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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Justus Wesseler, Sara Scatasta and El Hadji Fall

The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are…

Abstract

The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social welfare maximization. This chapter proposes that GM crops have net positive environmental effects, while regulatory responses focus mainly on environmental concerns, giving an unbalanced picture of the regulatory context. This unbalance supports the hypothesis that environmental concerns about GM crops have been politically instrumentalized and that more attention should be paid to regulatory responses considering the environmental benefits of this technology. It is also argued that a number of environmental effects have not yet been quantified and more research is needed in this direction.

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Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

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Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

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Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

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Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Sahraman D. Hadji Latif

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. It also aims to determine the factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge and attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. It also aims to determine the factors that influence their attitudes toward selection of Islamic banking.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative method was used in this study. A sample of 250 Muslims who have bank accounts in either Islamic or conventional banks in Marawi City, Philippines were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires, and only 233 questionnaires were considered valid. Descriptive, factor and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The study shows that the level of knowledge of the Muslim society toward the basic modes of financing in Islamic banking is low. However, the attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking are favorable. Their attitudes are influenced by the opportunities that Islamic banking can provide to the society, religious motivation and awareness toward Islamic Banking. Product and marketing strategies, and the Shari’ah reputation of Islamic bank are also found significant in influencing their attitudes toward Islamic banking.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused only for Muslims in the Philippines particularly in Marawi City with limited samples. Future study that will combine non-Muslims and Muslim respondents are also indispensable.

Practical implications

The study reveals the potential development of Islamic banking in the country. The Philippine Government and the present Islamic bank in the country can enhance Islamic banking through the factors that influence the attitudes of the Muslim society toward Islamic banking.

Social implications

The Islamic bank can provide financial inclusion for Muslims, who voluntarily excluded themselves from conventional banking services and products because of religious reasons, and enhance the socio-economic conditions of the Muslim communities in the Philippines through its unique modes of financing and products.

Originality/value

The research was a first attempt to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of Muslim society toward Islamic banking in the Philippines. This also underlines the importance of Islamic banking in the country particularly in Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

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Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2016

Anna Grasso

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the…

Abstract

This paper aims to explore the significance of the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia for wider questions of democratization, interrogating in particular the question of the relationship between religion and politics in the aftermath of the revolutionary event. The political landscape emerging after the 14th of January Tunisian Revolution has witnessed the emergence of a new political class competing in the country’s first free democratic elections on October 23. The moderate Islamist Ennahda Party emerged victorious and obtained the majority of seats in the National Constituent Assembly. These developments in the revolutionary aftermath re-opened questions over the future of “secular Tunisia” and re-ignited the political struggle between modernist and traditionalist visions of society. As a result, religious actors have increasingly been taking to the streets alongside the general population via participation in public protests, creation of new unions and associations, presence in the media, militancy in new or pre-existent political parties, etc. In this context, this research focuses on the way in which the 2011 uprisings impacted on democratization by seeking to explain how and why religious leaders are re-emerging as influential figures in the political landscape of post-revolutionary Tunisia.

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Protest, Social Movements and Global Democracy Since 2011: New Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-027-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2021

Sharfizie Mohd Sharip, Marinah Awang and Ramlee Ismail

This study aims to extend the investigation on leader communication by assessing the usage of motivating language (ML) by leaders in Waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend the investigation on leader communication by assessing the usage of motivating language (ML) by leaders in Waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data analysis was carried out using structural equation modelling via the partial least squares. The probability sampling technique was deemed more suitable for this study as the available data was definable for constructing the sampling frame.

Findings

Management effectiveness was shown to have a significant effect on direction-giving and meaning-making language (MML), but not on empathetic language (EL). The findings demonstrate that increasing use of directive and MML leads to greater management performance; however, increased use of EL has no such effect.

