering the environmental benefits of this technology. It is also argued that a number of environmental effects have not yet been quantified and more research is needed in this direction.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

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Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 April 2022

Ameen Ahmed Abdullah Qasem Al-Nahari, Abu Talib Mohammad Monawer, Luqman Bin Haji Abdullah, Abdul Karim Bin Ali, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul Rahman and Meguellati Achour

This paper aims to scrutinize the misconceptions about maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah (objectives of Islamic law) that complicate its actualization, particularly in Islamic finance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to scrutinize the misconceptions about maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah (objectives of Islamic law) that complicate its actualization, particularly in Islamic finance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a qualitative inductive method to identify the flaws in understanding maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah vis-à-vis Islamic finance. It uses the views of classical and modern maqāṣid scholars to critically examine the flaws.

Findings

This study concludes that the five objectives of the Sharīʿah constitute the framework of maṣlaḥah (well-being). The levels of maṣlaḥah ― namely ḍarūriyyāt (essentials), ḥājiyyāt (needs) and taḥsīniyyāt (embellishments) ― are the categories of the means to ends. The demand for financial products falls under the ḥājiyyāt and taḥsīniyyāt categories, not ḍarūriyyāt. The maqāṣid (objectives) are derived from aḥkām (provisions) being verified by the parameters, while aḥkām are guided by maqāṣid.

Research limitations/implications

This study recommends further research to theorize the concepts of ḍarūriyyāt, ḥājiyyāt, taḥsīniyyat and mukammilāt (complements); to harmonize the maqāṣid with their essential elements and to formulate a conceptual framework for actualizing maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in Islamic finance.

Practical implications

This paper will improve perceptions and bridge gaps between the understanding of maqāṣid theory and existing practices. It suggests that instead of ḍarūriyyāt, Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) should refer to ḥājiyyāt and taḥsīniyyāt.

Originality/value

This paper identifies and clarifies the misconceptions about maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah vis-à-vis Islamic finance in the existing literature. The findings align with the views of leading maqāṣid scholars in understanding the idea.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Sahraman D. Hadji Latif

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. It also aims to determine the factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. It also aims to determine the factors that influence their attitudes toward selection of Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative method was used in this study. A sample of 250 Muslims who have bank accounts in either Islamic or conventional banks in Marawi City, Philippines were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires, and only 233 questionnaires were considered valid. Descriptive, factor and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The study shows that the level of knowledge of the Muslim society toward the basic modes of financing in Islamic banking is low. However, the attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking are favorable. Their attitudes are influenced by the opportunities that Islamic banking can provide to the society, religious motivation and awareness toward Islamic Banking. Product and marketing strategies, and the Shari’ah reputation of Islamic bank are also found significant in influencing their attitudes toward Islamic banking.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused only for Muslims in the Philippines particularly in Marawi City with limited samples. Future study that will combine non-Muslims and Muslim respondents are also indispensable.

Practical implications

The study reveals the potential development of Islamic banking in the country. The Philippine Government and the present Islamic bank in the country can enhance Islamic banking through the factors that influence the attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking.

Social implications

The Islamic bank can provide financial inclusion for Muslims, who voluntarily excluded themselves from conventional banking services and products because of religious reasons, and enhance the socio-economic conditions of the Muslim communities in the Philippines through its unique modes of financing and products.

Originality/value

The research was a first attempt to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. This also underlines the importance of Islamic banking in the country particularly in Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Abu Talib Mohammad Monawer, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Ameen Ahmed Abdullah Qasem Al-‎Nahari, Luqman Haji Abdullah, Abdul Karim Ali and Achour Meguellati

This paper aims to formulate a conceptual framework that will facilitate the actualization of maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in product design and consumption within Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to formulate a conceptual framework that will facilitate the actualization of maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in product design and consumption within Islamic financial institutions (IFIs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper relies on the classical and contemporary literature on maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah and Islamic finance and adopts a qualitative content analysis method and an inductive approach to outline the constituent elements that formulate the framework.

Findings

This study determines six vital constituents of maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah, namely, parameters of maqāṣid, particular objectives, appropriate means, micro provisions, level of need and legal maxims to develop a conceptual framework of actualizing maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in Islamic finance. The framework covers the following three stages: identification of maqāṣid, operationalization of maqāṣid in product design and consumption based on maqāṣid.

Research limitations/implications

This paper proposes a conceptual framework without investigating the practice of any particular industry or products. Further research would focus on formulating a practical framework based on a focus group discussion with industry experts, elaborating the parameters of maqāṣid, scrutinizing the maqāṣid available in the literature by the parameters of maqāṣid and assessing the IFIs’ products and services using the proposed framework.