Research limitations/implications

The findings should not be taken as a comprehensive solution for improving the management effectiveness of all Waqf institutions. As the study only focused on the aspect of leader communication in Waqf institutions, the findings cannot be generalized to other contexts. Additionally, this study had only examined religious-based non-profit organizations (NPOs) with affiliations to a religious body, mission statements that incorporate religious values, financial support from religious sources and governance structure and employee selection based on religious processes. Hence, the findings cannot be used as a reference in the context of non-religious NPOs.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to the theoretical enhancement of existing literature about leader communication towards improving institutional effectiveness. The current study has empirically tested the model through the integration of the ML theory. Thus, the leader’s choice of language improves employee motivation and ultimately institutional productivity and effectiveness.

Originality/value

There is a glaring gap in empirical studies on the relationship between ML usage by leaders and management effectiveness specifically in the context of Malaysian organizations. Based on rigorous searches using the Scopus and Web of Sciences databases, it was found that past studies investigating the said relationship had focused more on Western countries. This is a crucial gap that must be addressed to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of ML on management effectiveness, especially in the Malaysian setting.

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Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Zayyad Abdul-Baki and Ahmad Bukola Uthman

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to argue that the current environment in which the Islamic banking system is situated is not ideal for the system’s pursuance of its socioeconomic ideals, thus necessitating the system’s shift from pursuing falah to maximizing profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper theorizes and conceptualizes this shift from falah to profit maximization using two complementary theories – systems theory and institutional theory – to prove that such a shift is not unexpected. The paper further adopts a dialectical analysis that is somewhat historical to analyse the shift.

Findings

The measure of the Islamic banks’ performance in terms of their social ideals is misplaced, as the environment in which they currently operate does not support such goals. Thus, stemming from the theoretical base, the Islamic banks’ pursuance of profit maximization instead of falah should not be unexpected. The paper concludes that despite the unfavorable environment, the social ideals of the Islamic banking system may still be met, to an extent, through investment in microfinance and awqaf.

Research limitations/implications

The paper adopts document analysis for sourcing data majorly from prior studies. Hence, the authors do not conclude that the analysis herein is applicable to all Islamic banks. Secondly, as the authors could not get a complete historical account of the Islamic banking system’s development, some aspects of the dialectical analysis – contradiction and change – have been discussed in a general fashion.

Practical implications

The need for Islamic banks in the current environment, especially for the Muslim population, cannot be over emphasized; however, the achievement of falah given this current environment may be daunting.

Originality/value

The current analyses of the shift of Islamic banks from pursuing falah to pursuing profit maximization are not well-defined, as they lack a proper theorization of the challenges faced by Islamic banks. This paper fills this gap.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Dina El-Bassiouny and Noha El-Bassiouny

Taken from an institutional theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational-level factors, specifically diversity and corporate…

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Abstract

Purpose

Taken from an institutional theory perspective, the purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of organizational-level factors, specifically diversity and corporate governance structure, on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices of corporations operating in developing and developed country contexts, namely, Egypt, Germany and the USA. Since developed countries are exposed to different settings, the paper argues that there is likely to be a difference in the organizational-level drivers of CSR reporting in developed vs developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of companies listed on the Egyptian EGX 30 index, the German DAX 30 index and the US Dow Jones 30 index. Governance- and diversity-related data are gathered from multiple sources including the BoardEx and Orbis databases. Content analysis is used to analyze the CSR information of sample companies using the software package MAXQDA. To examine the relationship between the explanatory variables of the study and CSR disclosures, multiple regression analysis is used.

Findings

The results are mostly consistent with institutional theory where the effects of diversity and governance structure, observed mainly by foreign BOD, board independence and institutional ownership, are found to be significant on the CSR disclosure levels of sample Egyptian companies only. On the other hand, no significant influence of tested factors was observed on the level of CSR reporting in the USA and Germany. The results thus indicate that the influence of organizational-level factors on CSR is highly dependent on the institutional context where companies operate.