Practical implications

This paper provides insights into the importance of maqāṣid elements and the effects of overlooking them on IFIs and customers’ product consumption. Furthermore, a major implication of the proposed framework is to learn how to use the maqāṣid approach as the baseline for designing new financial products.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in its pioneering attempt of harmonizing all essential maqāṣid elements and using them as constituents to formulate a comprehensive framework that actualizes maqāṣid al-Sharīʿah in the Islamic finance industry.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2016

Anna Grasso

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the…

Abstract

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the relationship between religion and politics in the aftermath of the revolutionary event. The political landscape emerging after the 14th of January Tunisian Revolution has witnessed the emergence of a new political class competing in the country’s first free democratic elections on October 23. The moderate Islamist Ennahda Party emerged victorious and obtained the majority of seats in the National Constituent Assembly. These developments in the revolutionary aftermath re-opened questions over the future of “secular Tunisia” and re-ignited the political struggle between modernist and traditionalist visions of society. As a result, religious actors have increasingly been taking to the streets alongside the general population via participation in public protests, creation of new unions and associations, presence in the media, militancy in new or pre-existent political parties, etc. In this context, this research focuses on the way in which the 2011 uprisings impacted on democratization by seeking to explain how and why religious leaders are re-emerging as influential figures in the political landscape of post-revolutionary Tunisia.

Details

Protest, Social Movements and Global Democracy Since 2011: New Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-027-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Zayyad Abdul-Baki and Ahmad Bukola Uthman

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals, thus necessitating the system’s shift from pursuing falah to maximizing profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper theorizes and conceptualizes this shift from falah to profit maximization using two complementary theories – systems theory and institutional theory – to prove that such a shift is not unexpected. The paper further adopts a dialectical analysis that is somewhat historical to analyse the shift.

Findings

The measure of the Islamic banks’ performance in terms of their social ideals is misplaced, as the environment in which they currently operate does not support such goals. Thus, stemming from the theoretical base, the Islamic banks’ pursuance of profit maximization instead of falah should not be unexpected. The paper concludes that despite the unfavorable environment, the social ideals of the Islamic banking system may still be met, to an extent, through investment in microfinance and awqaf.

Research limitations/implications

The paper adopts document analysis for sourcing data majorly from prior studies. Hence, the authors do not conclude that the analysis herein is applicable to all Islamic banks. Secondly, as the authors could not get a complete historical account of the Islamic banking system’s development, some aspects of the dialectical analysis – contradiction and change – have been discussed in a general fashion.

Practical implications

The need for Islamic banks in the current environment, especially for the Muslim population, cannot be over emphasized; however, the achievement of falah given this current environment may be daunting.

Originality/value

The current analyses of the shift of Islamic banks from pursuing falah to pursuing profit maximization are not well-defined, as they lack a proper theorization of the challenges faced by Islamic banks. This paper fills this gap.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2022

M. Kabir Hassan, Aishath Muneeza and Adel M. Sarea

This chapter explores the impact of the pandemic on Islamic commercial finance and Islamic social finance in a comprehensive manner. The chapter reveals that COVID-19 has…

Abstract

This chapter explores the impact of the pandemic on Islamic commercial finance and Islamic social finance in a comprehensive manner. The chapter reveals that COVID-19 has provided more opportunities to Islamic social finance than Islamic commercial finance. The beauty of Islamic finance in this regard is reflected as the perception that Islamic finance does not achieve its objective as being a social finance is proved to be false as Islamic finance not only promotes profit maximization, but it has also the potential to achieve social objectives. Islamic commercial finance developments could be slower, but it is anticipated that Islamic social modes of financing will be used widely even by multilateral agencies to assist the communities who need help in this pandemic. The most important lesson one could learn from this pandemic in relation to Islamic finance is that Islamic finance is truly different from conventional finance and as such, it needs a unique legal, regulatory and governance framework to display the true potential of it.

Details

Towards a Post-Covid Global Financial System
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-625-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Dina El-Bassiouny and Noha El-Bassiouny

Taken from an institutional theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational-level factors, specifically diversity and corporate…

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Abstract

Purpose

Taken from an institutional theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational-level factors, specifically diversity and corporate governance structure, on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices of corporations operating in developing and developed country contexts, namely, Egypt, Germany and the USA. Since developed countries are exposed to different settings, the paper argues that there is likely to be a difference in the organizational-level drivers of CSR reporting in developed vs developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of companies listed on the Egyptian EGX 30 index, the German DAX 30 index and the US Dow Jones 30 index. Governance- and diversity-related data are gathered from multiple sources including the BoardEx and Orbis databases. Content analysis is used to analyze the CSR information of sample companies using the software package MAXQDA. To examine the relationship between the explanatory variables of the study and CSR disclosures, multiple regression analysis is used.

Findings

The results are mostly consistent with institutional theory where the effects of diversity and governance structure, observed mainly by foreign BOD, board independence and institutional ownership, are found to be significant on the CSR disclosure levels of sample Egyptian companies only. On the other hand, no significant influence of tested factors was observed on the level of CSR reporting in the USA and Germany. The results thus indicate that the influence of organizational-level factors on CSR is highly dependent on the institutional context where companies operate.

Originality/value

The influence of diversity and corporate governance on CSR has been separately studied in the management literature. Yet, the potential effects of both variables on CSR have received limited attention. In addition, no study combining such explanatory variables of CSR was carried out in the specific context of developing Middle Eastern countries. Also, illustrating how institutional contexts can influence the dynamics of interaction between organizational-level variables and CSR is still understudied. This kind of multi-level research can help broaden the understanding of the drivers and practices of CSR in developing vs developed countries that have distinct institutional environments.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

1 – 10 of 83