Originality/value

The influence of diversity and corporate governance on CSR has been separately studied in the management literature. Yet, the potential effects of both variables on CSR have received limited attention. In addition, no study combining such explanatory variables of CSR was carried out in the specific context of developing Middle Eastern countries. Also, illustrating how institutional contexts can influence the dynamics of interaction between organizational-level variables and CSR is still understudied. This kind of multi-level research can help broaden the understanding of the drivers and practices of CSR in developing vs developed countries that have distinct institutional environments.

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Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Elie Menassa and Nancy Dagher

This paper aims to examine the determinants and extent of corporate social disclosure (CSD) by UAE national banks and to investigate the changes in CSD before, during and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the determinants and extent of corporate social disclosure (CSD) by UAE national banks and to investigate the changes in CSD before, during and after the latest financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

Deductive in nature, this paper uses content analysis of annual reports of 16 UAE banks over a period of six years (2006-2011) to test eight hypotheses related to size, financial performance and other variables as potential explanatory variables of the CSD extent over different periods.

Findings

The findings show that human resources and community disclosures exhibited the highest extent of CSD over the six years. Moreover, the size and financial performance variables appear to be significant explanatory factors for the extent of CSD. The findings also indicate a strong variation in disclosure between banks with international presence and those with no such presence, while there is no significant disclosure variation between Islamic and conventional banks or during the different periods under investigation (pre, during and post recent financial crisis).

Research limitations/implications

Studies allowing a greater understanding of how banks with extensive governmental ownership define and disclose CSR in this particular region of the world are scarce and exploratory in nature. Consequently, the structure of national UAE banks provides a unique opportunity to understand the CSR mechanisms and disclosure of similar institutions in the world (particularly in the Arab world). This presents an interesting direction for further research.

Practical implications

These findings could assist UAE bankers and policymakers in integrating CSD in their corporate strategies and help the local and international business communities in understanding the characteristics of CSD in the UAE.

Originality/value

Comprehensive in scope, this paper provides a complete assessment of the potential explanatory proxies of CSD by UAE local banks before, during and after the recent global financial crisis. Comparable studies of the UAE banking sector have mainly focused on particular bank types (i.e. Islamic or conventional) and did not consider the effect of the recent adverse financial climate.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2019

Luqyan Tamanni and Mohd Hairul Azrin Haji Besar

The purpose of this paper is to shed some lights on the process of mission drifting or abandoning poverty objective by Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFs). The paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed some lights on the process of mission drifting or abandoning poverty objective by Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFs). The paper investigates whether the extensive use of banking logic changes IMFs, from focusing on both development and financial objectives to only considering sustainability as their primary mission.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts mixed methods by analyzing 7,200 microfinance data from Microfinance Exchange Market and reviewing annual reports and websites of 25 IMFs to examine their vision and mission statements and other related information.

Findings

The finding shows Islamic microfinance has not changed, despite increasing adoption of financial or banking performance measures. However, size and age of the institutions may affect the outcome in the future. The authors find that smaller microfinance institutions maintain genuine objective to serve the poor, as the grow larger they would be more inclined toward sustainability objectives.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited on the sample size as data on Islamic microfinance globally is limited. However, the paper looked at the global data rather than local data to compensate for this limitation. Future study would be further taking the study through qualitative methods to support the study.

Originality/value

This paper aims to shed some lights on the process of mission drifting or abandoning poverty objective by IMFIs. The paper investigates how has the extensive use of financing logic has changed IMFIs from focusing on both development and financial objectives to only considering sustainability as their primary mission. Arun and Hulme (2009) argued that the interaction of multiple logic within microfinance institutions, i.e. financial vs social, could pose some serious management dilemmas within microfinance institutions. Further, commercialization puts pressure on the field staffs to achieve financial targets and often neglect their poverty outreach mission to the poor. The well-known crisis in Andhra Pradesh, India where clients of microfinance institutions committed suicide after being shamed by field officers who tried to collect payments of loans (Mader, 2013; Taylor, 2011), provides a powerful case of the impact of financialization to microfinance clients.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2443-4175

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